[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experimental study was conducted to determine the comparative pathogenicity of type-2 turkey astrovirus (TAstV-2) obtained from turkey flocks afflicted with poult enteritis syndrome (PES) and from turkey flocks displaying no apparent signs of infection. In total, ninety 7-d-old poults, which tested negative for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and reovirus by reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR , were divided evenly into 3 groups: A, B, and C. Birds in group A were inoculated orally with turkey astrovirus-positive intestinal contents from birds affected with PES. Group B received turkey astrovirus-containing intestinal contents from apparently healthy flocks. Group C served as a negative control and was given PBS. Clinical signs of diarrhea, depression, and dullness were observed in group A. Birds in group B also showed clinical signs similar to those in group A, although the signs were milder in nature. Birds in group C did not show any clinical signs. At 16 d postinoculation, the BW of birds in group A was significantly lower than that of birds in groups B or C. In addition, the bursa size was reduced in group A, but not in groups B or C. Birds in groups A and B, but not in group C, were found to shed turkey astrovirus in their feces, as detected by RT-PCR. These results provide a preliminary indication that TAstV-2 from PES birds may be more pathogenic than TAstV-2 from apparently healthy poults. Further studies are needed to determine if pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of TAstV-2 exist in the environment. These results also reinforce our previous observations that astrovirus is involved in PES, causing significant retardation in growth and weight gain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 200 whole blood samples along with thin blood samples smears and 100 samples of ticks from 20 flocks of sheep from different localities of district Lahore with a history of tick infestation , relapse of fever and anemia were screened for the prevalence of Theileria species during spring and summer seasons in 2007. On microscopic examination 44/200 (22%) samples were positive for Theileria, while 70/200 (35%) blood samples were found positive for Theileria species by PCR, out of which 79% were positive for T. ovis and 21% for T. lestoquardi. The clinical signs were recorded in 30% (60/200) sheep. Out of total of 100 tick samples the prevalence of Hyalomma was highest (45%) followed by Rhipicephalus (41%) and Boophilus (14%).The prevalence of T. ovis was 65.8% (27/41) as compared to 66.6% (30/45) for T. lestoquardi in Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma ticks, respectively.
Pakistan journal of zoology 02/2011; 43(1):57-60. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in horses in Minnesota, the database of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, was searched over a 10-year period (May 2001 to May 2010). A total of 1,260 equine serum samples submitted by 112 veterinary clinics were tested using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Samples with titers of ≥1:320 were considered positive. The average rate of seroprevalence was 58.7%, indicating high exposure of horses to B burgdorferi in Minnesota. Our results indicate that borreliosis should be considered as a differential in cases of horses with undiagnosed musculoskeletal or neurologic disease.
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science - J EQUINE VET SCI. 01/2011; 31(8):427-429.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to conduct therapeutic trials of herbal plant Calotropis procera and buparvaquone (Butalex) after experimental infection with Theileria annulata in cross bred cattle during the months of May to August, 2007 at Livestock Experimentation Station Qadirabad, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan. The experimentally infected animals developed anaemia and an enhanced inflammatory response. Mild to severe clinical reactions were recorded after experimental infection. A correlation between clinical reactions and schizont parasitosis and piroplasm parasitemia was also recorded. The animals suffered from high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, corneal opacity, anorexia, loss of condition, rough hair coat and incoordination. Using T. annulata specific primers N516/N517, 721-bp fragment of SSU rRNA was amplified from DNA of salivary glands and the internal organs of Hyalomma ticks. The results of therapeutic trials indicated that the characteristic macrocytic hypochromic anaemia in experimentally infected animals was recovered by C. procera treatment. The result of liver and kidney function tests after treatment with C. procera showed no toxicity at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/Kg orally (8 doses on alternate days). The efficacy of C. procera was higher (92.5%), compared with 75% of buparvaquone on 21 day post treatment.
Pakistan journal of zoology 12/2009; 41(6):389-397. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of theileriosis, and Babesia bovis, the causative agent for babesiosis, in Friesian cattle by PCR and conventional blood smear examination. One hundred blood samples obtained from diseased Friesian cattle kept on private livestock farms at Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan were collected in addition to 20 blood samples obtained from non-diseased animals. The disease manifestations observed clinically included high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, anorexia, loss of condition and rough hair coat. Neurologic sign of in coordination was also seen in weak animals. Signs of lacrimation, pale conjunctiva, diarrhoea, dyspnea and frothy nasal discharge were observed in only one animal. Clinically nine animals showed signs of haemoglobinuria. Diagnosis of bovine theileria and babesia species was based on finding many intraerythrocytic piroplasms of both blood protozoa with clinical signs associated with anaemia, lymph node hyperplasia and haemoglobinuria. One hundred samples of ticks were also collected for identification of vector. Results showed that the prevalence of Hyalomma tick was highest (15%) followed by Boophilus (12%), Haemaphysalis (5%) and Rhipicephalus (3%). The blood smear examination showed 21% (21/100) samples positive for blood parasites out of which 66.6% (14/ 21) samples were positive for theileriosis while 42.8% (9/21) were positive for babesiosis. It was also recorded that 66.66% (6/9) samples were positive for B.bigemina while 33.33% (3/9) were positive for B.bovis. The results showed that 60% (60/100) samples were positive for blood parasites by PCR test. Out of these 60% (36/60) were positive for T.annulata while 33.33% (20/60) were positive for babesia. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR test was higher than blood smear examination. The blood parameters in haemoparasites infection were also analyzed and the results showed significant decrease in total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin while MCV, MCH values increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal indicating macrocytic hypochromic anaemia.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 09/2008; 40(6):441-7. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the seroprevalence of Anaplasma in Minnesota cattle, the database of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL), University of Minnesota was searched over a 10 year period (2001 to July 2010). A total of 438,407 bovine serum samples were tested by complement fi xation test (CFT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent test (cELISA). Th e positive rate of seroprevalence by CFT was 2.4% out of 211,484 samples, with a 0.13% anticomplementary result. Th e VDL at the University of Minnesota started using cELISA aft er 2002, and CFT application was suspended as diagnostic test for anaplasmosis aft er 2005 due to its complexity. With cELISA, positive seroprevalence was 6.8% out of 226,923 samples. Th e results suggest that the cELISA test was more rapid and less complex than the CFT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of the blood protozoa was studied by sampling from Sahiwal and Friesian cattle, 500 each, from livestock farms in three districts of Punjab province during September 2006 to August 2007. The seasonal prevalence was higher in Friesian cattle as compared with Sahiwal cattle i.e. 97.6% versus 44.8 % during summer, 17.6% versus 20.8% during winter, 12.8% versus 9.6% during autumn respectively. Initial blood film examination revealed anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis and hematological findings indicated macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Theileria annulata, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis were detected by PCR in both Friesian and Sahiwal cattle. Out of 500 blood samples obtained from each breed of cattle 5%, Sahiwal cattle were positive in blood smears for Theileria as against 7% samples of Friesian cattle. Blood protozoan mixed infection with Babesia 1.58% was recorded in both breeds by blood smear examination during summer and spring season. On the basis of PCR 23% prevalence in Sahiwal cattle was recorded for Theileria annulata compared to 40.4% prevalence in Friesian cattle, while 19% prevalence for Babesia was recorded in both breeds during all seasons. The result of IFA test indicated 19% prevalence in Sahiwal cattle for Theileria annulata compared with 20% in Friesian cattle, while mixed prevalence of 8% was recorded in both breeds during summer and spring season. PCR test was concluded as more sensitive and specific as compared to IFA test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey of ticks as the vector in transmission of the disease was carried out in Rawalpindi, Multan and Lahore Districts by collecting 300 specimen of ectoparasites randomly from cattle in each district. The results showed highest prevalence (66.7%) of ticks in district Lahore while highest prevalence of lice (36.3%) and mange mites (4%) in district Rawalpindi and district Multan, respectively. The highest prevalence (12%) of Hyalomma ticks and lowest prevalence (3.1%) of Rhipicephalus was recorded in cattle. The bionomical study showed that the highest mean pre oviposition period was during spring while it was lowest in autumn .The mean oviposition period was also highest in spring . The incubation period of the ova of Hyalomma varied in different seasons. No oviposition was recorded at the temperature 10 0 C and 85% humidity. The maximum number of eggs was laid at 34 0 C and lowest egg production occurred at 15 0 C. The maximum number of eggs hatched at 32 0 C and 85% humidity. The specie wise prevalence of Theileria in the gut of ticks was confirmed by PCR test which showed highest prevalence (86.6%) for Hyalomma a. anatolicum while it was lowest (20.8%) for Hyalomma m.marginatum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of post parturient haemoglobinuria in buffaloes, and to compare the therapeutic efficacy of toldimfos sodium, sodium acid phosphate, and tea leaves. The prevalence of disease in 1000 animals, grouped according to varying stages of lactation and pregnancy, was recorded. Screening of positive animals based on clinical signs of haemoglobinuria, anaemia, and moderate pyrexia was performed. Urine and blood samples were collected. Blood samples were processed for haematological parameters and biochemical profile. Blood films were made and stained. The animals that were positive for disease were treated with sodium acid phosphate, toldimfos sodium, and tea leaves. Blood samples were collected before treatment and on day 1, 2, and 3 post-treatment, and processed in the laboratory for haematological parameters and biochemical profile. The data were analyzed statistically. Highest prevalence of post-parturient haemoglobinuria was recorded in animals within 4 weeks postpartum (60%). The highest prevalence of disease was seen at lactation 5 (32%). Therapeutic trials showed the highest efficacy with toldimfos sodium (85%) followed by tea leaves (56%) while the lowest efficacy was observed with sodium acid phosphate (18%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 600 animals were selected on the basis of the clinical findings (emaciation, anemia, difficulty in walking, shrinking of neck muscles, difficulty in rising up, sunken eyes, infertility, skin eczema) & presence of ticks on the body. The blood examination of these animals revealed 107 as positive (17.8%) cases of theileriosis. The overall incidence recorded in July 2003 was 15.5%, while in August and September 2003 it was 20.5 and 17.5%, respectively. In Jia Bagga village 18% incidence was recorded in July 2003 while in August and September 2003 the incidence was 22.7 and 19.4. In Jhadoo village the incidence recorded was 14.9% in July 2003 whereas in the months of August and September 2003 the incidence recorded were 18.18 and 16.4 respectively. The incidence in Ghang Sharif village were 13.4%, 21.2% and 16.4% during July, August and September 2003 respectively. A study of hematological parameters showed that in Jia Bagga the mean values of PCV, total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration were 0.18 l/l, 4 X10 12 and 65 gm/l, respectively. In Jhadoo these values were 0.16 l/l, 3.5 X10 12 and 69.5 gm/l, respectively and in Ghang Sharif the values were 0.20 l/l, 3.5 X10 12 and 72.5 gm/l, respectively. The overall mean value of the three hematological parameters namely PCV, total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration were 0.15 l/l, 3 X10 12 and 64.5 gm/l respectively. Comparison of these recorded values and normal values in buffalo showed that there was marked decrease in the PCV, total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration in buffaloes suffering from theileriosis in union council Jia Bagga District Lahore. The difference between normal and infected animal blood parameter values were found to be statistically significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to determine the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in suspected dogs in Minnesota, the present study examines the database of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Minnesota over a 10 year period (2001-June 2010). A total of 1081 serum samples from dogs suspected of having borreliosis were submitted by 112 private veterinary clinics. Th e samples were tested using an indirect fl uorescent antibody (IFA) test. Samples with titers of ≥1:320 were considered positive. Th e rate of seroprevalence of antibodies was 88%. Th e increase in the rate of yearly seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs was comparable with that of human borreliosis in Minnesota.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study an attempt was made to find out the incidence of haemonchosis in ovine and caprine through the DID and IHA tests. The results of the study showed higher incidence in sheep (72.5%) than goats (56%).The age wise incidence in sheep was recorded as 79.16% between 1 to 3 years of age whereas in case of goat it was 70.3% in the same age group. In sheep 16.7% animals suffered from mild form while for moderate and high forms the percentages recorded were 70.8 and 12.5. In goats only mild (33.3%) and moderate forms (66.7%) were recorded. Seasonal incidence showed that the parasitism was the highest in July/August (47.7%) while it was the least in September/October (3.1%). The sensitivity of faecal culture was recorded as 42 % while for DID and IHA it was 47 % and 56 %, respectively. The specifity of faecal culture was recorded as 89.5 % while for DID and IHA it was 94.7 % and 98.2 %.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aims at determining the prevalence of an acute viral disease of small ruminants Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by a Morbillivirus and is characterized by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, diarrhoea and pneumonia. Samples of nasal swabs and blood samples, 504 each, collected from sheep and goats showing signs of pneumoentritis in three different geographical regions viz. North, South and Central Punjab were screened for PPR virus by RT-PCR test. Out of 504 blood samples tested 79 were positive for PPR showing prevalence of 15.7 per cent. Of 504 nasal swabs collected from animals already sampled for blood, 85 samples were positive for PPR showing prevalence of 16.9 per cent in the small ruminant population of the Punjab province. Among the three regions prevalence was 24.7, 38.8 and 36.5 percent in North, South and Central regions of Punjab province respectively from nasal swabs. Thirty nine nasal swab samples from sheep and 46 from goat were found positive by RT-PCR giving a specie wise prevalence of 15.5 and 18.3 per cent, respectively in both species. The hematological observations of infected animals positive for PPR by RT-PCR test showed anemia in sheep and goats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood samples (336) were collected record prevalence of Theileriosis in buffaloes from twenty one villages of District Lahore. High fever, lacrimation, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration & pulse, corneal opacity, anorexia, loss of condition, pale conjunctiva, anemia, in-coordination and rough hair coat were observed in buffaloes suffering from theileriosis during summer months. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, total erythrocytic count, and blood smear examination showed presence of macrocytic hypochromic anemia in buffaloes infected with the disease. Based on microscopic examination 39.9 (134/336) prevalence was recorded as compared to 53.3% (179/336) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two hundred sand flies were collected from the D. G. Khan and Rajanpur areas of Pakistan from May 2007 to June 2008. The species of sand flies identified were Phlebotomus. papatasi; P. orientalis; P. major. Seventy eight out of one hundred twenty flies (65%) dissected, carried the infective leptomonad forms naturally (leishmania promastigotes) in their salivary glands and fore-guts. Seven groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G) of hamsters were experimentally infected. Out of 80 animals 78 (88%) developed characteristic lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis at the site of subcutaneous injection. The efficacy of therapeutic agents in Group A treated with Sodium Stibogluconate solution was 90 percent, in group B Meglumine Antimonate solution was 100 percent, in group C treated with Clotrimazole 20 percent while in group D treated with Miconazole (20%) the efficacy was 100 percent . Similarly crude extracts of Garlic (Allium sativa) was applied on lesions to group-E; thrice a day which cured the lesions within 60 days; Onion (Allium cepa) (T-6) were applied on the lesions of group-F; TDS; which cured the lesions within 72 days and Harmal extracts (T-7) were applied on lesions to group-G; TDS; this cured the lesions within 50 days, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of fascioliosis in 12 different villages of union council Jia Bagga, District Lahore was studied. The comparative efficacy of two flukicidal drugs namely Nitroxynil (Trodax, 34%) and Endoectiven (Closantal) was evaluated. For this purpose 200 buffaloes were randomly selected on the basis of clinical signs like foul smelling, watery diarrhoea, swelling on the brisket, bottle jaw, anorexia and hypothermia with abrupt decrease in milk yield. Among these, 60 animals were confirmed positive for Fasciola with floatation technique. These animals were divided into three groups namely, A, B and C. Group A remained as untreated (control). Group B was medicated with Nitroxynil, while group C was medicated with Endoectiven. Eggs per gram counts of feaces were made with the help of modified Mc. Master technique on zero day pre-medication and on 7 th day post medication. The results showed 30% prevalence of F .hepatica infection. The percentage efficacy for Nitroxynil was 93.88, while for Endoectiven it was 91.91%. Side effect of local swelling at the site of injection which lasted for about one month was recorded for Endoectiven while for Nitroxynil, no side effects were recorded.