[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experimental study was conducted to determine the comparative pathogenicity of type-2 turkey astrovirus (TAstV-2) obtained from turkey flocks afflicted with poult enteritis syndrome (PES) and from turkey flocks displaying no apparent signs of infection. In total, ninety 7-d-old poults, which tested negative for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and reovirus by reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR , were divided evenly into 3 groups: A, B, and C. Birds in group A were inoculated orally with turkey astrovirus-positive intestinal contents from birds affected with PES. Group B received turkey astrovirus-containing intestinal contents from apparently healthy flocks. Group C served as a negative control and was given PBS. Clinical signs of diarrhea, depression, and dullness were observed in group A. Birds in group B also showed clinical signs similar to those in group A, although the signs were milder in nature. Birds in group C did not show any clinical signs. At 16 d postinoculation, the BW of birds in group A was significantly lower than that of birds in groups B or C. In addition, the bursa size was reduced in group A, but not in groups B or C. Birds in groups A and B, but not in group C, were found to shed turkey astrovirus in their feces, as detected by RT-PCR. These results provide a preliminary indication that TAstV-2 from PES birds may be more pathogenic than TAstV-2 from apparently healthy poults. Further studies are needed to determine if pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of TAstV-2 exist in the environment. These results also reinforce our previous observations that astrovirus is involved in PES, causing significant retardation in growth and weight gain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 200 whole blood samples along with thin blood samples smears and 100 samples of ticks from 20 flocks of sheep from different localities of district Lahore with a history of tick infestation , relapse of fever and anemia were screened for the prevalence of Theileria species during spring and summer seasons in 2007. On microscopic examination 44/200 (22%) samples were positive for Theileria, while 70/200 (35%) blood samples were found positive for Theileria species by PCR, out of which 79% were positive for T. ovis and 21% for T. lestoquardi. The clinical signs were recorded in 30% (60/200) sheep. Out of total of 100 tick samples the prevalence of Hyalomma was highest (45%) followed by Rhipicephalus (41%) and Boophilus (14%).The prevalence of T. ovis was 65.8% (27/41) as compared to 66.6% (30/45) for T. lestoquardi in Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma ticks, respectively.
Pakistan journal of zoology 02/2011; 43(1):57-60. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in horses in Minnesota, the database of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, was searched over a 10-year period (May 2001 to May 2010). A total of 1,260 equine serum samples submitted by 112 veterinary clinics were tested using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Samples with titers of ≥1:320 were considered positive. The average rate of seroprevalence was 58.7%, indicating high exposure of horses to B burgdorferi in Minnesota. Our results indicate that borreliosis should be considered as a differential in cases of horses with undiagnosed musculoskeletal or neurologic disease.
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science - J EQUINE VET SCI. 01/2011; 31(8):427-429.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to conduct therapeutic trials of herbal plant Calotropis procera and buparvaquone (Butalex) after experimental infection with Theileria annulata in cross bred cattle during the months of May to August, 2007 at Livestock Experimentation Station Qadirabad, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan. The experimentally infected animals developed anaemia and an enhanced inflammatory response. Mild to severe clinical reactions were recorded after experimental infection. A correlation between clinical reactions and schizont parasitosis and piroplasm parasitemia was also recorded. The animals suffered from high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, corneal opacity, anorexia, loss of condition, rough hair coat and incoordination. Using T. annulata specific primers N516/N517, 721-bp fragment of SSU rRNA was amplified from DNA of salivary glands and the internal organs of Hyalomma ticks. The results of therapeutic trials indicated that the characteristic macrocytic hypochromic anaemia in experimentally infected animals was recovered by C. procera treatment. The result of liver and kidney function tests after treatment with C. procera showed no toxicity at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/Kg orally (8 doses on alternate days). The efficacy of C. procera was higher (92.5%), compared with 75% of buparvaquone on 21 day post treatment.
Pakistan journal of zoology 12/2009; 41(6):389-397. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of theileriosis, and Babesia bovis, the causative agent for babesiosis, in Friesian cattle by PCR and conventional blood smear examination. One hundred blood samples obtained from diseased Friesian cattle kept on private livestock farms at Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan were collected in addition to 20 blood samples obtained from non-diseased animals. The disease manifestations observed clinically included high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, anorexia, loss of condition and rough hair coat. Neurologic sign of in coordination was also seen in weak animals. Signs of lacrimation, pale conjunctiva, diarrhoea, dyspnea and frothy nasal discharge were observed in only one animal. Clinically nine animals showed signs of haemoglobinuria. Diagnosis of bovine theileria and babesia species was based on finding many intraerythrocytic piroplasms of both blood protozoa with clinical signs associated with anaemia, lymph node hyperplasia and haemoglobinuria. One hundred samples of ticks were also collected for identification of vector. Results showed that the prevalence of Hyalomma tick was highest (15%) followed by Boophilus (12%), Haemaphysalis (5%) and Rhipicephalus (3%). The blood smear examination showed 21% (21/100) samples positive for blood parasites out of which 66.6% (14/ 21) samples were positive for theileriosis while 42.8% (9/21) were positive for babesiosis. It was also recorded that 66.66% (6/9) samples were positive for B.bigemina while 33.33% (3/9) were positive for B.bovis. The results showed that 60% (60/100) samples were positive for blood parasites by PCR test. Out of these 60% (36/60) were positive for T.annulata while 33.33% (20/60) were positive for babesia. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR test was higher than blood smear examination. The blood parameters in haemoparasites infection were also analyzed and the results showed significant decrease in total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin while MCV, MCH values increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal indicating macrocytic hypochromic anaemia.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 09/2008; 40(6):441-7. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the seroprevalence of Anaplasma in Minnesota cattle, the database of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL), University of Minnesota was searched over a 10 year period (2001 to July 2010). A total of 438,407 bovine serum samples were tested by complement fi xation test (CFT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent test (cELISA). Th e positive rate of seroprevalence by CFT was 2.4% out of 211,484 samples, with a 0.13% anticomplementary result. Th e VDL at the University of Minnesota started using cELISA aft er 2002, and CFT application was suspended as diagnostic test for anaplasmosis aft er 2005 due to its complexity. With cELISA, positive seroprevalence was 6.8% out of 226,923 samples. Th e results suggest that the cELISA test was more rapid and less complex than the CFT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of the blood protozoa was studied by sampling from Sahiwal and Friesian cattle, 500 each, from livestock farms in three districts of Punjab province during September 2006 to August 2007. The seasonal prevalence was higher in Friesian cattle as compared with Sahiwal cattle i.e. 97.6% versus 44.8 % during summer, 17.6% versus 20.8% during winter, 12.8% versus 9.6% during autumn respectively. Initial blood film examination revealed anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis and hematological findings indicated macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Theileria annulata, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis were detected by PCR in both Friesian and Sahiwal cattle. Out of 500 blood samples obtained from each breed of cattle 5%, Sahiwal cattle were positive in blood smears for Theileria as against 7% samples of Friesian cattle. Blood protozoan mixed infection with Babesia 1.58% was recorded in both breeds by blood smear examination during summer and spring season. On the basis of PCR 23% prevalence in Sahiwal cattle was recorded for Theileria annulata compared to 40.4% prevalence in Friesian cattle, while 19% prevalence for Babesia was recorded in both breeds during all seasons. The result of IFA test indicated 19% prevalence in Sahiwal cattle for Theileria annulata compared with 20% in Friesian cattle, while mixed prevalence of 8% was recorded in both breeds during summer and spring season. PCR test was concluded as more sensitive and specific as compared to IFA test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of post parturient haemoglobinuria in buffaloes, and to compare the therapeutic efficacy of toldimfos sodium, sodium acid phosphate, and tea leaves. The prevalence of disease in 1000 animals, grouped according to varying stages of lactation and pregnancy, was recorded. Screening of positive animals based on clinical signs of haemoglobinuria, anaemia, and moderate pyrexia was performed. Urine and blood samples were collected. Blood samples were processed for haematological parameters and biochemical profile. Blood films were made and stained. The animals that were positive for disease were treated with sodium acid phosphate, toldimfos sodium, and tea leaves. Blood samples were collected before treatment and on day 1, 2, and 3 post-treatment, and processed in the laboratory for haematological parameters and biochemical profile. The data were analyzed statistically. Highest prevalence of post-parturient haemoglobinuria was recorded in animals within 4 weeks postpartum (60%). The highest prevalence of disease was seen at lactation 5 (32%). Therapeutic trials showed the highest efficacy with toldimfos sodium (85%) followed by tea leaves (56%) while the lowest efficacy was observed with sodium acid phosphate (18%).