[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: We hypothesized that the fatty acid composition of breast milk can be affected by a smoking habit in the mother. Consequently, this study verified whether maternal smoking modulates, and if so to what extent, the breast milk fatty acid profile. METHODS: The study included 20 postpartum women who declared smoking more than five cigarettes daily throughout a period of pregnancy and lactation, and 136 non-smoking postpartum women. Breast milk samples were collected between the 17(th) and the 30(th) day after delivery. The samples were analyzed by means of High Resolution Gas Chromatography for overall content of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: Compared to non-smokers, smokers were characterized by significantly higher relative breast milk contents of fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids. Additionally smokers' breast milk had higher concentrations of selected saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, smokers were characterized by significantly lower values of linoleic to arachidonic acid ratio, and n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Aside from its other harmful consequences, smoking modulates the fatty acid profile of human milk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We verified if smoking during lactation influences breast milk cytokine (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α) levels 30-32 days after delivery. The study group was comprised of 24 postpartum women who declared smoking more than five cigarettes per day. The control group included 45 non-smoking postpartum women. Compared to non-smoking women, smokers were characterized by significantly higher breast milk concentrations of IL-1α (P = 0.04), while no significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of remaining analyzed cytokines. Moreover, both groups were characterized by a similar fraction of women with detectable cytokine levels.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk samples from different periods of lactation and to compare them with tocopherol content in commercially available formulas for infants at corresponding ages. The study included 93 breast milk samples obtained on the 2nd (colostrum, n = 17), 14th (n = 30), 30th (n = 27) and 90th day of lactation (n = 19), along with 90 samples of commercially available initial and follow-on infant formulas. Concentrations of tocopherols were determined using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Depending on the stage of lactation, human breast milk contained 2.07-9.99 mg L(-1) of alpha-tocopherol and 0.22-0.60 mg L(-1) of gamma-tocopherol. Breast milk concentrations of alpha-tocopherol decreased with the time of lactation, while significant differences in gamma-tocopherol concentration were observed only between the 14th and 30th day of lactation. There was no significant correlation between the dietary intake of vitamin E and its estimated breast milk concentration, also in women who declared vitamin supplementation. Compared with colostrum, infant formulas were characterised by significantly lower concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin E. This finding indicates the need of additional vitamin E supplementation of bottle-fed infants during the initial 2-3 days of life.
Maternal and Child Nutrition 04/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of human milk reflects the concentration and the activity of many components which prevent oxidative degradation of fats and proteins. This study compares the effectiveness of ABTS and DPPH tests with regard to the recovery, precision and sensitivity (detection and quantification limit) of (TAC) values in human milk.
TAC values were determined in twenty five samples of human milk obtained from healthy mothers, residents of Gdańsk, on the 14th day postpartum.
The average TAC of human milk determined by ABTS assay was 19.61 ±3.311 mg TE (Trolox Equivalents)/100 cm3, the average values obtained by the DPPH assay reached 9.95 ±4.36 mg TE/100 cm3. For each milk sample the TAC determined by the ABTS test was significantly higher than the values pro- duced by the DPPH test. The above findings can be attributed to the presence of substances whose spectra overlap with DPPH• spectra. ABTS test was characterised by a higher sensitivity and repeatability of the determination of TAC in human milk compared to the DPPH test.
Comparing the calculated values for the validation parameters of both methods and taking into account the solubility of DPPH only in polar matrices, slower reaction of selected antioxidants with DPPH radical, and the presence in human milk constituents absorbing electromagnetic radiation in the absorption of DPPH be assumed that the ABTS test is more appropriate method of determining of TAC in breast milk.
Acta scientiarum polonorum. Technologia alimentaria. 01/2012; 11(1):83-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the intensity of oxidative damage in human milk resulting from maternal oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to explore the changes in Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and concentrations of antioxidative vitamins and isoprostanes (markers of oxidative stress) in human colostrum and mature milk.
The study included 49 postpartum women with normal, spontaneous full term delivery. The exclusion criteria included active and passive smoking, acute and chronic disorders, and pharmacotherapy other than vitamin supplementation. Colostrum samples were collected on the 3rd day after delivery and breast milk samples between the 30th and the 32nd day after delivery. TAS of colostrum/breast milk was determined by Rice-Evans and Miller method. The amount of vitamins A and E was measured by HPLC. Isoprostane concentrations in colostrum/mature milk and urine were determined immunoenzymatically.
No significant differences were observed in maternal dietary intakes of vitamins A and E determined prior to the colostrum and mature milk sampling. The TAS of mature milk was significantly higher compared to colostrum (P=0.002), while vitamin A and E concentrations were significantly lower (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Although the isoprostane concentration of mature milk was significantly higher than the colostrum concentration, this difference was not significant (P=0.129).
Human milk is a source of antioxidative vitamins and their concentrations decrease throughout the lactation, while their total antioxidative properties increase. The phase of lactation does not affect the degree of human milk's lipid oxidative damage.
Early human development 11/2011; 88(6):421-4. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fatty acid (FA) composition of depot adipose tissues in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides) and the European beaver (Castorfiber) differs from that reported for the lipids of other monogastric animals, especially with regard to the presence of trans-octadecenoic acids. The concentrations of pentadecanoic acid 15:0 (PA) and heptadecanoic acid 17:0 (HA) in the lipids of the tested animals ranged from 0.23 to 0.79% and from 0.33 to 2.35% of total FAs, respectively. The total content of their monounsaturated cis isomers varied from 0.12 to 2.75% for pentadecanoic acid (c-PA) and from 0.38 to 2.45% for heptadecanoic acid (c-HA). It is interesting that the tissues of European beavers and raccoon dogs contained also trans isomers of octadecenoic acid C18:1 (t-OA) including vaccenic acid C18:1,11t (VA), typical of ruminants. The presence of FAs with an uneven number of carbon atoms and trans-octadecenoic acids in depot adipose tissue is indicative of the process of hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in the digestive tract. The tissues of badgers also contained t-OA (from below 0.05% in the liver to 0.44% in the kidneys), but no VA was found.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 01/2009; · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breastfeeding is the optimal way of feeding infants and young children. For the human infant, very important ingredients of milk are fatty acids (FA), including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LC-PUFA, which are necessary for the development of human nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine the content and composition of FA in the fat of human milk in the course of lactation, taking into account the composition of FA in mothers' diet.
Milk samples were obtained from 80 puerperal women hospitalized in the Obstetrics Department in Gdansk, on the 2nd, 14th, 30th and 90th day of lactation. The mothers were questionnaired about the health state and diet. Based on food frequency questionnaires the content of individual groups of FA in the daily food portions were estimated. The composition and content of FA were determined by HR-GC technique.
In the studied human milk fat about 60 different FA were found. Main FA detected were: oleic, palmitic, linoleic, stearic, myristic and lauric acids. PUFA accounted on average for 13.2% of total FAs. The mean levels of trans FA in the human milk fat was 2.45% of total FAs. Percentage of each group of FA in the diet of the studied population of women averaged to 43.67, 41.74 and 14.59%, for saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, respectively.
1. Studies have shown that the biggest differences in fatty acid content in the human milk were observed between 2 and 14 day of lactation. 2. A positive correlation and statistically significant eff ect was observed between the composition of particular groups of FAs in human milk and the breastfeeding women's diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: European beavers (Castor fiber) from two regions were examined to identify exposure to persistent environmental contaminants. A reference group was comprised of six animals from the Forest Division of Srokowo, and an exposed group was comprised of five animals from the vicinity of a former military airport operated in 1918–1986—both from Warmia land in Poland. 137Cs in beavers' muscles was considered negligible for the overall condition and reproduction of the animals. Elevated levels of Cd and Pb occurred in the kidneys and liver of beavers from a former military airport area. dl-PCBs were found in the liver of all specimens, and pCB no. 118 was a dominant compound. Beavers as animals living both in water and land habitats can be good bioindicators of heavy metal environmental pollution caused by human activity. Despite the significant contamination of former military sites in northeastern Poland, the beaver population shows an upward trend, reflecting the excellent adaptation of this species to a changing environment.
European Journal of Wildlife Research 58(4). · 1.36 Impact Factor