S. Cavalieri

University of Catania, Catania, Sicily, Italy

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Publications (104)77.44 Total impact

  • Salvatore Cavalieri, Ferdinando Chiacchio
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    ABSTRACT: KNXnet/IP communication system allows integration of different KNX networks through IP medium by a particular device called KNXnet/IP Router. Due to the different transmission speeds among KNX networks and the IP medium, a control mechanism to prevent the congestion of KNXnet/IP Routers has been foreseen by the KNXnet/IP standard. In this paper, the authors analyse the performance of the KNXnet/IP congestion control mechanism in terms of its impact on the loss of information exchanged between KNX devices located in different KNX networks. The main goal is to point out suitable configurations of the congestion control mechanism capable, more than others, to limit the loss of information. Performance evaluation has been realised through simulation of a Petri Net model based on Stochastic Activity Network (SAN), capable of implementing the main features of the KNXnet/IP specifications.
    Computer Networks 11/2014; 73:154–172. DOI:10.1016/j.comnet.2014.08.012 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Salvatore Cavalieri, Ferdinando Chiacchio
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    ABSTRACT: OPC UA is the evolution of the well known OPC COM and XML specifications. OPC UA adopts a very complex software infrastructure to realise the communication among industrial applications; furthermore it features many mechanisms realising data exchanges, whose tuning depends on several parameters. The aim of this paper is to deal with the performance evaluation of OPC UA. The main data exchange mechanisms which may influence performance of the client/server communications will be pointed out; then, the analysis of the overhead they introduce will be presented and discussed. Finally, some guidelines about the setting of OPC UA mechanisms will be given on the basis of the results achieved.
    Computer Standards & Interfaces 11/2013; 36(1):165–177. DOI:10.1016/j.csi.2013.06.004 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Generally, interoperability in all the levels of a communication architecture (field, unit, plant and management level) is a feature that cannot be easily satisfied because equipments are based on different technologies and communication protocols. OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) can provide a cohesive, secure and reliable cross platform framework for interoperability, as shown by current literature. This paper deals with the integration of KNX information model with OPC UA.
    Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2013 IEEE 18th Conference on; 01/2013
  • Salvatore Cavalieri
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    ABSTRACT: KNX is a communication standard designed for home and building automation; it has been recently updated by the definition of KNXnet/IP system, which allows integration of different KNX networks through an IP network used as fast backbone. Integration is realised by a particular device called KNXnet/IP Router. Due to the very limited transmission speeds foreseen for the KNX networks, the KNXnet/IP Router may represent a bottleneck in routing telegrams coming from the IP network whose destination is a KNX device located in the relevant KNX network. The aim of the paper is to analyse the effect of congestion of KNXnet/IP Routers on the information flow through an IP backbone between KNX devices attached to different KNX networks; furthermore, the analysis will also point out the impact of the two different policies available inside the KNXnet/IP Router to forward telegrams coming from IP towards the relevant KNX network. Congestion analysis has been carried on by modelling and simulating the KNXnet/IP communication system. The main results of the analysis will be shown and the relevant remarks will be pointed out.
    Computer Standards & Interfaces 03/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.csi.2011.10.005 · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • S. Cavalieri, F. Chiacchio
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    ABSTRACT: KNXnet/IP allows integration of different KNX networks through IP; this is achieved by the use of a particular device called KNXnet/IP Router. Due to the different transmission speeds among KNX network and the IP medium, a flow control mechanism to prevent the congestion of KNXnet/IP Router has been recently foreseen by the standard. In this paper, the authors present some preliminary results about a performance evaluation of the KNXnet/IP flow control mechanism, based on the use of a particular kind of stochastic Petri Nets, called Stochastic Activity Networks (SAN).
    Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on; 01/2012
  • S. Cavalieri, F. Chiacchio
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    ABSTRACT: KNXnet/IP communication system allows integration of different KNX networks through IP by a particular device called KNXnet/IP Router. Due to the different transmission speeds among KNX networks and the IP medium, a flow control mechanism to prevent the congestion of KNXnet/IP Router has been foreseen by the KNX standard. In this paper we analyse the performance of the KNXnet/IP flow control mechanism in congestion condition, through simulation of a model based on Stochastic Activity Networks (SAN), capable to implement all the specifications foreseen by the KNX standard.
    IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society; 01/2012
  • Salvatore Cavalieri
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    ABSTRACT: KNXnet/IP system allows integration of different KNX networks through an IP network, used as fast backbone. Integration is realised by a particular device called KNXnet/IP Router. Due to the very limited transmission speeds foreseen for the KNX networks, the KNXnet/IP router may represent a bottleneck in routing telegrams coming from the IP network whose destination is a KNX device located in the relevant KNX network. The aim of the paper is to analyse the effect of congestion of KNXnet/IP Routers on the information flow between KNX devices attached to different KNX networks through an IP backbone.
  • Salvatore Cavalieri
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: KNXnet/IP system allows integration of different KNX networks through an IP network, used as fast backbone. Integration is realised by a particular device called KNXnet/IP Router. Due to the very limited transmission speeds foreseen for the KNX networks, the KNXnet/IP router may represent a bottleneck in routing telegrams coming from the IP network whose destination is a KNX device located in the relevant KNX network. The aim of the paper is to analyse the effect of congestion of KNXnet/IP Routers on the information flow between KNX devices attached to different KNX networks through an IP backbone.
  • Salvatore Cavalieri
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    ABSTRACT: KNX is an European and International communication standard for home and building automation; it has been recently updated by the definition of KNXnet/IP system, which allows integration of different KNX networks through an IP network used as fast backbone. Integration is realised by a particular device called KNXnet/IP Router. Due to the very limited transmission speeds foreseen for the KNX networks, the KNXnet/IP Router may represent a bottleneck in routing telegrams coming from the IP network whose destination is a KNX device located in the relevant KNX network; congestion in the KNXnet/IP Router may occur when it is unable to forward all or part of the telegrams coming from IP toward the KNX network. The KNXnet/IP specification has defined two forwarding rules the Router can implement. The aim of the paper is to analyse the effect of these two forwarding rules on the congestion of the KNXnet/IP Router. Congestion analysis has been carried on by modelling and simulation of the KNXnet/IP communication system.
  • S. Cavalieri, G. Cutuli
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    ABSTRACT: The widespread use of standard, worldwide and vendor-independent OPC UA specifications in industrial environment introduces many benefits as it allows to keep open the market of the industrial applications. On the other hand, OPC UA adopts a very complex software infrastructure to realise the data exchange between industrial applications and devices (e.g. mainframes, PLC, microcontroller); this complexity may impact on the overall performance of the communication between industrial applications. The aim of this paper is to deal with the performance evaluation of OPC UA, pointing out all the main features which could influence performance in the client/server exchange of information.
    Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2010 IEEE Conference on; 10/2010
  • Salvatore Cavalieri, Giovanni Cutuli, Michele Malgeri
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    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the problem of securing data transmission in home and building networks, discussing a solution to introduce both confidentiality and authentication, based on classical security mechanism and algorithms. To validate the approach the authors applied the proposed techniques to KNX, the European and international standard for home and building automation, which doesn't provide for any security mechanisms.
    Proceedings of 15th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2010, September 13-16, 2010, Bilbao, Spain; 01/2010
  • Salvatore Cavalieri, Giovanni Cutuli, Salvatore Monteleone
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    ABSTRACT: The widespread use of OPC UA specification in client/server data exchange in industrial environment introduces many benefits as it allows to keep open the market of the industrial applications, due to the presence of a standard, worldwide and vendor-independent specification. On the other hand, the use of a software infrastructures (complex in the case of OPC UA) between industrial applications and devices (e.g. mainframes, PLC, microcontroller), may impact on the overall performance of the communication between industrial applications. The aim of this paper is to deal with the performance evaluation of OPC UA, pointing out all the main features which could influence performance in the client/server exchange of information. On the basis of the considerations about performance of OPC UA specification, outlined in the paper as said before, some results of a performance evaluation carried on by the authors will be presented; it will focus on the impact of OPC UA security mechanisms on the relevant performance.
  • S. Cavalieri, G. Cutuli
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    ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the problem of making secure data transmission inside Home and Building Automation environment; here, data exchanged may regard commands to actuators and/or private and secret information. The paper deals with this problem taking into account the KNX communication system, which, at this moment, doesn't foresee any encryption and authentication mechanisms. A solution for data encryption and authentication will be presented and assessed, comparing it with the current state of the art.
    Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09. 35th Annual Conference of IEEE; 12/2009
  • S. Cavalieri, G. Cutuli
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    ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the problem of making secure data transmission inside home and building automation environment; as known, here data exchanged may be critical, as they may regard commands to actuators and/or private and secret information. The need to protect critical data has led to introduce secure transmissions inside communication systems used for home/building automation applications. The paper deals with this problem taking into account the KNX communication system, which, at this moment, doesn't foresee any security and authentication mechanisms. A security and authentication solution will be presented and assessed comparing it with the current state of the art.
    01/2009; DOI:10.1109/INDIN.2009.5195875
  • Salvatore Cavalieri, Giovanni Cutuli
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    ABSTRACT: This proposal is about the real-time requirements of control processes. This proposal also analyzes the capability of the KNX home and building automation standard to meet deterministic access. The paper proposes a solution to give deterministic bus access to the KNX devices. The proposal is based on the Master/Slave configuration network. In this configuration only one node, called Master, manage all the available bandwidth between the other devices, called Slaves. The Master accepts the entire real-time communication requirement from the slaves and once it knows them can start its internal scheduling algorithm in order to distribute the available bandwidth to the slaves. A key point of the proposed approach is that itpsilas full compliance with the KNX standard.
  • Salvatore Cavalieri
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    ABSTRACT: Location detection is a very important issue in a wireless environment, allowing realisation of several useful services linked to the knowledge of the position of a mobile user (e.g. path optimisation, management of field crew in a large plant, providing a mobile robot with autonomous capabilities). Literature presents many approaches for location detection of a mobile device in a WLAN. One of these is based on the use of a pattern matching algorithm which provides for the position of the mobile device given the Radio Signal Strength (RSS) values received by it. Generally, localisation in WLAN environment is limited to indoor scenarios. Although GPS is commonly used for outdoor location detection, localisation in a WLAN communication infrastructure may be realised also for outdoor areas. The main advantage is a save in the hardware needed for the localisation, as it only requires the use of the WLAN communication card; further, the current limits of GPS, which may introduce not negligible errors in outdoor location detection, encourages the investigation of other techniques for outdoor localisation. On account of what said, the first aim of the paper is to investigate the feasibility of outdoor localisation of a mobile device in a WLAN environment; an IEEE 802.11b-based WLAN will be considered. Outdoor localisation has been realised using a pattern matching algorithm and the relevant performance, measured in terms of location errors, has been evaluated and compared with that commonly provided for by a GPS device. Then the paper will present a proposal for localisation, aimed to reduce the complexity typically featured by the pattern matching algorithm based approach when used for wide areas; the proposal is based on the use of a signal propagation model able to predict the RSS values available in each position of a IEEE 802.11b WLAN. Performance of the novel approach has been evaluated for outdoor localisation and the main results achieved will be shown in the paper. Finally, use of a Kalman filter for the location detection, will be presented in order to improve the performance of the pattern matching algorithm, making this technique very attractive for outdoor use.
    International Journal of Wireless Information Networks 11/2007; 14:265-279. DOI:10.1007/s10776-007-0067-0
  • S. Cavalieri
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    ABSTRACT: Use of pattern matching algorithm for location detection in a wireless LAN is well known in literature. It allows to achieve good performances in terms of localisation errors, but it may require a very long and time-consuming start-up phase, during which a set of measurements of the radio signal strength values received in different positions inside the area involved in the localisation, must be taken. The complexity of this procedure increases with the size of the area involved in the localisation; this clearly happens for large outdoor areas, where a huge set of measurements must be taken during the start-up phase. The paper aims to present an approach for localisation in outdoor areas covered by a wireless network; this approach is still based on the use of pattern matching algorithm, but use of a signal propagation model during the start-up phase has been introduced in order to reduce its complexity. Performances of the proposal have been evaluated for outdoor localisation and the main results achieved will be shown in the paper
    Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2006. ETFA '06. IEEE Conference on; 10/2006
  • Salvatore Cavalieri
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    ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the scheduling of information flow in a CAN ISO IS-11898 communication system. It mainly features a bus access arbitration protocol based on a priority assigned to each message to be transmitted; if two or more messages are transmitted at the same time by different communication nodes, only the message with the highest priority continues to be transmitted, the other being stopped. In real-time applications, messages contain information which must be transmitted within strict time constraints; according to the CAN ISO IS-11898 bus arbitration protocol, respect of real-time constraints of time critical information depends on the priority assigned to the message conveying it. The aim of the paper is to propose a procedure for dynamic assignment of priorities to messages to be transmitted, in such a way the real-time requirements of the information conveyed are fulfillled. Although many other approaches can be found in literature, the proposal is original as It is based on standard full CAN communication stacks.
    Computer Standards & Interfaces 06/2006; 28(5):531-552. DOI:10.1016/j.csi.2005.03.001 · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • S. Cavalieri, A. Di Stefano, O. Mirabella
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of the Packet Switching Networks, the main need is to optimize the paths connecting the source and the destination. In this paper the authors deal with the problem of routing by means of a neural approach. This is based on the assumption that each switching node is made up by a Hopfield network which is capable to determine the optimal path which connects the local node with a generic node in the packet switching network. On this basis, the suitable output link on which each incoming packet must be routed is chosen.
    01/2006: pages 583-592;
  • Salvatore Cavalieri
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    ABSTRACT: IEEE 802.11b standard, also known as Wi-Fi, is one of the most used wireless communication system. Location of a mobile device using IEEE 802.11b communication infrastructure has a lot of advantages, first of all the use of the same hardware/software needed by the mobile device to communicate. Literature presents many approaches for localisation based on Wi-Fi; one of the most known features the use of the pattern-matching algorithm. Localisation based on pattern-matching algorithm is mainly realised in indoor environment; outdoor localisations based on Wi-Fi and pattern matching algorithm is currently missing in literature. For this reason, one of the aims of the paper is to present and evaluate outdoor use of this algorithm based on IEEE 802.11b communication system. Further, the paper present a novel approach for localisation, aimed to reduce the complexity of the pattern-matching algorithm. Performance evaluations were presented in the paper in order to clearly assess the outdoor localisation errors achievable when using the proposed approach