ABSTRACT: Swelling in an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is commonly caused by thrombosis, aneurysm and infection. However, due to the increased risk of malignancy after transplantation, this should also be considered.
We discuss 4 patients with malignancy confined to an AVF after renal transplantation presenting in a 2-year period. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed in 3 patients and the other had post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Angiosarcoma behaves aggressively and 2 of our patients died within 6 months of diagnosis. There are 6 previous cases and 5 died within 16 months of diagnosis. PTLD at AVFs has not been documented previously.
Malignancy at an AVF is a rare but important differential that can impact significantly on patient morbidity and mortality. Predilection for malignancy at an AVF is not understood. We review the literature and discuss possible aetiologies.
American Journal of Nephrology 06/2011; 34(1):42-8. · 2.54 Impact Factor