Jung Eun Lee

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

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Publications (352)1007.45 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Slow graft function (SGF) can influence overall prognosis in patients receiving deceased donor kidney transplantation (DKT). However, the impact of SGF on renal function remains uncertain. We investigated retrospectively renal function in cases with SGF compared with early graft function (EGF) and delayed graft function (DGF). Methods: Renal function after transplantation was analyzed in 199 patients who underwent DKT. Patients were classified into 130 (65.3 %) cases with EGF, 27 (13.6 %) cases with SGF, 6 (3.0 %) cases with DGF and one dialysis (DGF1), and 36 (18.1 %) cases with DGF and two or more dialyses (DGF2). Results: The 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the SGF group was lower than that in the EGF group (P = 0.027), but the rate of eGFR decline did not differ between the groups. The risk factors for renal function were evaluated using the area under the eGFR curve over 3 years (AUCeGFR). Donor age was negatively, and recipient age and the number of HLA matches were positively correlated with the AUCeGFR (all P < 0.05). A multivariate analysis revealed that the AUCeGFR was lower in cases of younger recipient age, older donor age, and acute rejection (all P < 0.05). The AUCeGFR was significantly lower in the SGF and DGF2 groups compared with the EGF group (P = 0.031 and 0.006, respectively). Conclusions: SGF may be an independent risk factor for poor renal function after DKT. Moreover, it was comparable to DGF. Efforts should be dedicated to minimizing the development of SGF and DGF.
    International Urology and Nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11255-015-1163-1 · 1.52 Impact Factor

  • Critical care medicine 11/2015; 43(12 Suppl 1):244. DOI:10.1097/01.ccm.0000474798.79496.60 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of the reverse attenuation gradient sign in occlusive lower extremity arterial disease through CT angiography (CTA). Materials and methods: This study sample enrolled 45 men and eight women in the chronic total occlusion group and 30 men and seven women in the subtotal occlusion group. Luminal CT attenuation (in Hounsfield units) was measured at three points from the end of the occlusion site to the first collateral vessel's insertion point. We also used Hounsfield units to measure the CT attenuation of the opposite side artery at the same level in a similar manner. We compared each value using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The absolute value of the mean differences in the Hounsfield units among the proximal, middle, and distal portion of chronic total occlusions were higher than those of subtotal occlusions, and this result was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The mean ratios of the Hounsfield units (Hounsfield units of the stenosed lumen divided by Hounsfield units of the opposite normal lumen) of the proximal portion of chronic total occlusions were statistically significantly lower than those of subtotal occlusions. Conclusion: The reverse attenuation gradient sign can be applied to the lower extremity arteries and can be helpful for differential diagnosis of chronic total occlusions from subtotal occlusions using CTA.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 10/2015; 205(5):W550-W555. DOI:10.2214/AJR.14.14251 · 2.73 Impact Factor

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    ABSTRACT: We report on dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid (HA-D), a mussel-inspired facile capping material that can modify tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles to be both biocompatible and targetable, allowing precise delivery (WO3-HA) to a tumor site. Near infrared (NIR) irradiated WO3-HA showed a rapid and substantial rise in photothermal heat to complete in vitro thermolysis of malignant MDAMB and A549 cancer cells, however was found to be relatively less sensitive to normal MDCK cells. A long-term in vivo investigation of ~10 nm HA thickness on WO3 (WO3-HA) nanoparticles demonstrated efficient photo-thermal conversion with time dependent tumor target accumulation. This long term in vivo survival study of WO3-HA showed promising biocompatibility, with a complete recovery from malignant tumor. Due to the importance of keeping simplicity in the design of therapeutic nanoparticles, we therefore expect that this facile scheme (HA-D) would contribute to the biocompatible development of versatile metallic nanoparticles for photothermal applications.
    Journal of Controlled Release 09/2015; 217. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.09.010 · 7.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association of egg consumption with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the association between egg consumption and prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Cross-sectional study of 23,417 asymptomatic adult men and women without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypercholesterolemia, who underwent a health screening examination including cardiac computed tomography for CAC scoring and completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea (March 2011-April 2013). The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score > 0) was 11.2%. In multivariable-adjusted models, CAC score ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing participants eating ≥ 7 eggs/wk to those eating < 1 egg/wk was 1.80 (1.14-2.83; P for trend = 0.003). The multivariable CAC score ratio (95% CI) associated with an increase in consumption of 1 egg/day was 1.54 (1.11-2.14). The positive association seemed to be more pronounced among participants with low vegetable intake (P for interaction = 0.02) and those with high BMI (P for interaction = 0.05). The association was attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for dietary cholesterol. Egg consumption was associated with an increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and with a greater degree of coronary calcification in asymptomatic Korean adults, which may be mediated by dietary cholesterol. The association was particularly pronounced among individuals with low vegetable intake and those with high BMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 08/2015; 241(2). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.036 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The number of elderly people on dialysis is increasing rapidly. Fluid overload and malnutrition status are serious problems in elderly dialysis patients. We aimed to compare the hydration and nutritional status through bioimpedance analysis (BIA) between young and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients and to analyze risk factors related to fluid overload and malnutrition status in these patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which 82 HD (males 42, mean age 58.7±12.9 years) patients were enrolled. We collected different types of data: laboratory data, such as serum creatinine, albumin, total iron-binding capacity, hemoglobin, total cholesterol; anthropometric data, such as hand grip strength (HGS); BIA data, such as intracellular water, skeletal muscle mass, body cell mass, bone mineral content, phase angle (PhA), extra cellular water (ECW)/total body water (TBW) ratio; and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), which is a traditional nutritional parameter for dialysis patients. All patients were stratified into two groups according to their age: young (<65 years [n=54]) and elderly (≥65 years [n=28]). Total iron-binding capacity and HGS were significantly lower in elderly HD patients than in young HD patients (198.9±35.6 vs 221.4±52.1 mcg/dL; and 22.4±10.3 vs 36.4±23.2 kg, respectively) (P<0.05). Also, intracellular water and PhA measured by BIA were significantly lower (18.3±4.0 vs 20.3±4.2 L [P=0.043]; and 4.0±1.0 vs 4.9±1.2° [P=0.002], respectively), and ECW/TBW were higher in elderly HD patients (0.40±0.01 vs 0.39±0.01 [P=0.001]). ECW/TBW was positively associated with age (P<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (P<0.001) and was negatively associated with sex (P=0.001), albumin (P<0.001), urine volume (P=0.042), HGS (P<0.001), and PhA by BIA (P<0.001). MIS was negatively related to sex (P=0.001), albumin (P<0.001), HGS (P=0.001), and PhA (P<0.001) in HD patients. On multivariate analysis, older age (P=0.031), the presence of diabetes (P=0.035), and decreased PhA (P<0.001) were independent risk factors for increased ECW/TBW, representative of fluid overload status, whereas only decreased PhA (P=0.008) was a significant factor for MIS, representative of malnutrition status in these HD patients. We found that fluid overload and malnutrition status were more common in elderly HD patients compared with young HD patients. PhA was a significant independent factor in fluid overload status and malnutrition in these HD patients. Thus, our results indicated that PhA assessed by BIA might be a clinically useful method for assessing nutritional and hydration status in elderly HD patients.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 08/2015; 10:1327-34. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S86229 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although brain metastasis is a rare complication of gastric cancer, no standard therapy for gastric cancer brain metastasis has been established. We attempted to identify biological markers that predict brain metastasis, and investigated how to modulate such markers. A case-control study of patients newly diagnosed with gastric cancer who had developed brain metastasis during follow-up, was conducted. These patients were compared with patients who had advanced gastric cancer but no evidence of brain metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, MSS1, claudin-3, claudin-4, Glut1, clusterin, ITGB4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p53. The expression of VEGF tended to be higher in the case group (33.3 vs. 0%, p=0.055). Median survival was significantly correlated with vascular invasion (12 vs. 33 months, p=0.008) and N-cadherin expression (36 vs. 12 months, p=0.027). We also investigated the effects of metformin in tumor-bearing mouse models. VEGF expression was decreased and E-cadherin increased in the metformin‑treated group when compared with the control group. The expression of the mesenchymal marker MMP9 was decreased in the metformin-treated group. Brain metastasis of advanced gastric cancer was associated with the expression of VEGF. Metformin treatment may be useful for modulating the metastatic capacity by reducing VEGF expression and blocking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
    Oncology Reports 08/2015; 34(4). DOI:10.3892/or.2015.4191 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    Yoon Ji Choi · Young Ha Kim · Chang Ho Cho · Sung Hi Kim · Jung Eun Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and colorectal adenoma in a case-control study and a meta-analysis. We conducted a matched case-control study (112 cases and 112 matched controls) and combined 15 studies, including our study, in a meta-analysis. The study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. In total, 5454 colorectal adenomas and 6656 controls were included in the meta-analysis. In a meta-analysis including 14 previous studies and our study, we observed a significant inverse association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and colorectal adenoma (OR = 0.68; 95%CI: 0.54-0.82) when comparing the highest category with the lowest category. Stratification by adenoma location (proximal or distal adenoma) showed similar estimates. When we stratified by study region, the ORs (95%CIs) were 0.70 (0.52-0.88) in the US and 0.66 (0.34-0.97) in Asia. These data suggest an inverse association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and colorectal adenoma in both Western and Asian populations.
    08/2015; 21(29):8868-77. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i29.8868
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    ABSTRACT: Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    American journal of epidemiology 08/2015; 182(5). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwv089 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Warfarin skin necrosis is an infrequent complication of warfarin treatment, and is characterized by painful ulcerative skin lesions that appear a few days after the start of warfarin treatment. Calciphylaxis also appears as painful skin lesions caused by tissue injury resulting from localized ischemia caused by calcification of small- to medium-sized vessels in patients with end-stage renal disease. We report on a patient who presented with painful skin ulcers on the lower extremities after administration of warfarin following a valve operation. Calciphylaxis was considered first because of the host factors; eventually, the skin lesions were diagnosed as warfarin skin necrosis by biopsy. The skin lesions improved after warfarin discontinuation and short-term steroid therapy. Most patients with end-stage renal disease have some form of cardiovascular disease, and some require temporary or continual warfarin treatment. It is important to differentiate between warfarin skin necrosis and calciphylaxis in patients with painful skin lesions.
    08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.krcp.2015.07.003
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    ABSTRACT: We have synthesized a pH-dependent, NIR-sensitive, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid nano-composite via electrostatic interaction with indocyanine green (ICG) which is designed not only to destroy localized cancer cells but also be minimally invasive to surrounding normal cells. The near-infrared (NIR) irradiated hybrid nano-composites showed pH dependent photo-thermal heat generation capability from pH 5.0 to 7.4 due to the pH response relief and quenching effects of poly(2-dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate) [poly(PDMAEMA)] with ICG on a single rGO sheet. This pH-triggered relief and quenching mechanism regulated in vitro photo-thermolysis as the pH changed from 5.0 to 7.4. The in vitro cellular uptake and confocal laser scan microscopic (CLSM) images at different pH values show promise for environment sensitive bio-imaging. The NIR-absorbing hybrid nanomaterials showed a remarkably improved in vitro cancer cell targeted photothermal destruction compared to free ICG. Upon local NIR irradiation, these hybrid nano-composites-treated tumors showed necrotic, shrunken, ablation of malignant cells and totally healed after 18 days treatment. Our finding regarding the acidic pH stimulus of cancer cellular environment has proven to be a wining platform for the fight against cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Biomaterials 08/2015; 61:229-238. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.05.040 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Jung Eun Lee · Nayeon Kim · Hans-Olov Adami · Per Lindblad ·

    Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):883-883. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-883 · 9.33 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):3738-3738. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-3738 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer drug, but its use is limited due to the adverse effect by inducing the irreversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Cilostazol (Cilo), a potent phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect. Here, we investigated whether Cilo has a protective effect on Dox-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC). The mice were randomly divided into four groups: saline-control, Dox (15mg/kg), Dox (15mg/kg) plus Cilo (50mg/kg), and Cilo (50mg/kg). As results, the co-administration of Dox and Cilo significantly enhanced the left ventricular systolic function compared with Dox alone. In addition, Cilo treatment significantly reduced the Dox-induced perivascular fibrosis, collagen concentration, and connective growth factor expression in the hearts. Also, Cilo administration markedly reduced Dox-induced levels of serum B-type natriuretic peptide, dysferlin, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-κB p65, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, Cilo treatment significantly reduced the Dox-induced oxidative stress by lowering the translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus and the expression of NQO1, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1). Our results suggest that Cilo may be the potential anti-fibrotic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory drug for DIC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2015; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.07.016 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract often becomes involved in patients with systemic amyloidosis. As few GI amyloidosis data have been reported, we describe the clinical features and outcomes of patients with pathologically proven GI amyloidosis. We identified 155 patients diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis between April 1995 and April 2013. Twenty-four patients (15.5%) were diagnosed with GI amyloidosis using associated symptoms, and the diagnoses were confirmed by direct biopsy. Among the 24 patients, 20 (83.3%) had amyloidosis light chain (AL), three (12.5%) had amyloid A, and one (4.2%) had transthyretin-related type amyloidosis. Their median age was 57 years (range, 37 to 72), and 10 patients were female (41.7%). The most common symptoms of GI amyloidosis were diarrhea (11 patients, 45.8%), followed by anorexia (nine patients, 37.5%), weight loss, and nausea and/or vomiting (seven patients, 29.2%). The histologically confirmed GI tract site in AL amyloidosis was the stomach in 11 patients (55.0%), the colon in nine (45.0%), the rectum in seven (35.0%), and the small bowel in one (5.0%). Patients with GI involvement had a greater frequency of organ involvement (p = 0.014). Median overall survival (OS) in patients with GI involvement was shorter (7.95 months; range, 0.3 to 40.54) than in those without GI involvement (15.84 months; range, 0.0 to 114.53; p = 0.069) in a univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for AL amyloidosis revealed that GI involvement was not a significant predictor of OS (p = 0.447). The prognosis of patients with AL amyloidosis and GI involvement was poorer than those without GI involvement, and they presented with more organ involvement and more advanced disease than those without organ involvement.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 07/2015; 30(4):496. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2015.30.4.496 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Successful cellular delivery of synthetic siRNA depends mainly on the capability of a carrier to form a stable complex with siRNA, which can provide efficient protection of the siRNA from enzyme-mediated degradation and improved cellular uptake. However, due to its short length and rigid structure, cellular delivery of siRNA is often not as efficient as that of plasmid DNA using conventional cationic polymer- and lipid-based carriers. Herein, we synthesized a dendritic gold nanoparticle (Au@MC)-based siRNA delivery system, which provides efficient protection of siRNA and improved cellular uptake. The Au@MC can be readily synthesized from a block copolymer micelle template with a dendritic structure. Au@MC can efficiently form a stable complex with the short and rigid siRNA by localizing it in the space between the branches of the Au@MC. The stability and cellular uptake efficiency were significantly influenced by the structural features of Au@MC, such as size, surface charge, and gap width between the branches. A selected Au@MC/siRNA formulation could successfully achieve highly efficient siRNA transfection in the absence and presence of serum proteins without significant cell toxicity, suggesting the formulation as a potential candidate for siRNA-based clinical gene therapy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, The Polymer Society of Korea and Springer Sciene+Business Media Dordrecht.
    Macromolecular Research 07/2015; 23(7):670-677. DOI:10.1007/s13233-015-3091-4 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Advances in immunosuppression after kidney transplantation have decreased the influence of early acute rejection (EAR) on graft survival. Several studies have suggested that late acute rejection (LAR) has a poorer effect on long-term graft survival than EAR. We investigated whether the timing of acute rejection (AR) influences graft survival, and analyzed the risk factors for EAR and LAR. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 709 patients who underwent kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2009 at the Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Patients were divided into three groups: no AR, EAR, and LAR. EAR and LAR were defined as rejection before 1 year and after 1 year, respectively. Differences in graft survival between the three groups and risk factors of graft failure were analyzed. Results: Of the 709 patients, 198 (30%) had biopsy-proven AR [EAR=152 patients (77%); LAR=46 patients (23%)]. A total of 65 transplants were lost. The 5-year graft survival rates were 97%, 89%, and 85% for patients with no AR, EAR, and LAR, respectively. These differences were significant (P<0.001 for both by log-rank test). In time-dependent Cox regression analysis, EAR (hazards ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.90-5.99) and LAR (hazards ratio, 5.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.65-10.69) were significantly related to graft failure. When we set LAR as standard and compared it with EAR, there was no statistical difference between EAR and LAR (P=0.21). Conclusion: AR, regardless of its timing, significantly worsened graft survival. Treatments to reduce the incidence of AR and improve prognosis are needed.
    07/2015; 15(3). DOI:10.1016/j.krcp.2015.06.003
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    ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia without bone metastasis occurs rarely in esophageal cancer. A 75-year-old man was admitted for general weakness and lethargy. Laboratory data showed high serum calcium level (corrected calcium 14.6 mg/dL), low parathyroid hormone level (3.3 pg/mL) and high parathyroid hormone-related peptide level (3.5 pmol/L). Esophagogastroscopy showed a malignant tumor in the esophagus. Histology showed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Bone scan showed no evidence of bone metastasis. Since the patient's calcium levels remained high and mental state did not show improvement despite intravenous fluid therapy, diuretics and intravenous bisphosphonate, hemodialysis was started. After hemodialysis treatment, the serum calcium level subsequently normalized and his mental status improved. Herein, we report a rare case of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a patient with esophageal cancer.
    The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 06/2015; 65(6):361-5. DOI:10.4166/kjg.2015.65.6.361
  • Nam Mi Kang · Yoon Ji Choi · Taisun Hyun · Jung Eun Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal knowledge, positive attitudes and interest toward breastfeeding may improve the sustainability of breastfeeding. This study examined the associations of knowledge, attitudes, and interest toward breastfeeding with the duration of breastfeeding in Korean mothers who used the internet. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 604 Korean mothers who breastfed their babies. Mothers were recruited through the internet and their knowledge, attitudes and interest toward breastfeeding were assessed using a web-based self-administered questionnaire. Geometric means and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Higher knowledge, attitudes, and interest toward breastfeeding were associated with longer duration of breastfeeding in Korean mothers. In particular, mothers who had optimal breastfeeding duration were more likely to be aware of the easiness of breast milk stimulation and breastfeeding, the development of attachment between mother and child, and pleasure from breastfeeding compared to those mothers with shorter duration. The association with optimal breastfeeding duration was more pronounced among mothers who graduated from high school for total attitude scores and total interest scores, compared to mothers who graduated from college or above. The results of this study suggest that it is important to improve maternal knowledge, attitudes, and interest toward breastfeeding in Korean mothers who use the internet as a source of knowledge. Also, the study results imply that the development of strategies to target mothers with relatively low education levels may improve breastfeeding rates.
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 06/2015; 45(3):449-58. DOI:10.4040/jkan.2015.45.3.449 · 0.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,007.45 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
    • Kyung Hee University Medical Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014-2015
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2012-2015
    • National Institute of Environmental Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Chemistry Nano Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2015
    • Kyung Hee University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Applied Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sookmyung Women's University
      • Department of Food and Nutrition
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009-2015
    • Samsung Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Division of Clinical and Epidimiological Research
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • Kyungpook National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008-2015
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2015
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • School of Pharmacy
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Samsung Medical Center
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004-2015
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011-2014
    • Chung-Ang University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      Tsiuentcheou, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea
  • 2010-2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007-2014
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • College of Medicine
      • • College of Nursing
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001-2014
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2013
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Joslin Diabetes Center
      • Section on Genetics and Epidemiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Chonbuk National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012-2013
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000-2013
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Institute of Health and Environment
      • • Department of Public Health
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011-2012
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Chungnam National University
      • Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2010-2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999-2012
    • Inha University
      • • Department of Nursing
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009-2011
    • Sejong University
      • Faculty of Food Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1991-2011
    • Yeungnam University
      • • School of Chemical Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2006-2009
    • University of Ulsan
      • Asan Medical Center
      Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Keimyung University
      • Dongsan Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inje University
      Kŭmhae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2007-2008
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005-2006
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004-2005
    • Hongik University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002-2005
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
      Antō, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2003
    • Hong-ik university
      Missouri, United States