[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase HIV infectivity through local inflammatory processes. Prevalent and incident STIs among people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are indicators of high-risk sexual behaviors and imply potential spread of HIV. Little is known about the prevalence and incidence of concurrent syphilis and associated risk behaviors among PLWHA in China.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted among PLWHA who attended the outpatient clinic of a designated AIDS treatment hospital in Shenyang, China, between March 2009 and May 2013. Physical examinations and syphilis serology were conducted at each visit. A questionnaire on demographic characteristics was also collected.ResultsA total of 1010 PLWHA were enrolled, of whom 77.0% were men who have sex with men (MSM). The baseline syphilis prevalence among PLWHA was 19.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]:17.3¿22.3%). During follow-up, 78.3% retained in the cohort, and contributed a median follow-up of 9.4 months (interquartile range: 5.9-18.7 months). Syphilis incidence among PLWHA was 18.7 (95% CI: 15.5¿21.8) per 100 person years. Mulitvariate logistic analysis showed that receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted OR [aOR]¿=¿0.48), older age (¿40 years vs. ¿24 years, aOR¿=¿2.43), being MSM (aOR¿=¿2.30) and having higher baseline HIV viral load (>100000 copies/mL vs. ¿100000 copies/mL, aOR¿=¿1.56) were independent predictors for syphilis infection among PLWHA at enrollment (p¿<¿0.05 for all). Mulivariate Cox regression found that receiving ART (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]¿=¿1.81), older age (¿40 years vs. ¿24 years, aHR: 5.17) and MSM status (aHR¿=¿2.68) were independent risk factors for syphilis seroconversion (each p¿<¿0.05).Conclusions
Syphilis prevalence and incidence were high among PLWHA in Shenyang. A campaign focusing on detection and treatment of syphilis among PLWHA is urgently needed, especially one with a focus on MSM who are at a higher risk for syphilis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Recreational drug use (RDU) may result in sexual disinhibition and higher risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. We assessed whether RDU was associated with HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) within the context of multiple sexual partnerships and unprotected sex.Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional study among sexually-active MSM in six Chinese cities (Kunming, Jinan, Changsha, Zhengzhou, Nanjing, and Shanghai) in 2012¿2013. We interviewed participants regarding RDU and sexual activity and drew blood for HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2. We fit multiple logistic regression models to assess associations of drug use and HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 infections, controlling for number of sexual partners and unprotected sex.ResultsOf 3830 participants, 28% reported ever using ¿1 of these drugs in the past 6 months: popper (alkyl nitrites), ecstasy, ice (methamphetamine), amphetamine, tramadol, and ketamine. In the past six months, 62% of MSM reported ¿2 sexual partners and 76% did not use condoms at last sexual encounter. HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 prevalences were 9.2%, 12.2%, and 10.3%, respectively.RDU was associated with HIV infection (aOR¿=¿1.67; 95% CI, 1.31-2.13). Men with RDU were more likely to report multiple sexual partners (OR¿=¿1.69; 95% CI, 1.44-1.98) and unprotected sex (aOR¿=¿1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.49). The RDU-HIV association persisted (aOR¿=¿1.58; 95% CI¿=¿1.23-2.02) after adjusting for numbers of partners.ConclusionsRDU was associated with multiple sexual partnerships, unprotected sex, and HIV among Chinese MSM. It is plausible that RDU is a driver of increased sexual/HIV risk and/or may be an associated behavior with sexually risky lifestyles. Community engagement is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate new features in the prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.
Total of 441 HIV-1-positive subjects were recruited from high-risk MSM populations in seven cities across China between 2012 and 2013. Nucleotide sequences of 1.1-kb pol-RT regions were amplified and sequenced from 367 out of the 441 samples. Phylogenetic and genetic drug resistant analyses were performed.
The overall distribution of HIV-1 genotypes was as the followings: CRF01_AE, 52.3%; CRF07_BC, 33.2%; 01/B recombinants, 6.0%; subtype B (United States-European), 3.8%; subtype B', 3.8%; CRF08_BC, 0.8%. 91.3% of the sequences clustered together. An overall 4.6% TDR rate was found. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-related TDR reached 2.7%. 2.2% of TDR was detected in protease region. Most of RT-related TDRs were detected in non-CRF01_AE subtypes (90.0%, 9/10), including T215A/S, K101E, K103N, V106M, and E138G. Most of the strains with TDRs (88.2%, 15/17) were presented in the clusters. TDR strains against NNRTI in non-CRF01_AE subtypes also formed some subclusters (70.0%, 7/10). One CRF07_BC subject with K103N in Kunming had a very close genetic distance with one that received HAART locally (bootstrap=99%). Two CRF55_01B subjects carrying K103N in Changsha and Nanjing also had a very close genetic distance (bootstrap=100%).
RT-related TDR of non-CRF01_AE became the main TDR among MSM in China. There is an increasing trend and a potential transmission risk of the RT-related TDR among MSM throughout China. Some TDRs could have already been transmitted among different cities. Intervention efforts should be strengthened among MSM to prevent further transmission of HIV as well as the proliferation of the strains with TDR.
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 12/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotide microarray has been one of the most powerful tools in the 'Post-Genome Era' for its high sensitivity, high throughput and parallel processing capability. To achieve high detection specificity, we fabricated an isothermal microarray using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide probes, since LNA has demonstrated the advanced ability to enhance the binding affinity toward their complementary nucleotides. After designing the nucleotide sequences of these oligonucleotide probes for gram-positive bacilli of similar origin (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus circulans), we unified the melting temperatures of these oligonucleotide probes by modifying some nucleotides using LNA. Furthermore, we optimized the experimental procedures of hydrating microarray slides, blocking side surface as well as labelling the PCR products. Experimental results revealed that KOD Dash DNA polymerase could efficiently incorporate Cy3-dCTP into the PCR products, and the LNA-isothermal oligonucleotide microarray were able to distinguish the bacilli of similar origin with a high degree of accuracy and specificity under the optimized experimental condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive cases associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) have rapidly increased over the past years. The objective of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the proportions, changing trends, and geographical distribution of MSM-associated HIV cases from Chinese voluntary blood donors by systematically reviewing the available literature.Study Design and Methods
Major English and Chinese research databases were searched for studies reporting study locations, study years, the number of HIV infections among blood donors, and the number of HIV-positive donations associated with MSM in China. The proportion estimates were calculated; subgroup analyses and test for time trend were performed using software of comprehensive meta-analysis.ResultsThirty-four studies met eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of HIV-positive donations associated with MSM from 2001 to 2012 was 36.5% (95% confidence interval, 29.6%-44.1%). The epidemic was found to be more severe in northeast and north China compared to south China (59.6%; 55.0% vs. 3.8%, respectively). The proportion showed a significantly increasing trend over the study period (10.3% in 2001-2005; 38.6% in 2006-2009; and 47.6% in 2010-2012; trend test chi-square = 16.42, p < 0.001).Conclusion
The relatively high proportion of MSM- associated HIV-positive donors is of concern. Efficient and effective measures focused on public education and improving knowledge of blood safety are needed to prevent this at-risk population from seeking HIV testing through blood donation. It is also imperative to expand the scope of postdonation nucleic acid testing to shorten the window period to improve blood supply safety in China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory/immune cells have the power of infiltrating almost all human solid tumors and influencing all stages of carcinogenesis because of their stimulation of various cytokine subsets. This study aims to determine the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-17F gene and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). One thousand patients diagnosed with CRC and a control group of 354 healthy controls were involved. Peripheral blood samples were collected. The PCR-RFLP method was used to detect the 7383A>G (rs2397084) and 7488T>C (rs763780) in the IL-17F gene. Statistical analyses were conducted with version 12.0 STATA statistical software. We found that the allele model suggested that patients carrying C allele were 1.67 times more likely to develop CRC than healthy controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.67, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-2.27, P = 0.001). Similarly, the homozygous and dominant models also revealed that the minor IL-17F 7488C allele conferred an increased CRC risk compared to the major T allele among our study participants (CC vs. TT: OR = 4.15, 95 % CI = 1.26-13.36, P = 0.011; TC+CC vs. TT: OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.05, P = 0.027). However, all genetic models indicated that the IL-17F 7383A>G (rs2397084) polymorphism was not associated with CRC risk (all P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the 7488T>C (rs763780) in the IL-17F gene may be correlated with increased risk of CRC.
Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hepatitis-related liver diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among people with HIV/AIDS taking combination antiretroviral therapy. We assessed the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV outcomes in patients in China.
We did a nationwide retrospective observational cohort study with data from the China National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program from 2010–11. Patients older than 18 years starting standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV who had tested positive for HBV and HCV were followed up to Dec 31, 2012. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate survival, and logistic regression models to estimate virological failure, immunological response, and retention in care.
33 861 patients with HIV met eligibility criteria. 2958 (8·7%) participants had HBV co-infection, 6149 (18·2%) had HCV co-infection, and 1114 (3·3%) had triple infection. All-cause mortality was higher in participants with triple infection (adjusted hazard ratio 1·90, 95% CI 1·53–2·37) and HCV co-infection (1·46, 1·25–1·70) than in those with HIV only, but not in those with HBV co-infection (1·06, 0·89–1·26). People with triple infection were also more likely to have virological failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·26, 95% CI 1·02–1·56) than were those with HIV only, whereas the difference was not significant for those with HBV co-infection (0·93, 0·80–1·10) or HCV co-infection (1·10, 0·97–1·26). No co-infection was significantly associated with a difference in CD4 cell count after 1 year of treatment. Loss to follow-up was more common among participants with triple infection (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·16–1·62) and HCV co-infection (1·30, 1·17–1·45), but not HBV co-infection (0·93, 0·82–1·05), than among those with HIV only.
Screening for viral hepatitis is important in individuals diagnosed as HIV positive. Effective management for viral hepatitis should be integrated into HIV treatment programmes. Long-term data are needed about the effect of hepatitis co-infection on HIV disease progression.
The National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: China has the largest number of the elderly in the world. As the proportion of elderly is rapidly increasing among national reported HIV/AIDS cases, it is a concern about HIV epidemic among older MSM in China. However, studies on HIV prevalence and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Chinese older MSM were relatively few or generally had small sample sizes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of endonucleolytic DNA cleavage is an essential event that links the initiating stimuli to the final effects of cells. The cleavage efficiency and thus the final yield could be affected by many factors, including structures of DNA substrates, composite structures of enzymes-substrates or enzymes-nucleic analogs and so on. However, it is not clear whether a nucleotide derivative-substituted in DNA substrates can influence the efficiency of enzymatic cleavage. To investigate the effect of sugar pucker conformation on DNA-protein interactions, we used 2'-O-methyl modified nucleotides (OMeN) to modify DNA substrates of isocaudemers BamHI and BglII in this study, and used FRET assay as an efficient method for analysis of enzyme cleavage. Experimental results demonstrated that OMeN-substituted recognition sequences influenced the cleavage rates significantly in a position-dependent manner. OMeN substitutions can reduce the cleavage as expected. Surprisingly, OMeN substitutions can also enhance the cleavage rates. The kinetics parameters of Vmax and Km have been obtained by fitting the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation. These 2'- OMe nucleotides could behave as a regulatory element to modulate the enzymatic activity in vitro, and this property could enrich our understanding about the endonuclease cleavage mechanism and enhance our ability to regulate the enzymatic cleavage efficiency for applications in synthetic biology.
Journal of Biosciences 09/2014; 39(4):621-30. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a rapid and high-throughput assay based on rolling circle amplification, to distinguish individual strand cleavage of DNA duplexes by restriction endonucleases. As an illustration, we analyzed nicking activity of Nb.BbvCI and uneven cleavage of LNA modified DNA by EcoRI. This assay has potential for analyzing protein-DNA interactions.
Chemical Communications 08/2014; · 6.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To further understand the ligation mechanism, effects of 2'-O-methyl nucleotide (2'-OMeN) on the T4 DNA ligation efficiency were investigated. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay was used to monitor the nick-joining process by T4 DNA ligase. Results showed that substitutions at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick decreased the ligation efficiency by 48.7 ± 6.7% and 70.6 ± 4.0%, respectively. Substitutions at both 5'- and 3'-ends decreased the ligation efficiency by 76.6 ± 1.3%. Corresponding kinetic parameters, Vmax, Km, and kcat, have been determined in each case by using the Michaelis-Menten equation. The kinetic data showed that the 2'-OMeN substitutions reduced the maximal initial velocity and increased the Michaelis constant of T4 DNA ligase. Mismatches at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick have also shown different influences on the ligation. Results here showed that the sugar pucker conformation at 3'-end impairs the ligation efficiency more profoundly than that at 5'-end. Different concentrations of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+), and ATP were also demonstrated to affect the T4 DNA ligase activity. These results enriched our knowledge about the effects of 2'-OMeN substitutions on the T4 DNA ligase.
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 07/2014; · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Currently there are no reference intervals (RIs) of sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chlorine (Cl) on Chinese population. Two kinds of ion-selective electrode (ISE) methods were commonly used to determine K, Na, and Cl levels in China, the difference between these two methods needs to be evaluated.MethodsA total of 4,524 healthy participants (1,916 males and 2,608 females) between 20–79 years old from six cities in China were selected by strict criteria. Serum K, Na, and CL were tested on Roche Modular analyzers in six assigned laboratories. According to EP-9A2, using Roche Modular analyzer (indirect ISE) as comparative method, Olympus AU 5400 analyzer (indirect ISE) and Johnson&Johnson Fusion 5.1 analyzer (direct ISE) were evaluated.ResultsIn Chinese population, the RIs for K, Na, and CL are 3.6–5.2, 136–146, and 99–110 mmol/l, respectively. Compared to the Roche indirect ISE method, Johnson direct ISE method showed a positive bias; and Olympus indirect ISE method just showed a very slight bias.Conclusion
The RIs of K, Na, and Cl of Han Chinese healthy adult population were found to be smaller than those provided by the manufacturer. By a criteria of biological variations for CV, the differences of Na and K between Roche analyzer and Johnson analyzer were not acceptable for clinical application, while the differences of Na, K, and Cl between Roche and Olympus analyzers were acceptable for clinical application.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 05/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Defining common reference intervals (RIs) are encouraging. The aim of this study is to establish RIs for complete blood count (CBC) in a Chinese Han population and probe their age- and sex-related CBC trends. Additionally, we will compare the CBC RIs of Han with those of other races. Methods: In total 1259 Han individuals (584 male and 675 female) were recruited in North China. CBC was processed on Sysmex XE-2100, Coulter LH750 and Mindray BC5800 whose traceability was well verified. The non-parametric 2.5th-97.5th percentiles RIs were calculated. Results: The RIs for CBC parameters did not show apparent analyzer-specificity, apart from mean cellular volume (MCV), mean platelet volume (MPV), plateletcrit (PCT) and platelet distribution width (PDW). Red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HBG), hematocrit (HCT), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MGHC) are higher in males; and their male mean values tend to drop after 40 years; conversely, the female mean values tend to rise. Platelet (PLT) is higher in females and tends to drop after 40 years in both sexes. White blood cell (WBC) and absolute count of neutrophils (NE) and monocytes (MO) are higher in males, but there is no apparent change with age. Lymphocytes (LY) absolute count declines with age in males, but the same change in females is not obvious. RIs for HBG and HCT are similar among Han, Nordic, US European and US Mexican populations and are lower in US Africans. WBC RIs for Han and US African populations are lower than that for US Europeans and US Mexicans. Conclusion: RIs for major blood cell parameters are not method-dependent; variations obviously exist in age, sex and race. Consequently, common RIs for most CBC parameters appear inapplicable.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 02/2014; · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are two worldwide public health concerns. Co-infection of these two diseases has been considered to be a major obstacle for the global efforts in reaching the goals for the prevention of HIV and TB.
A comprehensive cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit TB patients in three provinces (Guangxi, Henan and Sichuan) of China between April 1 and September 30, 2010.
A total of 1,032 consenting TB patients attended this survey during the study period. Among the participants, 3.30% were HIV positive; about one quarter had opportunistic infections. Nearly half of the participants were 50 years or older, the majority were male and about one third were from minority ethnic groups. After adjusting for site, gender and areas of residence (using the partial/selective Model 1), former commercial plasma donors (adjusted OR [aOR] = 33.71) and injecting drug users(aOR = 15.86) were found to have significantly higher risk of being HIV-positivity. In addition, having extramarital sexual relationship (aOR = 307.16), being engaged in commercial sex (aOR = 252.37), suffering from opportunistic infections in the past six months (aOR = 2.79), losing 10% or more of the body weight in the past six months (aOR = 5.90) and having abnormal chest X-ray findings (aOR = 20.40) were all significantly associated with HIV seropositivity (each p<0.05).
HIV prevalence among TB patients was high in the study areas of China. To control the dual epidemic, intervention strategies targeting socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection are urgently called for.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89723. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate treatment effect, drug resistance changes, and their influencing factors in Chinese AIDS patients after switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy, and thus provide important information for the scale-up of second-line antiretroviral treatment in China. In Weishi county of Henan province, where second-line antiretroviral therapy was introduced early in China, 195 AIDS patients were enrolled, of which 127 patients met the switching criterion and 68 patients volunteered to switch drugs without meeting the switching criterion. CD4 cell count, viral load and in-house PCR genotyping for drug resistance were measured for all 195 subjects before drug switch, as well as 6 and 12 months after drug switch. Extensive secondary mutations to the protease inhibitor were observed, which suggested that long-term drug resistance surveillance is necessary for patients switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy. Multidrug resistance and cross-resistance were extensive in Chinese patients that experienced first-line treatment failure. Patients need timely CD4 count, viral load, and drug resistance monitoring in order to switch to second-line therapy under conditions of relatively good immunity and low viral duplication levels.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e110259. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use and its relationship with HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 625 MSM was conducted in Shenyang, China. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on recreational drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results. Nearly a quarter (23.2%, 145/625) of participants reported ever using recreational drugs, among which alkyl nitrites (poppers) was the most frequently used drug (19.2%), followed by methylmorphine phosphate (5.1%), methamphetamine (4.0%), and ketamine (0.8%). The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 9.6% and 10.4%, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that recreational drug use was significantly correlated with age ≤25 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1-2.9), single marital status (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2-3.6), and seeking male sexual partners mainly through Internet (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.8-2.8). Recreational drug use was independently associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (aOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 2.0-6.2). Conclusions. Our study suggests that recreational drug use is popular among Chinese MSM and is associated with significantly increased HIV infection risk. HIV prevention intervention programs should reduce both drug use and risky sexual behaviors in this population.
BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:725361.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 epidemic among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) continues to expand in China. A large-scale national survey we conducted on HIV-1 strains among MSM in 11 provinces in China from 2008 to 2013 (n = 920) identified a novel transmission cluster consisting of six strains (0.7%) that belonged to a new circulating recombinant form (designated CRF59_01B). CRF59_01B contains two subtype B segments of U.S.-European origin (in the pol and vpu-env regions) in a CRF01_AE backbone. CRF59_01B is the second CRF (after CRF55_01B) circulating primarily among MSM in China. CRF59_01B occurs at a low frequency (less than 1%), but it was detected in four different provinces/regions in China: Liaoning (northeast China) (n = 3); Hunan (central China) (n = 1); Guangdong (south China) (n = 1); Yunnan (southwest China) (n = 1). One additional recombinant strain was detected in a heterosexual individual in Liaoning province but is not the focus of this paper. Bayesian molecular clock analyses indicate that CRF59_01B emerged as a result of recombination between CRF01_AE and subtype B around the year 2001. The emergence of multiple forms of recombinants and CRFs reflects the ever-increasing contribution of homosexual transmission in China's HIV epidemic and indicates an active HIV transmission network among MSM in China.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99693. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells are one of the critical effectors in the immune response to viral infection and tumors, but the functional features of NKT-like cells in HIV infection have been rarely reported. In this study, we observed and described the state of NKT-like cell functions in primary HIV-infected individuals (PHIs), chronic HIV-infected individuals (CHIs), long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), and HIV-negative controls (NCs). The results showed that the percentage of IFN- γ (+)CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells was notably higher in LTNPs compared with CHIs, and the proportion of CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells with dual function (IFN- γ (+)CD107a(+) NKT-like cells) in LTNPs was also much higher than in CHIs. Additionally, the percentages of IFN- γ (+)CD107a(+) NKT-like cells negatively correlated with viral load. Taken together, our data demonstrated that good functions of CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells in LTNPs likely occurred as a protective mechanism that slows down HIV disease progression.
BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:863625.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixteen original recombinant pseudoviruses were generated by cloning the reverse transcriptase and protease genes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 from patients into a plasmid vector (pNL4-3-ΔE-EGFP). By site-directed mutagenesis two restriction endonuclease sites, ApaI and AgeI, were inserted into pNL4-3-ΔE-EGFP. Phenotypic susceptibility of recombinant pseudoviruses to five different classes of antiretroviral drugs was determined using a luciferase reporter assay system. The results were subjected to comparative analyses to detect genotype-phenotype associations. Among 16 strains tested, 12 strains had a discordant genotype-phenotype resistance pattern to at least one drug. In five strains resistance to two, in two strains to three, and in one strain resistance to four drugs was detected. HIV resistance genotyping could predict the phenotype for nevirapine and azidothymidine. For lamivudine, 2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'dideoxythymidine and didanosine, phenotypic resistance testing was necessary. The study showed that in patients who experienced long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy and virological failure, there is some discordance between genotypic and phenotypic HIV drug resistance. To address the issue of limited resources in China, genotypic and phenotypic resistance testing should be done for different drugs in order to guide clinical therapy more effectively.
Journal of Basic Microbiology 12/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor