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ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain is a common and severely disabling state that affects millions of people worldwide. The P2X3 receptor plays a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission. Intermedin (IMD), which is also known as adrenomedullin 2 (AMD2) is a newly discovered hormone that is a member of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family. The present research investigates the effects of IMD on pain transmission in neuropathic pain states as mediated by P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). CCI rats were used as the neuropathic pain model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: blank control group (Control), sham operation group (Sham), CCI rats treated with saline group (CCI+NS), CCI rats treated with IMD1-53 group (CCI+IMD1-53 ), and CCI rats treated with IMD inhibitor IMD14-47 group (CCI+IMD14-47 ). The MWT (mechanical withdrawal threshold) was tested by the von Frey method, and the TWL (thermal withdrawal latency) was tested via automatic thermal stimulus instruments. Changes in the expression of P2X3 receptors and IMD in CCI rat L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia were detected using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. After treatment with intrathecal injection (i.t.), mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the CCI+IMD1-53 group was maintained, but MWT and TWL in the CCI+IMD14-47 groups increased. The expression levels of P2X3 receptors and IMD in L4/L5 DRG in the CCI+NS and CCI+IMD1-53 groups were significantly increased compared with those in the Control group or the Sham group. After application of IMD14-47 in CCI rats, there was a decrease in the expression levels of P2X3 receptors and IMD in L4/L5 DRG. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 in L4/L5 DRG in the CCI+NS group and the CCI+IMD1-53 group was stronger than that in the Control group or the Sham group; however, the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 in the CCI+IMD14-47 group was much lower than that in the CCI+NS group or the CCI+IMD1-53 group. Our findings indicate that IMD might increase the sensitization effects of IMD on P2X3 receptors to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain injury. The IMD agonist IMD1-53 might enhance nociceptive responses mediated by P2X3 receptors in neuropathic pain, and the IMD inhibitor IMD14-47 could inhibit the sensitization of the P2X3 receptor in chronic neuropathic pain injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 05/2015; 42(7). DOI:10.1111/1440-1681.12416 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissue injury or inflammation of the nervous system may result in chronic neuropathic pain characterized by sensitivity to painful stimuli. P2X(3) receptors play a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission. Puerarin is an active compound of a traditional Chinese medicine Ge-gen, and Ge-gen soup has anti-inflammatory effects. The present research investigated the role of puerarin in the signalling of chronic neuropathic pain mediated by P2X(3) receptors of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model was adopted. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (Ctrl), sham group (Sham), puerarin-treated control group (Ctrl+PUE), chronic constriction injury (CCI) group and puerarin-treated CCI group (CCI+PUE). Mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were measured by the von-Frey test and the Hargreaves' test respectively. The stain values of P2X(3) protein and mRNA in L4/L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were detected by immunohistochemistry, western blot and in situ hybridization. At day 4-7 after the operation of CCI rats, MWT and TWL in group CCI and CCI+PUE were lower than those in group Ctrl, Sham and Ctrl+PUE, while there was no difference among group Ctrl, Sham and Ctrl+PUE. At day 7-10 after operation, MWT and TWL in group CCI+PUE was higher than those in group CCI, but there was no significant difference between group CCI+PUE and group Ctrl (p>0.05). At day 14 after operation, the stain values of P2X(3) proteins and mRNAs in L4/L5 DRG of group CCI were higher than those in group Ctrl, Sham, Ctrl+PUE and CCI+PUE, while the stain values of P2X(3) proteins and mRNAs in group CCI+PUE were significantly decreased compared with those in group CCI. Therefore, puerarin may alleviate neuropathic pain mediated by P2X(3) receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons.
Brain research bulletin 10/2011; 87(1):37-43. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.10.007 · 2.72 Impact Factor
Cell Biology International 08/2010; 34(8). DOI:10.1042/CBI034S016d · 1.93 Impact Factor