[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many bioactive molecules like recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) have been developed for mineralized bone grafts, for which proper scaffolds are necessary to successfully apply the bioactive molecules. In this study, we tested the osteogenic efficacy of rhBMP-2 produced in-house in combination with gelatin sponge as the scaffold carrier in a rabbit radial defect model. The efficacy of the rhBMP-2 was determined by alkaline phosphatase activity assay of C2C12 cells. Two groups of ten rabbits each were treated with rhBMP-2/gelatin sponge, or gelatin sponge only. At 4 weeks, rhBMP-2/gelatin sponge grafts showed more bone regeneration than gelatin sponge grafts, as determined by X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological analyses. At 8 weeks, rhBMP-2/gelatin sponge grafts exerted much stronger osteogenic effects. The study demonstrates the improved osteogenic efficacy of the rhBMP-2/gelatin sponge grafts in a rabbit radial bone defect model acting as a bone-inductive material. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(6): 328-333].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into osteoblast-like cells has been implicated in the context of vascular calcification. We investigated the roles of vitamin D receptor (Vdr) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in the osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs in response to vitamin D3 using in vitro VSMCs cultures and in vivo in Vdr knockout (Vdr (-/-) ) and Runx2 carboxy-terminus truncated heterozygous (Runx2 (+/ΔC) ) mice. Treatment of VSMCs with active vitamin D3 promoted matrix mineral deposition, and increased the expressions of Vdr, Runx2, and of osteoblastic genes but decreased the expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain in primary VSMCs cultures. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggested an interaction between Vdr and Runx2. Furthermore, silencing Vdr or Runx2 attenuated the procalcific effects of vitamin D3. Functional cooperation between Vdr and Runx2 in vascular calcification was also confirmed in in vivo mouse models. Vascular calcification induced by high-dose vitamin D3 was completely inhibited in Vdr (-/-) or Runx2 (+/ΔC) mice, despite elevated levels of serum calcium or alkaline phosphatase. Collectively, these findings suggest that functional cooperation between Vdr and Runx2 is necessary for vascular calcification in response to vitamin D3.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83584. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) during endochondral bone formation is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between HIF-1α and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in the growth plate. Runx2 caused the accumulation of HIF-1α protein in ATDC5 chondrocytes and HEK293 cells under normoxic conditions. Runx2 also increased the nuclear translocation of HIF-1α when coexpressed in HEK293 cells and interacted with HIF-1α at the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODDD). In addition, Runx2 competed with von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein by directly binding to ODDD-HIF-1α and significantly inhibited the ubiquitination of HIF-1α, even though Runx2 did not change the hydroxylation status of HIF-1α. Furthermore, overexpression of Runx2 resulted in the significant enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter reporter activity and protein secretion. Runx2 significantly increased angiogenic activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. In wild-type mice, HIF-1α and Runx2 were colocalized in hypertrophic chondrocytes in which the cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) protein was expressed at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5). In contrast, the expression of HIF-1α was markedly reduced in areas of CD31 expression in Runx2(-/-) mice. These results suggest that Runx2 stabilizes HIF-1α by binding to ODDD to block the interaction between von Hippel-Lindau protein and HIF-1α. In conclusion, Runx2, HIF-1α, and VEGF may regulate vascular angiogenesis spatially and temporally in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate during endochondral bone formation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(18):14760-71. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the therapeutic effect of topical Risedronate (RIS) on a mouse model of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Fourteen-week-old female mice were ovariectomized and assigned to 4 groups: SHAM-operated (SHAM), OVX mice treated with vehicle (OVX-V), OVX mice treated with 0.2% RIS (OVX-0.2% RIS), and OVX-mice treated with 0.02% RIS (OVX-0.02% RIS). Topical samples containing RIS were prepared in 10% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 400) and 80 μg of sample was spread on the mice's mid-backs every 3 days for 5 weeks. Micro-CT analysis of femora demonstrated that OVX-0.2% RIS exhibited a 29% greater bone mineral density and 24% greater bone volume fraction than that of OVX-V group. Investigation of the trabecular bone in OVX-0.2% RIS revealed a 24% higher bone volume (BV/TV), 51% higher trabecular number (Tb.N), and 40% lower trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) compared to OVX-V mice. Additionally, bone phenotypes of tibiae were further confirmed by histological analysis. OVX-0.2% RIS group exhibited a 494% greater BV/TV, 464% less Tb.Sp, 81% greater active osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) and 26% less osteoclast number (N.Oc/BS) than that of OVX-V group. Collectively, these results indicated that topical delivery of RIS has powerful pharmaceutical effects on the prevention of osteoporosis and bone turnover.