[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a central participant in the base excision repair pathway, exhibiting AP endonuclease activity that incises the DNA backbone 5' to an abasic site. Besides its prominent role as a DNA repair enzyme, APE1 was separately identified as a protein called redox effector factor 1, which is able to enhance the DNA binding activity of several transcription factors through a thiol-exchange-based reduction-oxidation mechanism. In the present study, we found that human APE1 is S-glutathionylated under conditions of oxidative stress both in the presence of glutathione in vitro and in cells. S-glutathionylated APE1 displayed significantly reduced AP endonuclease activity on abasic-site-containing oligonucleotide substrates, a result stemming from impaired DNA binding capacity. The combination of site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical assays, and mass spectrometric analysis identified Cys99 in human APE1 as the critical residue for the S-glutathionylation that leads to reduced AP endonuclease activity. This modification is reversible by reducing agents, which restore APE1 incision function. Our studies describe a novel posttranslational modification of APE1 that regulates the DNA repair function of the protein.
Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2011; 414(3):313-26. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Base excision repair (BER) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which could be considered the "workhorse" repair mechanism of the cell. In particular, BER corrects most forms of spontaneous hydrolytic decay products in DNA, as well as everyday oxidative and alkylative modifications to bases or the sugar phosphate backbone. The repair response involves five key enzymatic steps that aim to remove the initial DNA lesion and restore the genetic material back to its original state: (i) excision of a damaged or inappropriate base, (ii) incision of the phosphodiester backbone at the resulting abasic site, (iii) termini clean-up to permit unabated repair synthesis and/or nick ligation, (iv) gap-filling to replace the excised nucleotide, and (v) sealing of the final, remaining DNA nick. These repair steps are executed by a collection of enzymes that include DNA glycosylases, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases, phosphatases, phosphodiesterases, kinases, polymerases and ligases. Defects in BER components lead to reduced cell survival, elevated mutation rates, and DNA-damaging agent hypersensitivities. In addition, the pathway plays a significant role in determining cellular responsiveness to relevant clinical anti-cancer agents, such as alkylators (e.g. temozolomide), nucleoside analogs (e.g. 5-fluorouracil), and ionizing radiation. The molecular details of BER and the contribution of the pathway to therapeutic agent resistance are reviewed herein.
Current Molecular Pharmacology 11/2011; 5(1):3-13.