Daniel S. Whitman

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (14)28.78 Total impact

  • Source
    Jeremy M. Beus, Daniel S. Whitman
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    ABSTRACT: Across cultures, the idea of money has dual positive and negative connotations. Consistent with this notion of duality, money-priming theory posits that the salience of money makes individuals work harder for themselves while also reducing the concern they have for others. Although research has tended to support these expectations, it has almost exclusively done so using between-persons designs in controlled lab settings. To address these limitations in the literature, we used a within-persons design in two work settings to test individual behavior change as a function of the salience of money. We did so using two samples of professional athletes and tested the extent to which priming individual pay affected both self-serving and cooperative behaviors. We operationalized the money prime in these samples as the final year of individuals’ employment contracts—a time when money is made particularly salient relative to surrounding years. Consistent with money-priming theory, within-persons analyses using a sample of basketball players from the National Basketball Association revealed that self-serving behaviors significantly increased in the final contract year relative to surrounding years. However, we did not find that cooperative behaviors decreased during the final contract year. This pattern of results was replicated using a sample of professional hockey players in the National Hockey League. These findings cumulatively suggest that although the salience of money is associated with increases in self-serving behaviors, it is not adversely associated with cooperation or team success.
    Journal of Management 01/2015; DOI:10.1177/0149206314565241 · 6.86 Impact Factor
  • Daniel S. Whitman, Eyran Kraus, David L. Van Rooy
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    ABSTRACT: The present work examines applicant reactions to a test of emotional intelligence (EI) using an organizational sample of 334 job applicants. Results indicated that Blacks had higher face validity and opportunity to perform perceptions of EI than Whites, but that Whites performed significantly better than Blacks on the EI test. Although exploratory analyses revealed that test performance was positively related to test reactions, we also found that the magnitude of this relationship differed between Blacks and Whites for opportunity to perform perceptions. We discuss our findings by offering practical advice for organizations considering or using a measure of EI for selection and assessment.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment 06/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/ijsa.12069 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examines the incremental validity of Honesty–Humility (H-H), a measure of the tendency to be fair and genuine in dealing with others, for supervisory ratings of job performance (including both task and contextual performance) over cognitive ability and the Big Five personality traits. Specifically, we explore the incremental validity of H-H in predicting contextual performance. Results based on 217 South Korean military officer candidates are consistent with previous conclu- sions that Conscientiousness is the strongest predictor of contextual performance and that cognitive ability is the strongest predictor of task performance. More important, our results reveal that H-H offers moderate incremental validity for contextual performance but no incremental validity for task performance over the effects of cognitive ability and the Big Five personality traits.
    Human Performance 01/2014; 27:206–224. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examines the incremental validity of Honesty-Humility (H-H), a measure of the tendency to be fair and genuine in dealing with others, for supervisory ratings of job performance (including both task and contextual performance) over cognitive ability and the Big Five personality traits. Specifically, we explore the incremental validity of H-H in predicting contextual performance. Results based on 217 South Korean military officer candidates are consistent with previous conclusions that Conscientiousness is the strongest predictor of contextual performance and that cognitive ability is the strongest predictor of task performance. More importantly, our results reveal that H-H offers moderate incremental validity for contextual performance but no incremental validity for task performance over the effects of cognitive ability and the Big Five personality traits.
    Human Performance 08/2013; 27(3). DOI:10.1080/08959285.2014.913594 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article uses meta-analytic methods (k = 38) to examine the relationship between organizational justice climate and unit-level effectiveness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between justice and effectiveness is significant (ρ = .40) when both constructs are construed at the collective level. Our results also indicate that distributive justice climate was most strongly linked with unit-level performance (e.g., productivity, customer satisfaction), whereas interactional justice was most strongly related to unit-level processes (e.g., organizational citizenship behavior, cohesion). We also show that a number of factors moderate this relationship, including justice climate strength, the level of referent in the justice measure, the hierarchical level of the unit, and how criteria are classified. We elaborate on these findings and attempt to provide a clearer direction for future research in this area.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 04/2012; 97(4):776-91. DOI:10.1037/a0028021 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using personality data collected from employees, objective credit scores obtained from the Fair Isaac Corporation, and performance data provided by supervisors, we found conscientiousness to be positively related and agreeableness to be negatively related to credit scores. Results also indicate significant relationships between credit scores and task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Credit scores did not, however, predict workplace deviance. Implications for organizations currently using or planning to use credit scores as part of the screening process are discussed.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 10/2011; 97(2):469-78. DOI:10.1037/a0026055 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we emphasize that measuring workforce attitudes is a business imperative—including during an economic downturn or crisis. After reviewing the concept of employee engagement we draw upon recent real-world examples and data across a variety of organizations and argue for the business value of an engaged workforce. We offer practical applications for HR managers, including providing guidance on the types of questions that should be asked in an employee survey and focusing on those that result in the most actionable feedback. We conclude the paper by laying out an agenda for future research aimed at helping bridge the academic-practitioner divide. KeywordsEngagement–Job satisfaction–Employee survey–Economic downturn–Financial performance
    Journal of Business and Psychology 06/2011; 26(2):147-152. DOI:10.1007/s10869-011-9225-6 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This meta-analysis of 103 independent samples provides a comparative evaluation of the relationships associated with four emergent proactive constructs including proactive personality, personal initiative, voice, and taking charge. This study investigates comparative relationships among these focal proactive constructs and key organizational variables (i.e., job performance), personality traits (i.e., the Big Five), and individual variables (i.e., work experience). Results reveal significant correlations between proactivity and performance, satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, and social networking. Results also provide evidence that differentiates focal proactive constructs from the Big Five as well as individual differences in work experience, age, and general mental ability. Current progress towards a more integrative understanding of proactivity research is discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology is the property of British Psychological Society and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
    06/2010; 83(2-2):275-300. DOI:10.1348/096317910X502359
  • Industrial and Organizational Psychology 06/2010; 3(2):149-153. DOI:10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01216.x · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper offers theoretical development clarifying the structure and function of collective job satisfaction and uses meta-analytic methods (k = 73) to examine the satisfaction–performance relationship when both constructs are construed at the work unit level. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between unit-level job satisfaction and unit-level performance is significant (ρ= .34). Specifically, significant relationships were found between unit-level job satisfaction and unit-level criteria, including productivity, customer satisfaction, withdrawal, and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Furthermore, the satisfaction-performance relationship was moderated by the strength of unit consensus, performance criteria, industry type, and whether the sample was U.S. based. Although these moderators were identified, collective satisfaction positively predicted performance across all levels of moderators. In addition, results indicate that unit-level OCB has a moderately strong relationship with unit-level performance. Only limited support was found for the notion that OCB is a route through which satisfaction has an impact on performance. We elaborate on these findings and attempt to provide a more clear direction for future research in this area.
    Personnel Psychology 02/2010; 63(1):41 - 81. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2009.01162.x · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the measurement equivalence of a second-order factor model of emotional intelligence (EI). Using scores for 921 job applicants obtained during a personnel selection process, measurement equivalence of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) was tested across ethnic (Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics) and gender groups. Results (a) supported the four-dimension, second-order factor structure of EI and (b) indicated that scores on the WLEIS are comparable across gender and ethnic groups. Findings are discussed in the context of applied and research-based relevance.
    Educational and Psychological Measurement 11/2009; 69(6):1059-1074. DOI:10.1177/0013164409344498 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports on an examination of the relationships between chief executive officer (CEO) personality, transformational and transactional leadership, and multiple strategic outcomes in a sample of 75 CEOs of Major League Baseball organizations over a 100-year period. CEO bright-side personality characteristics (core self-evaluations) were positively related to transformational leadership, whereas dark-side personality characteristics (narcissism) of CEOs were negatively related to contingent reward leadership. In turn, CEO transformational and contingent reward leadership were related to 4 different strategic outcomes, including manager turnover, team winning percentage, fan attendance, and an independent rating of influence. CEO transformational leadership was positively related to ratings of influence, team winning percentage, and fan attendance, whereas contingent reward leadership was negatively related to manager turnover and ratings of influence.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 11/2009; 94(6):1365-81. DOI:10.1037/a0016238 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study used a Solomon four-group design to investigate the fakability of a widely used measure of emotional intelligence (EI). Administration instructions (faking/honest-response) and testing effects (pre-test/no pre-test) were the two conditions (i.e., 2 x 2) examined; two different Solomon four-group designs – one for fake-good instructional treatments and one for fake-bad instructional treatments – were assessed. Participants (n = 300) were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions and results indicate a significant pre-testing effect for fake-bad but not fake-good instructions. However, the interaction of testing and treatment was only significant for fake-good but not fake-bad. As expected, within-subjects designs resulted in higher distortion than between-subjects designs for both fake-good (d-value of 1.08 compared to 0.10) and fake-bad instructions (4.07 vs. 3.56, respectively). Participants were able to fake-bad more than fake-good, irrespective of the design used and scaling effects. Implications for EI assessments are discussed.
  • Source
    Daniel S Whitman
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    ABSTRACT: The present study – employing psychometric meta-analysis of 92 independent studies with sample sizes ranging from 26 to 322 leaders – examined the relationship between EI and leadership effectiveness. Overall, the results supported a linkage between leader EI and effectiveness that was moderate in nature (ρ = .25). In addition, the positive manifold of the effect sizes presented in this study, ranging from .10 to .44, indicate that emotional intelligence has meaningful relations with myriad leadership outcomes including effectiveness, transformational leadership, LMX, follower job satisfaction, and others. Furthermore, this paper examined potential process mechanisms that may account for the EI-leadership effectiveness relationship and showed that both transformational leadership and LMX partially mediate this relationship. However, while the predictive validities of EI were moderate in nature, path analysis and hierarchical regression suggests that EI contributes less than or equal to 1% of explained variance in leadership effectiveness once personality and intelligence are accounted for.

Publication Stats

219 Citations
28.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Louisiana State University
      • Rucks Department of Management
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Texas at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Bridgeport
      Bridgeport, Connecticut, United States
    • Florida International University
      • Department of Psychology
      Miami, Florida, United States