The Journal of urology 09/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for shock wave lithotripsy in patients with proven sterile urine before treatment.
A systematic search of PubMed®, Embase® and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no treatment for patients undergoing shock wave lithotripsy who had preoperative sterile urine. The outcomes included symptoms, fever, positive urine culture, urinary tract infection and risk factors. The Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager software (RevMan 5.1.4) was used for statistical analysis.
The study inclusion criteria were met by 9 trials (3 placebo controlled and 6 no treatment controlled) involving 1,364 patients. The synthesized data from these randomized controlled trials indicated that there were no significant differences between the prophylactic group and the control group in symptoms, rate of fever (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.07-2.36, p = 0.31), rate of positive urine culture (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.11, p = 0.17) and incidence of urinary tract infection (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29-1.01, p = 0.05). Antibiotic prophylaxis had no potentially beneficial effect on the prevention of infection in patients with a temporary ureteral catheter related to shock wave lithotripsy.
Prophylactic antibiotics could not improve symptoms, and decreased neither the rate of fever and positive urine culture, nor the incidence of urinary tract infection after shock wave lithotripsy. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary for shock wave lithotripsy, especially when no or low risk factors are presented.
The Journal of urology 06/2012; 188(2):441-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We evaluated differences in cytokine responses and T-lymphocyte subsets following retroperitoneal laparoscopic and conventional open radical nephrectomies for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: A total of 62 patients with T(1)N(0)M(0) staged RCC were randomized to either retro-laparoscopic (n = 31) or open (n = 31) radical nephrectomy. Plasma levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured separately by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1 and 5. Levels of CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) as well as the CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio were acquired by flow cytometry at the same time points. RESULTS: Levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α increased significantly compared to preoperative values in both groups (p < 0.05) on postoperative day 1, and all the parameters in the open group were significantly higher than those in the retro-laparoscopy group (p < 0.05). On postoperative day 1, the levels of CD3(+) and CD4(+) and the CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio decreased markedly compared to preoperative values for both groups (p < 0.05). Elevations of the CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio in the retro-laparoscopy group (p < 0.05) and the CD8(+) level in the open group (p < 0.05) were observed when compared with the other group. On postoperative day 5, the levels of CD3(+) and CD4(+) and the CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio in the retro-laparoscopy group, as well as the level of CD8(+) in the open group, returned to about preoperative levels (p < 0.05). Follow-up ranged from 4 to 14 months postoperatively in all 62 patients with a 100% cancer-specific survival rate in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is associated with the milder cytokine responses caused by trauma and inflammation and the better preserved distribution of T-lymphocytes.
Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 11/2011; · 1.24 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Studies have been made of the nonlinear characteristics of grating
tuned external-cavity semiconductor lasers with the aid of the
analytical expression of the threshold carrier density required for the
laser to oscillate at different frequencies. After connecting refractive
index with carrier density through the spectral broadening factor and
choosing an appropriate reference carrier density, the key points
defining hysteresis loops on the N-ν (carrier density-frequency)
curves have been determined analytically. Consequently, different shapes
of hysteresis loops on P-ν (power-frequency) curves have been
predicted. The validity of the theory has been examined using the data
provided by different papers
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 11/1999; · 1.88 Impact Factor