ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of imaging and CSF biomarkers in clinically ambiguous dementia (CAD). 69 patients were prospectively followed. The endpoint was clinical diagnosis at follow-up of 24 months based upon existing criteria. Medial temporal lobe atrophy score on MRI, distinctive patterns on 99 mTc-HMPAO-SPECT, and CSF levels of amyloid-β peptide, total tau protein, and P-tau181P were used together with neuropsychological testing to assess Se (sensitivity) and Sp (specificity) of separate and combined markers. 60 patients reached the endpoint. A definite diagnosis was achieved in 48 patients. CSF biomarkers had a Sp of 71% and a Se of 100% for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Sp increased to 88% and 93% when MRI and MRI + SPECT were combined, at the expense of Se. CSF biomarkers levels also provided clues to frontotemporal (FTD) or vascular dementias (VaD) diagnosis when situated in an intermediate range between normal and pathological values. MRI and SPECT contributed mostly to the diagnosis of VaD (Se 88%, Sp 75%) and FTD (Se 73%, Sp 78%), respectively. Initial neuropsychological testing had a poor diagnostic accuracy, except for a neuropsychiatric inventory score >40 for the diagnosis of FTD (Se 73%, Sp 84%). Independent of the clinical diagnosis, medial temporal lobe atrophy and total-tau were best correlated with cognitive decline at 2 years. In conclusion, CSF biomarkers efficiently predict evolution toward an AD phenotype in CAD. Imaging biomarkers mostly contribute to the differential diagnosis between non-AD dementias. Initial neuropsychological testing was poorly contributive in CAD diagnosis.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2012; 28(2):323-36. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Three myocardial protection techniques were evaluated in a prospective, randomised trial during coronary artery bypass grafts in 69 patients.
Twenty seven patients received intermittent hyperkalaemic undiluted warm blood anterograde cardioplegia (AC), 21 received continuous hyperkalaemic undiluted warm blood retrograde cardioplegia (RC) and 21 received intermittent, hyperkalaemic, diluted cold blood (15 degrees C), anterograde cardioplegia (CC). Assessment criteria were clinical, laboratory and haemodynamic.
Groups were homogeneous in terms of age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, severity of coronary disease, preoperative ejection fraction, and number of bypass grafts performed. The oxygen extraction coefficient, and lactate and troponin production in the coronary sinus on aortic unclamping was not significantly different between the three groups. The base excess was -0.19+/-0.13 in the RC group, -0.18+/-0.52 in the AC group and -2.67+/-0.59 in the CC group (P<0.01 CC vs. AC and CC vs. RC). The priming volume was 1485+/-64 ml (CC), 1317+/-44 ml (RC) and 1318+/-30 ml (AC) (P<0.05 CC vs. AC and CC vs. RC). The haematocrit during CPB was 28.9+/-0.9 (CC), 32.5+/-0.8 (RC) and 32+/-0.7 (AC) (P<0.05 CC vs. AC and CC vs. RC). The volume of crystalloid delivered was 735+/-85 ml (CC), 362+/-67 ml (RC) and 357+/-105 ml (AC) (P<0.05 CC vs. AC and CC vs. RC). The incidence of ventricular fibrillation on aortic unclamping was 61.9% (CC), 9.5% (RC) and 0% (AC) (P<0.01 CC vs. AC and CC vs. RC). The transfusion rate, duration of intubation, postoperative troponin level, complication rate and mortality were not significantly different between the three groups. Haemodynamic parameters at H2, H4, H8 did not vary significantly between the three groups.
These three techniques appear to be comparable in terms of myocardial protection. Anterograde cardioplegia ensures an identical degree of security to retrograde cardioplegia regardless of the coronary lesions, apart from redo lesions. CC requires greater haemodilution of the patients during CPB.
Cardiovascular Surgery 01/2004; 11(6):489-95.
ABSTRACT: The detection of biomarkers such as ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and heart fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) is used in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. As these biomarkers are not organ specific, we tested them in the neurovascular field.
A total of 41 patients with acute stroke were enrolled (31 ischemic strokes and 10 intracerebral hemorrhages). IMA and HFABP levels were measured in serum samples collected within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. Clinical, imaging, and outcome data were recorded.
No difference in baseline IMA or HFABP was found between patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no correlation among biomarker levels at admission, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, or stroke volume. Neither of the biomarkers could predict short-term prognosis.
IMA and HFABP do not appear to be relevant in acute stroke management.
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 19(4):279-82.