Michael Fleischhauer

Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserlautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

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Publications (234)820.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Controlling strongly interacting many-body systems enables the creation of tailored quantum matter, with properties surpassing single particle physics. Atomic ensembles which are optically driven to a Rydberg state provide many examples for this, such as atom-atom entanglement [1,2], many-body Rabi oscillations [3], and strong photon-photon interaction [4]. In its most basic form, Rydberg quantum matter consists of an isolated ensemble of strongly interacting atoms spatially confined to the blockade volume - a so-called superatom. Here, we demonstrate the controlled creation and characterization of an isolated mesoscopic superatom by means of accurate density engineering and excitation to Rydberg p-states. Looking at continuous laser-induced ionization we observe a transition from strongly anti-bunched ion emission under blockade conditions to extremely bunched ion emission under off-resonant excitation. Our experimental setup enables in vivo measurements of the superatom, yielding insight into the excitation statistics and dynamics. We anticipate straightforward applications in quantum optics and quantum information as well as future experiments on many-body physics with superatoms.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We suggest a scheme for the preparation of highly correlated Laughlin (LN) states in the presence of synthetic gauge fields, realizing an analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect in photonic or atomic systems of interacting bosons. It is based on the idea of growing such states by adding weakly interacting composite fermions (CF) along with magnetic flux quanta one-by-one. The topologically protected Thouless pump ("Laughlin's argument") is used to create two localized flux quanta and the resulting hole excitation is subsequently filled by a single boson, which, together with one of the flux quanta forms a CF. Using our protocol, filling 1/2 LN states can be grown with particle number N increasing linearly in time and strongly suppressed number fluctuations. To demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme, we consider two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to effective magnetic fields and strong on-site interactions. We present numerical simulations of small lattice systems and discuss also the influence of losses.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the dynamics of dissipative spin lattices with power-law interactions, realized via few-level atoms driven by coherent laser-coupling and decoherence processes. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we determine the phase diagram in the steady state and analyze the dynamics of its generation. As opposed to mean-field predictions and nearest-neighbour models there is no phase transition to long-range ordered phases for realistic interactions and resonant driving. However, for finite laser detunings, we demonstrate the emergence of crystalline order with a vanishing dissipative gap. Although the found steady states differ considerably from those of an equilibrium Ising magnet, the critical exponent of the revealed dissipative phase transition falls into the 2D Ising universality class. Two complementary schemes for an experimental implementation with cold Rydberg atoms are discussed.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a scheme to couple short single photon pulses to superconducting qubits. An optical photon is first absorbed into an inhomogeneously broadened rare-earth doped crystal using controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. The optical excitation is then mapped into a spin state using a series of $\pi$-pulses and subsequently transferred to a superconducting qubit via a microwave cavity. To overcome the intrinsic and engineered inhomogeneous broadening of the optical and spin transitions in rare earth doped crystals, we make use of a special transfer protocol using staggered $\pi$-pulses. We predict total transfer efficiencies on the order of 90%.
    Physical review letters. 02/2014; 113(6).
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    Andrey R. Kolovsky, Fabian Grusdt, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the eigenstates of a two-dimensional lattice with additional harmonic confinement in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. While the softness of the confinement makes a distinction between bulk and edge states difficult, the interplay of harmonic potential and lattice leads to a different classification of states in three energy regions: In the low-energy regime, where lattice effects are small, all states are transporting topologically non-trivial states. For large energies above a certain critical value, the periodic lattice causes localization of all states through a mechanism similar to Wannier-Stark localization. In the intermediate energy regime transporting, topologically non- trivial states coexist with topologically trivial counter-transporting chaotic states. The character of the eigenstates, in particular their transport properties are studied numerically and are explained using a semiclassical analysis.
    12/2013; 89(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The coupling of weak light fields to Rydberg states of atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency leads to the formation of Rydberg polaritons which are quasiparticles with tunable effective mass and nonlocal interactions. Confined to one spatial dimension their low energy physics is that of a moving-frame Luttinger liquid which, due to the nonlocal character of the repulsive interaction, can form a Wigner crystal of individual photons. We calculate the Luttinger K parameter using density-matrix renormalization group simulations and find that under typical slow-light conditions kinetic energy contributions are too strong for crystal formation. However, adiabatically increasing the polariton mass by turning a light pulse into stationary spin excitations allows us to generate true crystalline order over a finite length. The dynamics of this process and asymptotic correlations are analyzed in terms of a time-dependent Luttinger theory.
    Physical Review Letters 09/2013; 111(11):113001. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    Fabian Grusdt, Michael Höning, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze interacting ultracold bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional superlattice potential with alternating tunneling rates t_{1} and t_{2} and inversion symmetry, which is the bosonic analogue of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. A Z_{2} topological order parameter is introduced which is quantized for the Mott insulating (MI) phases. Depending on the ratio t_{1}/t_{2} the n=1/2 MI phase is topologically nontrivial, which results in many-body edge states at open boundaries. In contrast to the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model the bosonic counterpart lacks chiral symmetry and the edge states are no longer midgap. This leads to a generalization of the bulk-edge correspondence, which we discuss in detail. The edge states can be observed in cold atom experiments by creating a step in the effective confining potential, e.g., by a second heavy atom species, which leads to an interface between two MI regions with filling n=1 and n=1/2. The shape and energy of the edge states as well as the conditions for their occupation are determined analytically in the strong coupling limit and in general by density-matrix renormalization group simulations.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2013; 110(26):260405. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    Nikolai Lauk, Christopher O'Brien, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We study the effects of the four-wave mixing (4WM) in a quantum memory scheme based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We treat the problem of field propagation on the quantum mechanical level, which allows us to calculate the fidelity for propagation for a quantum light pulse such as a single photon. While 4WM can be beneficial for classical, all-optical information storage, the quantum noise associated with the signal amplification and idler generation is in general detrimental for a quantum memory. We identify a range of parameters where 4WM makes a single photon quantum memory impossible.
    Physical Review A 04/2013; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    David Petrosyan, Michael Hoening, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We study the emergence of many-body correlations in the stationary state of continuously-driven, strongly-interacting dissipative system. Specifically, we examine resonant optical excitations of Rydberg states of atoms interacting via long-range dipole-dipole and van der Waals potentials employing exact numerical solutions of the density matrix equations and Monte-Carlo simulations. Collection of atoms within a blockade distance form a "superatom" that can accommodate at most one Rydberg excitation. The superatom excitation probability saturates to 1/2 for coherently driven atoms, but is significantly higher for incoherent driving, approaching unity as the number of atoms increases. In the steady state of uniformly-driven, extended one-dimensional system, the saturation of superatoms leads to quasi-crystallization of Rydberg excitations whose correlations exhibit damped spatial oscillations. The behavior of the system under the van der Waals interaction potential can be approximated by an analytically soluble model based on a "hard-rod" interatomic potential.
    Physical Review A 12/2012; 87(5). · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • David Dzsotjan, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the long-range coupling of individual atoms coupled to plasmon modes of metallic nanostructures. Placing a pair of emitters along a thin metallic wire, we observe a strong, wire- mediated long-range interaction between the emitters. As a result, super- and subradiance can occur over distances large compared to the resonant wavelength. The states with enhanced or suppressed decay rate are the symmetric or anti-symmetric single-excitation states. Coupling more atoms to a wire network with a nontrivial coupling topology leads to interesting entangled subradiant states of the system. A similar long-range superradiance effect can be observed when two emitters are coupled by a metamaterial slab (also known as a perfect lens) having a refractive index n=-1. Besides the modification of decay rates, dipole-dipole shifts enter due to the plasmon-mediated interaction. Based on the superradiance effect, we propose setups for building a two-qubit quantum phase gate for quantum emitters coupled by a nanowire and a perfect lens, respectively, where the qubits are strongly interacting and individually addressable at the same time.
    Proc SPIE 10/2012;
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    Michael Hoening, Dominik Muth, David Petrosyan, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We study resonant optical excitations of atoms in a one-dimensional lattice to the Rydberg states interacting via the van der Waals potential which suppresses simultaneous excitation of neighboring atoms. Considering two- and three-level excitation schemes, we analyze the dynamics and stationary state of the continuously-driven, dissipative many-body system employing time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG) simulations. We show that two-level atoms can exhibit only nearest neighbor correlations, while three-level atoms under dark-state resonant driving can develop finite-range crystalline order of Rydberg excitations. We present an approximate rate equation model whose analytic solution yields qualitative understanding of the numerical results.
    Physical Review A 08/2012; 87(2). · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Building on the recent experimental achievements obtained with scanning electron microscopy on ultracold atoms, we study one-dimensional Bose gases in the crossover between the weakly (quasicondensate) and the strongly interacting (Tonks-Girardeau) regime. We measure the temporal two-particle correlation function and compare it with calculations performed using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. More pronounced antibunching is observed when entering the more strongly interacting regime. Even though this mimics the onset of a fermionic behavior, we highlight that the exact and simple duality between one-dimensional bosons and fermions does not hold when such a dynamical response is probed. The onset of fermionization is also reflected in the density distribution, which we measure in situ to extract the relevant parameters and to identify the different regimes. Our results show agreement between experiment and theory and give insight into the dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.
    Physical Review A 08/2012; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    Fabian Grusdt, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We study ultracold Rydberg-dressed Bose gases subject to artificial gauge fields in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. The characteristics of the Rydberg interaction gives rise to interesting many-body ground states different from standard FQH physics in the lowest Landau level (LLL). The non-local but rapidly decreasing interaction potential favors crystalline ground states for very dilute systems. While a simple Wigner crystal becomes energetically favorable compared to the Laughlin liquid for filling fractions $\nu<1/12$, a correlated crystal of composite particles emerges already for $\nu \leq 1/6$ with a large energy gap to the simple Wigner crystal. The presence of a new length scale, the Rydberg blockade radius $a_B$, gives rise to a bubble crystal phase for $\nu\lesssim 1/4$ when the average particle distance becomes less than $a_B$, which describes the region of saturated, almost constant interaction potential. For larger fillings indications for strongly correlated cluster liquids are found.
    Physical Review A 07/2012; 87(4). · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    M. Höning, M. Moos, M. Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss reservoir-induced phase transitions of lattice fermions in the nonequilibrium steady state of an open system with local reservoirs. These systems may become critical in the sense of a diverging correlation length on changing the reservoir coupling. We here show that the transition to a critical state is associated with a vanishing gap in the damping spectrum. It is shown that, although in linear systems there can be a transition to a critical state, there is no reservoir-induced quantum phase transition between distinct phases with a nonvanishing damping gap. We derive the static and dynamical critical exponents corresponding to the transition to a critical state and show that their possible values, defining universality classes of reservoir-induced phase transitions, are determined by the coupling range of the independent local reservoirs. If a reservoir couples to N neighboring lattice sites, the critical exponent can assume all fractions from 1 to 1/(N−1).
    Physical Review A 07/2012; 86(1). · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Michael Hoening, David Petrosyan, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We study resonant optical excitations of spatially frozen atoms in 1D trapping potentials and lattices to strongly-interacting Rydberg states. In the steady-state of strong uniform driving, correlations of Rydberg excitation probabilities exhibit exponentially decaying spatial oscillations with the period approaching one collective excitation per Rydberg blockade distance (superatom). For few atoms per blockade distance, the system is well described by a rate equation model with hard sphere superatoms. For higher densities approaching a continuous limit, we find via numerical simulations that the superatoms develop soft boundaries. For the case of an additional lattice we derive an effective master equation with non-local damping. We give analytic expressions for the many-body steady state and the correlation length of the Rydberg quasi-crystal or antiferromagnetic order and discuss conditions when it can approach infinity.
    06/2012;
  • Johannes Otterbach, Achim Lauer, Dominik Muth, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We show that excitations in a gas of atoms driven to Rydberg states by near-resonant laser radiation in a two-photon coupling scheme experience a photon mediated transport. Thus even if the center-of-mass motion of the atoms can be neglected, this results in a kinetic Hamiltonian for the Rydberg excitations. The corresponding mass is identical to that of the dark-state polaritons of the optical coupling scheme. The kinetic energy competes with the Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions and can prevent the formation of quasi-crystal structures. Using DMRG simulations we calculate the Luttinger parameter for a one-dimensional gas of resonantly driven Rydberg atoms taking into account the photon mediated transport and derive conditions under which quasi-crystallization can be observed.
    06/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature of light, we compute the propagation of an arbitrary input pulse in the limit of strong Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. We also solve the case of a few-photon pulse for arbitrary Rydberg-Rydberg interaction strengths [PRL 107, 133602 (2011)]. We show that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including single photons and trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons.
    06/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Dark-state-polaritons (DSP) are bosonic quasiparticles arising in the interaction of light with 3-level atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). When exposed to a strong artificial magnetic field, they can enter the lowest Landau level regime. With additional long range interactions, as realized e.g. when the 3-level atom contains a Rydberg-excited state, DSPs are natural candidates for a realization of the bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect. Besides their high controllability, they offer the possibility to examine open quantum Hall systems. We show how highly-correlated quantum Hall states of DSPs can be prepared, making use of nonlinear polariton losses. The possibility of realizing these states as stationary states of open systems is investigated. We propose a realistic quantum-optical setup, and show that different fractional quantum Hall states can be prepared, manipulated and observed. Numerical and analytical results for the excitation gaps of the ν=1/2p Laughlin states are presented.
    06/2012;
  • Razmik Unanyan, Nikolai Lauk, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the long time behavior of stationary light generated in a electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium in the present of randomly distributed absorbing impurities. By assuming a Poisson distribution for impurity atoms in the EIT medium we show that the absorption process can be much slower than naively expected. We show that this anomalous absorption of light is a consequence of the analogue of Anderson localization in the diffusion regime. A simple expression for the absorption for long times is derived in the case of perfect absorbing atoms. We show that it is described by ( -αt^1/3), where α is a constant depending on the concentration of impurities and thus is much slower than expected exponential decay.
    06/2012;
  • Matthias Moos, Michael Hoening, Michael Fleischhauer
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss reservoir driven phase transitions to critical states in one-dimensional bosonic lattice systems subject to local dissipation. By coupling to local reservoirs fermionic and bosonic lattice systems can be driven to a steady state which shows criticality in the sense of a diverging correlation length. For free lattice bosons this criticality is generically associated with a dynamical instability of the system. To avoid this instability we introduce a nonlinearity by saturating the dissipative gain. We consider coupling of the lattice sites to common local reservoirs of different range and derive correlations as well as critical exponents of the induced quasi-phase transition in a mean-field approximation.
    06/2012;

Publication Stats

7k Citations
820.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
      • Department of Physics
      Kaiserlautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2006–2013
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2011
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Institute for Quantum Information and Matter
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2007
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 1994–2007
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Houston Advanced Research Center
      The Woodlands, Texas, United States
  • 2005
    • Vilnius University
      • Teorinės fizikos katedra
      Vilnius, Vilniaus Apskritis, Lithuania
    • Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
      • Department of Chemistry
      Beersheba, Southern District, Israel
  • 1992–2001
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      College Station, Texas, United States
    • Drexel University
      • Department of Physics
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of New Mexico
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2000
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1999–2000
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992–1994
    • Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany