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ABSTRACT: Few findings are available regarding adult-onset minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) with respect to the disease course and complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). We therefore performed a retrospective review to characterize the clinical presentations, steroid responsiveness and complications of adult-onset MCNS patients in our hospital.
We retrospectively reviewed 40 cases of idiopathic adult-onset MCNS who had been investigated and treated at a single center. Patients between 18 and 50 years of age (Younger group) at the time of biopsy were compared with those older than 50 years (Older group) with regard to demographic data, clinical features and treatment outcome.
Baseline characteristics of the 40 patients were: median age, 42 years (interquartile range: 28-63 years); male, 70%; mean (+/- standard deviation) systolic and diastolic blood pressures, 125 +/- 17 mmHg and 78 +/- 12 mmHg, respectively; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 74 mL/min/1.73 m2 (range: 64-94 mL/min/1.73 m2); serum albumin, 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dL; and urinary protein, 7.8 g/day (range: 3.9-10.4 g/day). All except for one patient received steroid pulse therapy. Time to complete response (CR) was 12 days (range: 8-21 days). Time to CR was significantly longer in the Older group (p = 0.011). The Late-responder group (time to CR > 2 weeks)was significantly older (p < 0.01), with a low eGFR (p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy before the initiation of corticosteroid therapy (p < 0.05), compared with the Early-responder group. AKI was observed in 14 patients. Patients with an episode of AKI were significantly older (p = 0.005), with a lower eGFR (p < 0.002) and a higher prevalence of cellular casts (p < 0.05). At the follow-up, 19 patients (51%) had experienced relapses. The relapse rate was significantly lower in the Older group than in the Younger group (p < 0.05).
The present study revealed that older patients had a longer period to CR and a higher risk of AKI at follow-up.
Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 01/2012; 54(7):1023-30.
Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 01/2012; 54(4):550-5.
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ABSTRACT: In 2003, a 64-year-old woman was diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease and treated with oral prednisolone (30 mg/day). The prednisolone dose was gradually decreased, and a dose of 5 mg/day had been maintained since 2004. In 2009, she gradually developed vision loss, malaise, anorexia, and throat pain due to hydrodipsia. She was noted to have iritis and vitreous opacity by an ophthalmologist, and was referred for further evaluation. Fine rales were audible throughout the entire lung field, and chest CT showed diffuse small nodules that were more prominent on the upper and middle lobes, and swelling of the mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed many epithelioid granulomas with multinuclear giant cells, compatible with sarcoidosis. Polyuria was identified as a cause of hydrodipsia and a diagnosis of partial central diabetes insipidus was made. High-dose prednisolone (40 mg/day) together with intranasal administration of desmopressin resulted in improvement of all of her clinical symptoms. MCTD followed by sarcoidosis is rare. Furthermore, this is the first reported case of MCTD complicated by sarcoidosis and central diabetes insipidus.
Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 01/2011; 53(7):1041-5.