James M McLoughlin

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States

Are you James M McLoughlin?

Claim your profile

Publications (21)57.69 Total impact

  • James M McLoughlin, James M Lewis, Kenneth L Meredith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In patients with esophageal cancer, treatment decisions often involve a balance between a high-risk procedure and the chance for long-term benefit. The decision can be additionally challenging for elderly patients since some studies have reported an increased incidence of morbidity and mortality in this age group, and data are not clear on the overall benefit of multimodality therapy. To investigate the management and outcomes associated with esophagectomy in elderly patients with esophageal cancer, we performed a review of the literature as well as an analysis of our own institutional data, with a focus on the impact of age on surgical outcomes. We examined type of surgery, neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, and mortality as variables in elderly patients with esophageal cancer. When assessing the impact of age on the success of esophagectomy, several studies have concluded that advanced age itself is not a predictor of outcomes as much as associated comorbidities are. Our own experience suggests that age is not associated with adverse outcomes when controlling for patient comorbidities. This finding is similar to data reported elsewhere. When considering treatment for patients of advanced age, the risks of treatment should be compared with the survival benefits of the therapy prescribed, taking into account additional factors such as poor performance status, existing comorbidities, and residual tumor following neoadjuvant therapy. Many reports, as well as our own experience, have concluded that when adjusted for comorbidities, patient age does not significantly affect outcomes.
    Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center 04/2013; 20(2):144-50. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) has become the preferred treatment for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Survival often is correlated to degree of pathologic response; however, outcomes in patients who are found to be pathologic nonresponders (pNR) remain uninvestigated. This study was designed to evaluate survival in pNR to NCRT compared with patients treated with primary esophagectomy (PE). Using our comprehensive esophageal cancer database, we identified patients treated with NCRT and deemed pNR along with patients who proceeded to PE. Clinical and pathologic data were compared using Fisher's exact and χ(2), whereas Kaplan-Meier estimates were used for survival analysis. We identified 63 patients treated with NCRT and were found to have a pNR, and 81 patients who underwent PE. Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly decreased in the pNR group compared with those treated with PE (10 vs. 50 months (0-152), P < 0.001 and 13 vs. 50 months (0-152), P < 0.001, respectively). For patients with stage II disease, DFS and OS were similarly decreased in pathologic nonresponders (13 vs. 62 months (0-120), P < 0.001 and 31 vs. 62 months (0-120), P = 0.024, respectively). There were no differences in DFS or OS for patients with stage III disease (10 vs. 14 months (0-152), P = 0.29 and 10 vs. 19 months (0-152), P = 0.16, respectively). Pathologic nonresponders to NCRT for esophageal cancer receive no benefit in DFS or OS compared with patients treated with PE. For patients with stage II disease, DFS and OS are, in fact, significantly decreased in the pNR.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2011; 19(5):1678-84. · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Incidences of esophageal cancer and obesity are both rising in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of elevated body mass index on outcomes after esophagectomy for cancer. Overall and disease-free survivals in obese (BMI ≥ 30), overweight (BMI 25-29), and normal-weight (BMI 20-24) patients undergoing esophagectomy constituted the study end points. Survivals were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences were analyzed by log rank method. The study included 166 obese, 176 overweight, and 148 normal-weight patients. These three groups were similar in terms of demographics and comorbidities, with the exception of younger age (62.5 vs. 66.2 vs. 65.3 years, P = 0.002), and higher incidence of diabetes (23.5 vs. 11.4 vs. 10.1%, P = 0.001) and hiatal hernia (28.3 vs. 14.8 vs. 20.3%, P = 0.01) in obese patients. Rates of adenocarcinoma histology were higher in obese patients (90.8 vs. 90.9 vs. 82.5%, P = 0.03). Despite similar preoperative stage, obese patients were less likely to receive neoadjuvant treatment (47.6 vs. 54.5 vs. 66.2%, P = 0.004). Response to neoadjuvant treatment, type of surgery performed, extent of lymphadenectomy, rate of R0 resections, perioperative complications, and administration of adjuvant chemotherapy were not influenced by BMI. At a median follow-up of 25 months, 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were longer in obese patients (respectively, 48, 41, 34%, P = 0.01 and 48, 44, 34%, P = 0.01). In our experience, an elevated BMI did not reduce overall and disease-free survivals after esophagectomy for cancer.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2011; 18(3):824-31. · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the fourth highest cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, has the most aggressive presentation resulting in a very short median survival time for the affected patients. Early detection of PDAC is confounded by lack of specific markers that has motivated the use of high throughput molecular approaches to delineate potential biomarkers. To pursue identification of a distinct marker, this study profiled the secretory proteome in 16 PDAC, 2 carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 7 benign patients using label-free mass spectrometry coupled to 1D-SDS-PAGE and Strong Cation-Exchange Chromatography (SCX). A total of 431 proteins were detected of which 56 were found to be significantly elevated in PDAC. Included in this differential set were Parkinson disease autosomal recessive, early onset 7 (PARK 7) and Alpha Synuclein (aSyn), both of which are known to be pathognomonic to Parkinson's disease as well as metabolic enzymes like Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (NP) which has been exploited as therapeutic target in cancers. Tissue Microarray analysis confirmed higher expression of aSyn and NP in ductal epithelia of pancreatic tumors compared to benign ducts. Furthermore, extent of both aSyn and NP staining positively correlated with tumor stage and perineural invasion while their intensity of staining correlated with the existence of metastatic lesions in the PDAC tissues. From the biomarker perspective, NP protein levels were higher in PDAC sera and furthermore serum levels of its downstream metabolites guanosine and adenosine were able to distinguish PDAC from benign in an unsupervised hierarchical classification model. Overall, this study for the first time describes elevated levels of aSyn in PDAC as well as highlights the potential of evaluating NP protein expression and levels of its downstream metabolites to develop a multiplex panel for non-invasive detection of PDAC.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e17177. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although mucinous adenocarcinomas represent 6% to 19% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas, little is known about the genome-wide alterations associated with this malignancy. We have sought to characterize both the gene expression profiles of mucinous adenocarcinomas and their clinicopathologic features. Tumors from 171 patients with primary colorectal cancer were profiled using the Affymetrix HG-U133Plus 2.0 GeneChip with characterization of clinicopathologic data. Gene ontology software was used to identify altered biologic pathways. Twenty (11.7%) mucinous adenocarcinomas and 151 (89.3%) nonmucinous adenocarcinomas were identified. Mucinous adenocarcinomas were more likely to be diagnosed with lymph node (LN) metastases (75% vs 51%, P = .04) and at a more advanced stage (85% vs 54%, P = .006) but long-term survival (5-y survival 58.9% vs 58.7%, P = NS) was similar. Mucinous adenocarcinomas displayed 182 upregulated and 135 downregulated genes. The most upregulated genes included those involved in cellular differentiation and mucin metabolism (eg, AQP3 + 4.6, MUC5AC +4.2, MUC2 + 2.8). Altered biologic pathways included those associated with mucin substrate metabolism (P = .002 and .02), amino acid metabolism (P = .02), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade (P = .02). Using gene expression profiling of mucinous adenocarcinomas, we have identified the differential upregulation of genes involved in differentiation and mucin metabolism, as well as specific biologic pathways. These findings suggest that mucinous adenocarcinomas represent a genetically distinct variant of colorectal adencarcinoma and have implications for the development of targeted therapies.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 06/2010; 53(6):936-43. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research 02/2010; 158(2):261. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research 02/2010; 158(2):259-60. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research 02/2010; 158(2):273-4. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: On occasion, patients followed with positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) imaging for nonbreast malignancies will have incidental breast findings concerning for second primary breast cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of PET/CT imaging to identify breast cancers in these patients. Patients with primary nonbreast malignancies and findings concerning for second primary breast cancers were identified from a prospectively acquired nuclear medicine database from January 2005 to July 2008. Chart reviews were then performed. Nine hundred two women underwent PET/CT imaging to evaluate nonbreast malignancies. Nine women (1%) had concerning breast findings, and 5 (56%) had subsequent breast cancer diagnoses. The positive predictive value of PET/CT imaging in these patients was 63%. Evidence of compliance with current screening guidelines was present in only 22% of these patients. The data suggest that findings concerning for an additional primary breast cancer should be evaluated and that age-appropriate screening tools should not be abandoned.
    American journal of surgery 10/2009; 198(4):495-9. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite a paucity of evidence-based guidelines, the use of PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) in the management of cancer patients is increasing. As widespread clinical application increases, unexpected radiographic findings are occasionally identified. These incidental findings are often suspicious for a second primary malignancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical impact of these incidental PET/CT findings. A query of our prospectively acquired Nuclear Medicine database was performed to identify patients with a known malignancy being staged or serially imaged with PET/CT. Patients with incidental findings suggestive of a second primary malignancy were selected. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the ability of PET/CT to identify a second primary malignancy. All PET/CT were interpreted by board certified nuclear radiologists. Of 3,814 PET/CT scans performed on 2,219 cancer patients at our institution from January 1, 2005, to December 29, 2008, 272 patients (12% of all patients) had findings concerning for a second primary malignancy. An invasive work-up was performed on 49% (133/272) of these patients, while 15% (40/272) had no further evaluation due to an advanced primary malignancy. The remaining 36% (99/272) had no further evaluation secondary to a low clinical suspicion determined by the treating team, a clinical plan of observation, or patients lost to follow-up. Of the 133 patients evaluated further, clinicians identified a second primary malignancy in 41 patients (31%), benign disease in 62 patients (47%), and metastatic disease from their known malignancy in 30 patients (23%). The most common sites for a proven second primary malignancy were: lung (N = 10), breast (N = 7), and colon (N = 5). Investigation of these lesions was performed using several techniques, including 24 endoscopies (6 malignant). A surgical procedure was performed in 74 patients (29 malignant), and a percutaneous biopsy was performed on 34 patients (12 malignant). The overall positive predictive value for PET/CT to detect a second primary malignancy was 31% in this subgroup. At a median follow-up of 22 months, 9 of 41 patients with a second primary were dead of a malignancy, 20 were alive with disease, and 12 had no evidence of disease. Incidental PET/CT findings consistent with a second primary are occasionally encountered in cancer patients. In our data, approximately half of these findings were benign, a third were consistent with a second primary malignancy or a metastatic focus, and the remainder were never evaluated due to physician and patient decision. Advanced primary tumors are unlikely to be impacted by a second primary tumor suggesting that this subset of patients will not benefit from further investigation. Our data suggests that, despite the high rate of false positivity, incidental PET/CT findings should be investigated when the results will impact treatment algorithms. The timing and route of investigation should be dictated by clinical judgment and the status of the primary tumor. Further investigation will need to be performed to determine the long-term clinical impact of incidentally identified second primary malignancies.
    Surgery 09/2009; 146(2):274-81. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients who develop metastatic melanoma often have limited effective treatment options. However, a select group of patients will benefit from aggressive surgery or a multidisciplinary approach, depending on the site of metastasis. The current literature was reviewed and summarized regarding the collective recommendations for staging and treating patients with metastatic melanoma. A thorough preoperative staging includes positron-emission tomography, MRI of the brain, and CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Tumor biology ultimately determines the success of intervention. A long disease-free interval is a good indicator of potential benefit from resection of metastatic disease. If surgery is performed, no less than a complete resection will affect the overall survival of the patient. Surgery and other multimodality treatment options can be used for symptomatic palliation but will not affect survival. Chemotherapy and radiation are often used to control the symptoms of brain and bony metastases but have limited if any impact on survival. A select group of patients with metastatic melanoma will benefit from aggressive surgery. Identifying which patients will benefit from treatment requires good clinical judgment and a thorough radiologic evaluation to identify the true extent of disease.
    Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center 08/2008; 15(3):239-47. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The influence of preoperative hemoglobin levels on outcomes of patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer is not clearly defined. The goal of this article was to explore the association between combined modality therapy, preoperative anemia status, and perioperative blood transfusion and risk of postoperative complications among patients undergoing esophageal resection. From a retrospective esophageal database, 413 patients were identified. Anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization classification of <13 g/dL or <12 g/dL for men or women, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance, Pearson's chi(2), or Fisher exact test as appropriate. The independent association of anemia, blood transfusion, and combined modality treatment on risk of postoperative complications were examined using multiple logistic regression. Information on combined modality treatment, preoperative hemoglobin levels, and blood transfusion was available for 413 patients, of whom 57% received combined modality treatment. Overall 197 (47.6%) patients were preoperatively found to be anemic, and those who had received combined modality treatment were more likely to be anemic (60.6% versus 30.7%, P < 0.001). Anemic patients required more blood transfusions than nonanemic patients (46.7% versus 29.6%, P < 0.001). Seventy-five percent of patients who required transfusion during the hospital stay had received combined modality treatment (P = 0.01). Combined modality treatment and anemia were not associated with increased risk of complications. Patients with any perioperative complication and surgical site infections were more likely to have received blood transfusion compared to patients without complications (OR = 1.73; 95% CI 1.04-2.87 and OR = 2.98; 95% CI 1.04-8.55; respectively). Overall, we determined that administration of neoadjuvant treatment to esophageal cancer patients was not associated with an increased rate of perioperative complications. Preoperative anemia did not predict worsened short-term outcomes, but increased the chances of red blood cell transfusion, which were significantly associated with higher overall complications and increased risk of surgical site infections. These data confirm previous studies that allogenic red blood cell transfusions are independent risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality and should be minimized during surgery for esophageal cancer.
    Journal of Surgical Research 07/2008; 153(1):114-20. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Esophageal cancer continues to increase in incidence. Many patients are presenting with stage II or greater disease and proceeding to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy before resection. Approximately 30% of patients will achieve a complete response and might not benefit from proceeding to resection. This study will examine the ability of PET to predict patients with a complete pathologic response. A query of our IRB-approved esophageal database revealed 81 patients who underwent a pre- and postchemoradiation PET scan and then proceeded to esophageal resection. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the ability of PET to predict a complete pathologic response. When comparing posttherapy PET with final pathology, it was determined that PET could not consistently differentiate a complete pathologic response from patients who still had persistent disease. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 61.8%, 43.8%, 70%, 35%, and 56%, respectively, for patients with a complete PET response after neoadjuvant therapy. A complete PET response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is not substantially predictive of a complete pathologic response. Patients should still be referred for resection unless distant metastases are identified.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 06/2008; 206(5):879-86; discussion 886-7. · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2008; 144(2):448-448.
  • Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2008; 144(2):384-384.
  • James M McLoughlin, Jonathan S Zager, Vernon K Sondak
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytoreductive surgery represents a therapeutic attempt to improve patient outcomes by reducing overall tumor burden to render postsurgical therapy effective or at least increase its effectiveness. The intent of cytoreduction differs from palliative or curative-intent surgery for oligometastatic melanoma. Both palliative surgery and attempted curative resection have important roles to play in the management of patients with melanoma that has spread beyond the regional nodes or recurred "in transit" between the primary and the regional nodal basin. To date, however, no evidence shows that cytoreductive surgery offers any meaningful benefit to patients with metastatic melanoma, and, outside of a clinical trial, there is no role for cytoreductive surgery in melanoma. To date, adjuvant vaccine therapy after complete resection of metastatic melanoma has not proved to be efficacious in clinical trials, so there is little reason to believe that the use of currently available immunotherapy strategies will be enhanced after incomplete tumor resections.
    Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 08/2007; 16(3):683-93, xi. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Down-regulation of apoptosis genes has been implicated in the development and progression of malignant melanoma. We used cDNA microarray to evaluate pro-apoptotic gene expression comparing normal skin to melanoma (thin and thick), nodal disease and distant metastases. Twenty-eight specimens including skin (n = 1), thin melanoma (n = 6), thick melanoma (n = 7), nodal disease (n = 6), and distant metastases (n = 8), were harvested at the time of resection from 16 individuals. RNA was isolated and microarray analysis utilizing the Affymetrix GeneChip (54,000 genetic elements, U133A+B... levels) was performed. Mean level of expression was calculated for each gene within a sample group. Expression profiles were then compared between tissue groups. Student's t-test was used to determine variance in expression between groups. We reviewed the expression of 54,000 genetic elements, of which 2,015 were found to have significantly altered expression. This represents 1,602 genes. Twenty-two pro-apoptotic genes were found to be down-regulated when compared to normal skin. Overall reduction was evaluated comparing normal skin to metastases with a range of 3.31-64.04-fold-decrease. When comparing the tissue types sequentially, the greatest fold-decrease in gene expression occurred when comparing skin to all melanomas (thin and thick) (p = 0.011). Subset analysis comparing normal skin to thin melanoma or thick melanoma, revealed the greatest component of overall reduction at the transition from thin to thick lesions (p = 0.003). Sequential down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes is associated with the progression of malignant melanoma. The greatest fold-decrease occurs in the transformation from thin to thick lesions.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2007; 14(4):1416-23. · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytoreductive therapy for metastatic carcinoid provides symptomatic relief and improvement in overall survival. We evaluated whether CgA and 5HIAA could predict symptomatic relief and control of disease progression after cytoreductive surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 70 patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery for neuroendocrine hepatic metastases between 1996 and 2005. Twenty-two patients had pre and post-operative CgA and/or 5HIAA levels measured. Reduction of biomarkers following cytoreduction was correlated with patient symptoms and progression of disease following surgery. Our study consisted of 14 males and 8 females with a mean age of 55 (+/-12 years). Median follow-up was 18 months (range 5-64 months). Six patients (26.1%) had complete (R0) cytoreduction, while 4 (17.4%) and 13 (56.5%) had microscopic (R1) and gross (R2) disease remaining. All patients reported improvements in their symptoms, with 12 (54.5%) reporting complete resolution (CR) and 10 (45.5%) reporting partial resolution (PR). Reduction of CgA of >or= 80% was highly predictive of complete resolution of symptoms (P = 0.007) and stabilization of disease (P = 0.034). Reduction of 5HIAA levels of >or= 80% (or normalization) was predictive of symptomatic relief, but not progression of disease (P = 0.026 and P = 0.725). Five of six patients who had R0 resections had CR and were free of disease at last follow-up (median 24.5 months, range: 11-48, P = 0.002). We conclude that >or= 80% reduction in CgA level following cytoreductive surgery for carcinoid tumors is predictive of subsequent symptom relief and disease control. Substantial reduction in CgA is associated with improved patient outcomes, even after incomplete cytoreduction.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2007; 14(2):780-5. · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Eric H Jensen, James M McLoughlin, Timothy J Yeatman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular profiling has proven to be an invaluable tool in cancer research. Although only in its infancy, microarray technology and gene arrays have led to substantial advances in tumor identification, staging and prediction of response. This review outlines some of the more recent advances in the use of microarrays as a novel means to advance the standard of care for patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Recent investigations have shown that gene expression profiles can be used to identify, stage, and guide therapeutic intervention in many gastrointestinal cancers. In cases of unknown primary disease, genetic fingerprints can be used to define the origin of the tumor in the majority of cases. Similarly, gene expression has been shown to allow for more accurate staging of patients with a variety of tumor types. Perhaps most exciting is early data that support the potential for microarray to guide therapeutic intervention by providing specific gene fingerprints which correlate with sensitivity to specific chemotherapy, biologic therapy, or other cancer treatments. Gene microarrays have become a powerful resource in cancer investigations. Individualized cancer care based on specific gene profiles is on the horizon for patients with gastrointestinal cancers.
    Current Opinion in Oncology 08/2006; 18(4):374-80. · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    James M McLoughlin, Eric H Jensen, Mokenge Malafa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metastases to the liver is the leading cause of death in patients with colorectal cancer. The authors review the data on diagnosis and management of this clinical problem, and they discuss management options that can be considered. Complete surgical resection of metastases from colorectal cancer that are localized to the liver results in 5-year survival rates ranging from 26% to 40%. By adding modalities such as targeted systemic therapy and other "local" treatments for liver metastases, further gains in survival are anticipated.
    Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center 02/2006; 13(1):32-41. · 3.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

199 Citations
57.69 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2013
    • Moffitt Cancer Center
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 2010
    • New York University
      • Department of Surgery
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • Georgia Health Sciences University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Section of Surgical Oncology
      Augusta, Georgia, United States