Guozhong Zhao

Tianjin University of Science and Technology, T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China

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Publications (10)21.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus oryzae is used to produce traditional fermented foods and beverages. A. oryzae 3.042 produces a neutral protease and an alkaline protease but rarely an acid protease, which is unfavourable to soy-sauce fermentation. A. oryzae 100-8 was obtained by N(+) ion implantation mutagenesis of A. oryzae 3.042, and the protease secretions of these two strains are different. Sequencing the genome of A. oryzae 100-8 and comparing it to the genomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and 3.042 revealed some differences, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, nucleotide deletion or insertion. Some of these differences may reflect the ability of A. oryzae to secrete proteases. Transcriptional sequencing and analysis of the two strains during the same growth processes provided further insights into the genes and pathways involved in protease secretion.
    Biotechnology Letters 07/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus oryzae is a common fungus for traditional fermentation in Asia, such as spirit, soybean paste, and soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36.7-Mbp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 100-8 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042.
    Genome announcements. 01/2014; 2(3).
  • Guozhong Zhao, Xiaohong Cao
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    ABSTRACT: A. oryzae 3.042 (China) and A. oryzae RIB40 (Japan) used for soy sauce fermentation show some regional differences. We sequenced the genome of A. oryzae 3.042, and compared it with A. oryzae RIB40 in an attempt to understand why different features are shown by these two A. oryzae strains. We predict 11,399 protein-coding genes in A. oryzae 3.042. The genomes of these two A. oryzae strains are collinear revealed by MUMmer analysis indicating that the differences are not obvious between them. Several strain-specific genes of two strains are identified by genome sequences' comparison, and they are classified into some groups which have the relationship with cell growth, cellular response and regulation, resistance, energy metabolism, salt tolerance and flavor formation. A. oryzae 3.042 showed stronger potential for mycelial growth and environmental stress resistance, such as the genes of chitinase and quinone reductase. Some genes unique to A. oryzae RIB40 were related to energy metabolism and salt tolerance, especially genes for Na+ and K+ transport, while others were associated with signal transduction and flavor formation. The genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of traits in A. oryzae 3.042, and accelerate our understanding of the different genetic traits of the two A. oryzae strains.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 (Chinese strain) is a close relative of A. oryzae RIB40 (Japanese strain), which is the important agent used for soy sauce fermentation. The genome of A. oryzae 3.042 was sequenced and compared with A. oryzae RIB40 in an attempt to understand why different soy sauce flavors are produced by these strains. The A. oryzae 3.042 chromosome is 36,547,279bp and contains 11,399 protein-encoding genes. MUMmer analysis revealed that the genomes of A. oryzae 3.042 and RIB40 are mostly collinear. Genome sequence data and comparative analysis of the two strains identified several strain-specific genes that encode putative proteins involved in cell growth, salt tolerance, environmental resistance and flavor formation. A. oryzae 3.042 showed stronger potential for mycelial growth. Some genes unique to A. oryzae RIB40 were related to salt tolerance, especially genes for K(+) transport, while others were associated with ester formation and amino acid metabolism, which likely contribute to flavor formation. In conclusion, comparative genome analysis provided insights into the different genetic traits of the two A. oryzae strains. The unique genes that we found in A. oryzae would make sense to the soy sauce fermentation.
    International journal of food microbiology 04/2013; 164(2-3):148-154. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soy sauce is considered the most important food condiment in China for its distinct fragrance and salty taste. Highly valued for its unique tastes and flavours, soy sauce exhibits many beneficial functions, such as 4‐hydroxy‐2(or 5)‐ethyl‐5(or 2)‐methyl‐3(2H)‐furanone and 4‐ethylguaiacol. Soy sauce has been widely used in Asian countries for cooking. With the rapidly growing popularity of these unique tastes and flavours, it is important to have a comprehensive reference of its functional benefits. Meanwhile, the genes encoding the major enzymes of metabolism exhibit specialised roles. This review provides a valuable source for the abundant metabolism genes of strains and current knowledge on antioxidant activity, antihypertensive effect, anticarcinogenic activity, fortification and their relationships with soy sauce tastes and flavours.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 01/2013; 48(5). · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015 mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48 h and 24 h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity.
    BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:907170.
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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in China and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae RIB40.
    Eukaryotic Cell 09/2012; 11(9):1178. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus oryzae plays a central role in soybean fermentation, particularly in its contribution to the flavor of soy sauce. We present a comparative assessment of the intracellular differences between wild-type strain 3.042 and mutant strain A100-8, at the proteome level. 522 different protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, with 134 spots being confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Of these, 451 were differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). There was at least a two-fold increase for 288 spots, and at least a two-fold decrease for 163 spots, in strain A100-8 when compared to 3.042. Further analysis showed that 63 of the more abundant proteins were involved in glycolysis and the citrate cycle; 43 more abundant proteins and 10 less abundant proteins were related to amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism; two of the more abundant proteins were involved in vitamin biosynthesis; and five of the more abundant proteins and four of the less abundant proteins were related to secondary metabolites. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of six typical genes we selected were consistent with changes in protein expression. We postulate that there may be a relationship between DEPs and the flavor formation mechanism in A. oryzae.
    Journal of proteomics 05/2012; 75(13):3914-24. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of secreting large amounts of enzymes, Aspergillus oryzae was widely used in the fermentation of soy sauce in many Asian countries. Here, N+ ion implantation mutagenesis was applied to improve the ability of A. oryzae to secrete acid protease. Several mutants were screened using three kinds of plates (Casein medium, Czapek’s medium and carboxymethyl cellulose medium agar plates). Compared with the other mutants, the mutant A100‐8 could secrete the most protease. Acid protease activity of A100‐8 was enhanced about 44.1% at 36 h by koji fermentation test. In addition, A100‐8 was stable by periodically subculturing and maintaining on the agar slant. The mRNA expression levels of two kinds of acid protease (serine carboxypeptidase and aspartyl protease) were measured by RT‐PCR at different periods. Serine carboxypeptidase and some kinds of aspartyl protease of A100‐8 were significantly (P 0.01) expressed higher than the control at all times.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 01/2012; 47(3). · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2011; 59(23):12493-8. · 2.91 Impact Factor