[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) aggrecan, versican, and brevican are large aggregating extracellular matrix molecules that inhibit axonal growth of the mature central nervous system (CNS). ADAMTS proteoglycanases, including ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5, degrade CSPGs, representing potential targets for ameliorating axonal growth-inhibition by CSPG accumulation after CNS injury. We investigated the proteolysis of CSPGs in mice homozygous for Adamts4 or Adamts5 null alleles after spinal cord injury (SCI). ADAMTS-derived 50-60 kDa aggrecan and 50 kDa brevican fragments were observed in Adamts4-/-, Adamts5-/-, and wt mice but not in the sham-operated group. By contrast Adamts4-/- and Adamts5-/- mice were both protected from versican proteolysis with an ADAMTS-generated 70 kDa versican fragment predominately observed in WT mice. ADAMTS1, ADAMTS9, and ADAMTS15 were detected by Western blot in Adamts4-/- mice' spinal cords after SCI. Immunohistochemistry showed astrocyte accumulation at the injury site. These data indicate that aggrecan and brevican proteolysis is compensated in Adamts4-/- or Adamts5-/- mice by ADAMTS proteoglycanase family members but a threshold of versican proteolysis is sensitive to the loss of a single ADAMTS proteoglycanase during SCI. We show robust ADAMTS activity after SCI and exemplify the requirement for collective proteolysis for effective CSPG clearance during SCI.
BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:693746. DOI:10.1155/2014/693746 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The probiotics are very important for aquaculture because of their role in enhancing the fish health status, improving disease resistance, growth performance, and body composition, reducing malformations, improving gut morphology and the overall microbial balance. The objective of the presently reported study was to investigate effects of kefir as a probiotic product on the digestive and hepatic enzyme activities, as well as glucose level of Coruh trout, Salmo coruhensis Turan, Kottelat et Engin, 2010. The experiment was performed with four treatments: control group (no kefir), D1, D2, and D3 (kefir-supplemented diet: 10, 20, and 40 g . kg(-1) fish body mass, respectively). The activity of: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotranferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipase, amylase-as well as the glucose levels were determined after 4 months. The results indicated that glucose levels (P < 0.05) and digestive enzymes (lipase and amylase) in the blood serum decreased in fish fed diets containing kefir (P > 0.05). On the contrary, the activity of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and LDH) increased insignificantly (P > 0.05). In conclusion, digestive and liver enzyme activities were affected by quantitative changes in dietary kefir insignificantly but further research is needed to establish whether the liver and digestive enzyme physiology of Coruh trout can be affected by kefir-supplemented diets in a long-term trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease of the lung associated with progressive airflow limitation. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of tiotropium treatment on airway inflammation and symptoms in stable COPD patients.
Inflammatory markers were measured in the expired breath condensate fluid (EBC) before starting tiotropium treatment and at the end of the first month.
Twenty-two patients (81% men) with a mean age of 65.4 ± 10.1 years completed the study. The mean nitrotyrosine and 8-isoprostane levels for oxidative stress markers in EBC before and after treatment were 4.5 ± 2.3, 3.5 ± 1.9 pg/mL (P = 0.06) and 7.3 ± 10.8, 8.1 ± 11.7 pg/mL (P = 0.28), respectively. The mean interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels for inflammation markers in EBC before and after treatment were 1.03 ± 1.1, 0.77 ± 0.8 pg/mL (P = 0.41) and 27.8 ± 2.6, 29.2 ± 5.7 pg/mL (P = 0.36) respectively. The mean symptom scores decreased significantly with tiotropium and a mean increase of 124.6 ± 0.86 mL was observed in a lung function test (FEV1).
Although a 4-week treatment with tiotropium did not modify any of the inflammatory or oxidative stress markers in EBC fluid, tiotropium treatment helps to control symptoms in COPD.
Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 01/2014; 44(5):804-808. DOI:10.3906/sag-1303-138 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of both asthma and obesity are major health problems. Recent studies established a possible link between obesity and asthma; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal subjects with asthma and search the interactions between adipokines, metabolic syndrome, and asthma. A total of 45 female patients (57.5 ± 13.9 years) with asthma and 30 healthy subjects (59.6 ± 12.8 years) in postmenopausal status were enrolled in this study. For the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, modified World Health Organization diagnostic criteria were used. Blood levels of glucose, lipid profile, HbA1c, insulin, CRP, leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. The mean body mass index was 29.6 ± 5.4 for asthma patients and 28.2 ± 5.3 for the control group. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was found as 26 % for both groups. Insulin resistance as calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in asthma patients (p < 0.001 for both parameters). Leptin levels were significantly higher (p = 0.001) and adiponectin levels were lower (p = 0.029) in asthma patients compared to controls. We concluded that although incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome was not higher in postmenopausal asthma patients than controls, there was an impairment of glucose metabolism and altered adipokine levels in asthma patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer prevention and treatment strategies have attracted increasing interest. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis extract, specifically inhibits NF-κB at μM concentrations and shows ability to stop 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Previous studies have demonstrated that CAPE exhibits antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and, most improtantly, antineoplastic properties. The primary goal of the present review is to summarize and critically evaluate the current knowledge regarding the anticancer effect of CAPE in different cancer types.
Nutrition and Cancer 05/2013; 65(4):515-26. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2013.776693 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ADAMTS (adisintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) proteinases are involved in a variety of biological processes such as angiogenesis, cancer and arthritis. ADAMTSs appears to be responsible for the cleavage of proteoglycans in several tissues including brain and cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) maintains the integrity of the brain extracellular matrix and major inhibitory contributors for glial scar and neural plasticity. The activity of aggrecanases in the central nervous system (CNS) has been reported. ADAMTSs are an enzyme degrading CSPGs in the brain. However, there is a little knowledge regarding ADAMTSs in the CNS. We investigated the expression levels of ADAMTSs mRNAs by RT-PCR after spinal cord injury in mouse. Transcripts encoding 4 of the 19 known ADAMTSs were evaluated in the mouse spinal cord following injury. ADAMTS1, -5 and -9 expression levels were found to be upregulated. No change was observed in ADAMTS4 expression. By means of immunohistochemistry, ADAMTSs were detected in the astrocytes implying its cellular source in SCI. Western blot analyses indicated that aggrecanase-generated proteoglycan fragments are produced after SCI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate serum levels of ghrelin in pregnant women as a potential early marker for hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Fatih University Hospital. Included in the study were 35 women with HG and 31 pregnant women without HG as a control group. The groups were compared in terms of age, gravidity, body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and ghrelin levels. Results: Ghrelin levels of the patients with HG were found to be significantly lower than those in the control group (P = 0.03). No intergroup differences could be found in serum TSH or BMI values. Conclusion: Ghrelin might serve as a reliable marker in the etiopathogenesis of HG.
Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 01/2013; 43(5):790-794. DOI:10.3906/sag-1209-9 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Behcet's disease is a relapsing vasculitis characterized by endothelial dysfunction. This study was conducted to determine the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and 2 related parameters, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine levels, in relation to the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease. Materials and methods: A total of 49 Behcet's patients, comprising 26 patients with the active disease and 23 patients with the inactive disease, and a healthy control group of 24 individuals participated in this study. International Study Group Diagnostic Criteria were followed in the diagnosis of Behcet's disease; patients who had at least 2 signs were considered as having the active disease. Results: Serum NO and plasma homocysteine levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with active Behcet's disease compared to patients with inactive Behcet's disease and healthy controls. In active and inactive Behcet's patients, serum ADMA levels were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. No statistically significant difference was found between patients with inactive Behcet's and healthy controls with respect to serum homocysteine levels. Conclusion: The increased serum levels of ADMA presumably cause endothelial dysfunction because of a deficiency in NO production, which also appears to be involved in the vasculitis of Behcet's disease.
Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 12/2012; 42:1194-1199. DOI:10.3906/sag-1201-75 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protection of the patients against the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens has attracted increasing interest of clinicians and practitioners. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which is extracted from the propolis of honeybee hives as an active component, specifically inhibits nuclear factor κB at micromolar concentrations and show ability to stop 5-lipoxygenase-catalysed oxygenation of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. CAPE has antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antineoplastic properties. The purpose of this review is to summarize in vivo and in vitro usage of CAPE to prevent the chemotherapy-induced and radiotherapy-induced damages and side effects in experimental animals and to develop a new approach for the potential usage of CAPE in clinical trial as a protective agent during chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens.
Cell Biochemistry and Function 07/2012; 30(5):438-43. DOI:10.1002/cbf.2817 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and iron metabolism is still controversial. Free fatty acids, iron, and other sources of oxidative stress probably result in cell damage, and necroinflammation mediated by various cytokines.
Sixty patients were diagnosed with NASH were included in the study, and the patient group was divided into three subgroups. Iron metabolism markers, inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, MDA and nitric oxide levels were measured.
Serum ferritin, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress markers were significantly higher in the patient group. Among three patient groups, divided according to the results of ultrasonic examination, there were significant changes with regard to these parameters.
The study results suggest that liver iron and fat accumulation, oxidant stres, and inflammatory cytokines are closely related. Therefore, levels of serum ferritin, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-8 could represent the indices of activity and progression of NASH.