[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The foramen magnum (FM), a complex area in craniocervical surgery, poses a challenge for neurosurgeons. The knowledge of the detailed anatomy of the FM, occipital condyles (OC) and variations of the region is crucial for the safety of vital structures. This study focuses on the FM and OC morphometry, highlights anatomical variability and investigates correlations between the parameters studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-three Greek adult dry skulls were examined using a digital sliding calliper (accuracy, 0.01 mm). RESULTS: Mean FM width and length were found 30.31 ± 2.79 and 35.53 ± 3.06 mm, respectively. The commonest FM shape was two semicircles (25.9 %), whereas the most unusual was irregular (0.7 %). The OC minimum width, maximum width and length were 5.71 ± 1.61, 13.09 ± 1.99 and 25.60 ± 2.91 mm on the right, and 6.25 ± 1.76, 13.01 ± 1.98 and 25.60 ± 2.70 mm on the left side. The commonest OC shape was S-like and the most unusual was ring, bilaterally. The mean anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were 19.30 ± 3.25 and 51.61 ± 5.01 mm, respectively. The OC protruded into the FM in 86.7 % of the skulls. Variations such as a third OC existed in 5.6 % and basilar processes in 2.8 %. Posterior condylar foramina were present in 75.5 %. The gender was correlated with FM width and length, OC length, bilaterally, anterior intercondylar distance (AID) and posterior intercondylar distance (PID). The OC protrusion and existence of posterior condylar foramina were correlated. Bilateral asymmetry for OC shape was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our results provide useful information that will enable effective and reliable surgical intervention in the FM region with the maximum safety and widest possible exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joseph Gensoul is considered an important figure of the 19th century Lyonnais Medical School. His contribution to maxillofacial surgery and his legendary abilities secured him a place in the history of Medicine.
Journal of B.U.ON.: official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology 10/2012; 17(4):801-803. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this project is to study and analyse the anatomical variations of the infrapopliteal vessels concerning their branching pattern. A reliable sample of one hundred formalin-fixed adult cadavers was dissected by the Anatomical Laboratory of Athens University. The variations can be classified in the following way: the normal branching of the popliteal artery was present in 90%. The remainder revealed variant branching patterns: hypoplastic or aplastic posterior tibial artery and the pedis arteries arising from the peroneal (3%); hypoplastic or aplastic anterior tibial artery (1.5%); and the dorsalis pedis formed by two equal branches, arising from the peroneal and the anterior tibial artery (2%). The variations were more frequent in females and in short-height individuals. Knowledge of these variations is rather important for any invasive technic concerning lower extremities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intramammary lymph nodes have not received for a long time enough attention from the medical literature and thus many of their characteristics are not sufficiently explored. Their incidence at various studies ranges between 0, 7 and 48%. They may be found in all breast quadrants but usually at the Upper Outer Quadrant (UOQ). Their radiological image at mammography is that of a well circumscribed density with an area of lower density at centre representing the hilum and at ultrasonography of a hypoechoic, circumscribed mass with an echogenic hilum. Their role in lymphatic drainage of breast regions is important although it is not known if they represent true sentinel nodes or if lymphatic drainage to them comes from ectopic, independently developed pathways. Intramammary Lymph Nodes are involved in a variety of clinical situations including benign situations, tumor metastasis, breast lymphoma and breast cancer. Their importance over breast cancer is not fully defined but there is evidence that they worsen prognosis and they may change therapeutic decisions. Breast cancer and Breast lymphoma can coexist and interfere.
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 06/2012; 21(5):615-20. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether intermittent impedance of inspiratory gas exchange improves hemodynamic parameters, 48-hr survival, and neurologic outcome in a swine model of asphyxial cardiac arrest treated with active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Prospective, randomized, double-blind study.
Thirty healthy Landrace/Large-White piglets of both sexes, aged 10 to 15 wks, whose average weight was 19 ± 2 kg.
At approximately 7 mins following endotracheal tube clamping, ventricular fibrillation was induced and remained untreated for another 8 mins. Before initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, animals were randomly assigned to either receive active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation plus a sham impedance threshold device (control group, n = 15), or active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation plus an active impedance threshold device (experimental group, n = 15). Electrical defibrillation was attempted every 2 mins until return of spontaneous circulation or asystole.
Return of spontaneous circulation was observed in six (40%) animals treated with the sham valve and 14 (93.3%) animals treated with the active valve (p = .005, odds ratio 21.0, 95% confidence interval 2.16-204.6). Neuron-specific enolase and S-100 levels increased in the ensuing 4 hrs post resuscitation in both groups, but they were significantly elevated in animals treated with the sham valve (p < .01). At 48 hrs, neurologic alertness score was significantly better in animals treated with the active valve (79.1 ± 18.7 vs. 50 ± 10, p < .05) and was strongly negatively correlated with 1- and 4-hr postresuscitation neuron-specific enolase (r = -.86, p < .001 and r = -.87, p < .001, respectively) and S-100 (r = -.77, p < .001 and r = -0.8, p = .001) values.
In this model of asphyxial cardiac arrest, intermittent airway occlusion with the impedance threshold device during the decompression phase of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation significantly improved hemodynamic parameters, 24- and 48-hr survival, and neurologic outcome evaluated both with clinical and biochemical parameters (neuron-specific enolase, S-100).
Critical care medicine 03/2012; 40(3):861-8. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left main (LM) disease is rare but the most hazardous phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, early detection of participants at high risk of developing left main coronary heart disease (LM-CAD) is crucial. The aim of this study was to identify gene polymorphisms which could distinguish participants who are at high risk of developing LM-CAD. Such a candidate can be the prostaglandin I(2) or prostacyclin (PGI(2)) gene.
The DNA of 254 participants (151 participants with angiographically documented LM-CAD and 103 healthy controls) was analyzed for the frequency of C1117A polymorphism in the gene coding CYP8A1.
The genotype distribution was different between the LM-CAD and the control group. Particularly, the CC genotype of CYP8A1 was commoner in the LM-CAD than in the healthy group (P < .001). Allele frequencies were also differently distributed between the 2 groups. C allele frequency was higher in LM-CAD group (P = .016).
The CC genotype of C1117A polymorphism is associated with higher risk of LM-CAD, which prospectively may have potential importance in screening high-risk populations. However, further investigations in larger populations are required to confirm these findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve (V(3)) comprises of three main branches. Various anatomic structures may entrap and potentially compress the mandibular nerve branches. A usual position of mandibular nerve (MN) compression is the infratemporal fossa (ITF) which is one of the most difficult regions of the skull base to access surgically. The anatomical positions of compression are: the incomplete or complete ossified pterygospinous (LPs) or pterygoalar (LPa) ligament, the large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process and the medial fibres of the lower belly of the lateral pterygoid (LPt). A contraction of the LPt, due to the connection between nerve and anatomic structures (soft and hard tissues), might lead to MN compression. Any variations of the course of the MN branches can be of practical significance to surgeons and neurologists who are dealing with this region, because of possibly significant complications. The entrapment of the MN motor branches can lead to paresis or weakness in the innervated muscle. Compression of the sensory branches can provoke neuralgia or paraesthesia. Lingual nerve (LN) compression causes numbness, hypoesthesia or even anaesthesia of the mucous of the tongue, anaesthesia and loss of taste in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, anaesthesia of the lingual gums, as well as pain related to speech articulation disorders. Dentists should be very suspicious of possible signs of neurovascular compression in the region of the ITF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic injury is a leading cause of death worldwide for people between 5 and 44 y of age, and it accounts for 10% of all deaths. The incidence of acute lung injury, a life-threatening complication in severely injured trauma patients remains between 30% and 50%. This study describes an experimental protocol of volume-controlled hemorrhage in Landrace-Large White swine. The experimental approach simulated the clinical situation associated with hemorrhagic shock in the trauma patient while providing controlled conditions to maximize reproducibility. The duration of the protocol was 8 h and was divided into 5 distinct phases-stabilization, hemorrhage, maintenance, resuscitation, and observation-after which the swine were euthanized. Lung tissue samples were analyzed histologically. All swine survived the protocol. The hemodynamic responses accurately reflected those seen in humans, and the development of acute lung injury was consistent among all swine. This experimental protocol of hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation in Landrace-Large White swine may be useful for future study of hemorrhagic shock and acute lung injury.
Comparative medicine 04/2011; 61(2):158-62. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose The present study aimed at summarizing and presenting the anomalous muscles that a surgeon might encounter during axillary lymphadenectomy (AL). Methods For this purpose, both the anatomical and surgical literature was reviewed and an anatomical study on 107 cadavers was carried out. Furthermore, based on the anatomical features of the anomalous muscles that came up during our study and taking into consideration the landmarks of the AL, we further analyzed the complications that may arise from each of these muscles, along with their preoperative and intraoperative recognition and management. Results The literature review revealed that there are three supernumerary muscles that may affect the AL, namely the Langer's axillary arch, the pectoralis quartus and the chondroepitrochlearis muscles, as well as the aplasia of the lower part of the pectoralis major muscle. Eight out of the 107 (7.48%) cadavers that we dissected had such an abnormal muscle in the axilla. Specifically, the axillary arch was found unilaterally in five cadavers (4.67%) and the pectoralis quartus muscle was present unilaterally in three cadavers (2.8%). One cadaver had both an axillary arch and a pectoralis quartus muscle in the right side. The abdominal and almost the whole sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major as well the pectoralis minor muscle were absent in one cadaver (0.93%). The chondroepitrochlearis muscle was not found in any of the cadavers that we dissected. Conclusions The present study offers the necessary preoperative knowledge for recognizing these muscles during AL, avoiding thus the complications that may arise from them.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2009; 120(1):77-82. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The shape and the position of the stomach and its anatomic relations to the round viscera vary from individual to individual, but they also vary in the same subject depending on many factors. The downward displacement of the stomach is called gastroptosis. In the literature, there are only five case reports where the stomach constituted the content of a femoral hernia. The current study presents a case of a gastric femoral hernia in a cadaver along with a review of the relevant literature. During routine dissection of a 67-year-old male cadaver with a very large stomach and gastroptosis, a femoral hernia containing a part of the great curvature of the stomach was found. The length of the hernia sac was 5 cm, and its width was 3.5 cm. There was a disposition of the intestinal coils to the posterior wall and the lesser pelvis. The cadaver's former medical history and skin observation before dissection excluded any previous abdominal surgery. This is the second case of stomach herniation through the femoral ring in a male subject ever reported. The symptoms in this pathology vary from complete absence to symptoms due to high stenosis of the digestive tract, stomach strangulation and stomach wall necrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to correlate the four types of acromial shape with the existence of enthesophytes, which together comprise two important parameters for subacromial impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears. In addition, a review of the literature was carried out. Four hundred twenty-three dried scapulas were studied at the Department of Anatomy in the University of Cologne, Germany. Four types of acromion were found: the three classical ones as described by Bigliani et al. ( Orthop Trans 10:216) and a fourth one, where the middle third of the undersurface of acromion was convex (Gagey et al.  Surg Radiol Anat 15:63-70). The correlation between the four types of acromion and the presence of enthesophytes at its anterior undersurface was also recorded. The distribution of acromial types was as follows: type I, flat, 51 (12.1%); type II, curved, 239 (56.5%); type III, hooked, 122 (28.8%); and type IV, convex, 11 (2.6%). Enthesophytes were found in 1 of type I (2%), in 19 of type II (7.9%), in 46 of type III (37.7%), and in 0 (0%) of type IV acromions. Overall, 66 (15.6%) out of 423 scapulas had enthesophytes. In all cases, they were localized at the site of the coracoacromial ligament insertion on the acromion. Enthesophytes were significantly (P < 0.05) more common in type III acromions and this combination is particularly associated with subacromial impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears. In type I and in type IV acromions, the incidence of enthesophytes is very small and, according to other studies, with these two acromial types rotator cuff tears are also rare.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study proposes a simple and reproducible method to classify the morphology of the suprascapular notch (SSN), on the basis of specific geometrical parameters that clearly distinguish one type from another. Four hundred twenty-three dried scapulas from the Department of Anatomy in the University of Cologne, Germany, were examined. Five types of SSN were observed: type I, without a discrete notch, 35 (8.3%); type II, a notch that was longest in its transverse diameter, 177 (41.85%); type III, a notch that was longest in its vertical diameter, 177 (41.85%); type IV, a bony foramen, 31 (7.3%); type V, a notch and a bony foramen, 3 (0.7%). For the vertical diameter, we took the maximal diameter of the notch perpendicular to the imaginary line that joins the two superior corners of the notch. For the transverse diameter, we took the diameter perpendicular to the midpoint of the vertical diameter. This classification based on the vertical and the transverse diameters of the SSN suggested a clear distinction of the notch types. This simple classification included all the anatomical variations of the SSN. Using this method, the clinician will be able to define easily and quickly the notch type on a plain radiograph, and perhaps be able to correlate suprascapular nerve entrapment with a specific type of SSN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In light of recent epidemiological studies that associate diabetes mellitus with increased risk for oral cancer, we investigated in diabetic (type I) and normal rats with induced oral squamous cell carcinoma whether the molecular basis for that putative association involves insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Fourteen diabetic and 12 normal rats developed cancer after 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide treatment, while six diabetic and six normal animals were used as controls. Oral sections were studied using monoclonal antibodies against IRS-1 and FAK proteins. Expression of IRS-1 was significantly higher in diabetic than normal rats, but it decreased in diabetic animals with tumor, especially in more advanced stages. FAK expression was significantly higher in rats with cancer in comparison to the ones without it, regardless the diabetes status. These data suggest that the IRS-1/FAK pathway is altered by diabetes resulting in reduced cell adhesion and possibly increasing risk for oral cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Femoral hernia, which is a less common occurrence than inguinal hernia, is not congenital in most cases and is uncommon in young males. It is considered to be more common in females than in males due to an enlarged femoral ring in the former. A case of bilateral femoral hernia in a 64-year-old male cadaver is described within the framework of an anatomical approach. On the right side, the protrusion of the viscus appeared as a small intestine coil, whereas on the left side the protruded viscus appeared as a pelvic colon's appendix appiplocae. On both sides, the protruded viscus was located in front of an aberrant obturator artery, which oriented from the external iliac artery and not from the internal iliac artery as should be the case. The puberal branch of the inferior epigastric artery was absent. The cadaver's medical history and his skin examination excluded an abdominal surgery. In the literature, case reports of bilateral femoral hernia appear only seldom, especially those of male patients who had not undergone inguinal hernia repair surgery. In femoral hernias more often than in other types of hernia, the protruded viscus is strangulated and undergoes a tissue necrosis. Morbidity and mortality for complicated femoral hernia is high. Knowledge of vascular variation such as presented by the cadaver under study is extremely useful to the surgeon because any iatrogenic injury of the aberrant obturator artery during a laparoscopic repair may result in dangerous hemorrhage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Median to Ulnar nerve anastomosis in the forearm has been shown to be of clinical significance leading to "anomalous" innervation and is correlated with misdiagnosis during the assessment of nerve lesions, injuries and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). In 1763, Martin first described the anastomosis and Gruber next mentioning it, in 1870 thus referred to as Martin--Gruber anastomosis. Despite its long history, its nature remains unclear. Many anatomical, electrophysiological, histological and genetic studies have been published, reporting the anastomosis' frequency, citing its clinical importance and classifying it into various classes and types. Diagnosis is made mostly with electrophysiological studies whereby researchers have cited certain clues taking into consideration the asymptomatic nature of the anastomosis. The current literature on median to ulnar nerve anastomosis is reviewed, highlighting its frequency and clinical significance making an excellent tool for correct diagnosis in many clinicians.