Beth S Norris

University of North Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, United States

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Publications (3)1.53 Total impact

  • Beth S Norris · Ann Medley ·
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    ABSTRACT: To assess functional reach (FR) ability in 4 contexts in older adults (≥ 60 years) with high balance confidence (HBC) and low balance confidence (LBC). A repeated-measures design was used to compare 2 groups in 4 reaching contexts. Community setting. Twenty-four healthy older adults with HBC and 27 healthy older adults with LBC. FR distance was assessed in 4 contexts presented in random order: (1) traditional FR (TFR); (2) functional reach on foam (FRF); (3) object present functional reach (OPFR); and (4) object present functional reach on foam (OPFRF). For TFR and FRF, 3 trials were performed for each task, and the average reach distance across 3 trials was calculated. During the OPFR and OPFRF contexts, the object was moved toward or away from the participant in 1.3-cm increments until maximal reach distance to the object was obtained. Maximal reach distance in each of the 4 FR contexts. Participants in the HBC group scored significantly higher than did participants in the LBC group regardless of reaching contexts (P =.004). For both balance confidence groups, reaching distance increased significantly from FRF to TFR to OPFRF to OPFR (P < .001). The results of this study highlight the beneficial effect of an external target on balance performance, even with the added challenge of an unstable surface. These findings suggest that although balance performance is greater for persons with HBC, the same pattern of reaching ability in differing FR contexts is found regardless of whether balance confidence is high or low. The clinical utility of these findings pertain to the importance of the use of task objects during FR balance assessment to determine an individual's balance capacity. Future research is needed to assess the effectiveness of context-oriented reaching tasks in balance training programs.
    PM&R 06/2011; 3(9):811-6. DOI:10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.03.013 · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Beth S Norris · Sharon L Olson ·
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    ABSTRACT: Movement patterns used during mechanical lifting are usually assessed subjectively by clinicians as a stoop or squat based on visual estimation of joint motion and position. Two-dimensional (2D) video analysis has the potential to objectively measure joint motion during a mechanical lifting task. This study investigated concurrent validity, intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability of 2D video analysis using Dartfish software for the measurement of sagittal plane angles at the hip and knee during mechanical lifting. Fifteen healthy female participants (mean age 27.1 ± 7.1 years) were recruited to perform mechanical lifting on 2 separate test days. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing 2D derived hip and knee flexion angles to goniometric measures. Intrarater and interrater reliability of the 2D kinematic procedures was determined by using examiners with varying experience in the use of Dartfish software. Between-day test-retest reliability of hip and knee 2D kinematics during mechanical lifting was assessed. Concurrent validity of 2D angle analysis using Dartfish software was supported by high correlations (Pearson r ≥ 0.95) and nonsignificant differences between 2D and goniometric measures of sagittal plane hip and knee motion. Both intrarater and interrater reliability values of hip and knee flexion angles were excellent (ICC ≥ 0.91). ICCs for test-retest reliability were 0.79 and 0.91 for hip and knee flexion, respectively. These findings and the ease of data capture using this system provide support for the clinical utility of 2D video analysis to provide objective measures of movement patterns at the hip and knee during a dynamic functional task.
    Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 05/2011; 27(7):521-30. DOI:10.3109/09593985.2010.533745
  • Beth Norris · Ann Medley ·
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    ABSTRACT: Activities of daily living require an individual to exhibit dynamic standing balance, while reaching beyond arm's length under varying contexts that involve an object to reach toward or grasp. Research shows that object context impacts the kinematics of reaching; however, there has been less research regarding the effect of context on functional reach (FR) ability. The purpose of the present study was to assess FR ability under 3 conditions between 3 age groups: (1) traditional FR, (2) reaching to an object (object present FR), and reaching to grasp an object (FR to grasp). Reach distance was measured as 142 apparently healthy participants performed the 3 contexts in random order. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (age group × reach context) determined the effect of age and context on reach ability. For all age groups, both object-present contexts resulted in greater reach ability than the traditional FR condition. The task goal, touching or grasping, however, impacted reach ability differently in each age group. For the young and older age groups, there was no difference between reaching to touch an object or to grasp an object. Reach distance was less, however, for the middle-age group when grasping an object compared with touching an object. These results suggest that the presence of an object enhances dynamic standing balance as indicated by greater reach distances compared with traditional FR when an object is absent. Applications of these findings might extend to balance testing and balance training.
    04/2011; 34(2):82-7. DOI:10.1519/JPT.0b013e31820aac11

Publication Stats

16 Citations
1.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • University of North Texas at Dallas
      Dallas, Texas, United States
    • Texas Woman's University
      • School of Physical Therapy
      Dallas, Texas, United States