Corrado Garbi

University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Campania, Italy

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Publications (75)372.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) behave as second messengers in signal transduction for a series of receptor/ligand interactions. A major regulatory role is played by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), more stable and able to freely diffuse through cell membranes. CuZn Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 is a cytosolic enzyme involved in scavenging oxygen radicals to H2O2 and molecular oxygen, thus representing a major cytosolic source of peroxides. Previous studies suggested that superoxide anion and H2O2 generation are involved in T Cell Receptor (TCR)-dependent signaling. Here, we describe that antigen-dependent activation of human T lymphocytes significantly increased extracellular SOD-1 levels in lymphocyte cultures. This effect was accompanied by the synthesis of SOD-1-specific mRNA and by the induction of microvesicle SOD-1 secretion. It is of note that SOD-1 increased its concentration specifically in T cell population, while no significant changes were observed in the "non T" cell counterpart. Moreover, confocal microscopy showed that antigen-dependent activation was able to modify SOD-1 intracellular localization in T cells. Indeed, was observed a clear SOD-1 recruitment by TCR clusters. The ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited this phenomenon. Further studies are needed to define whether SOD-1-dependent superoxide/peroxide balance is relevant for regulation of T cell activation, as well as in the functional cross talk between immune effectors.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human glioblastoma is the most frequent and aggressive form of brain tumour in the adult population. Proteolytic turnover of tumour suppressors by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is a mechanism that tumour cells can adopt to sustain their growth and invasiveness. However, the identity of ubiquitin-proteasome targets and regulators in glioblastoma are still unknown. Here we report that the RING ligase praja2 ubiquitylates and degrades Mob, a core component of NDR/LATS kinase and a positive regulator of the tumour-suppressor Hippo cascade. Degradation of Mob through the ubiquitin-proteasome system attenuates the Hippo cascade and sustains glioblastoma growth in vivo. Accordingly, accumulation of praja2 during the transition from low- to high-grade glioma is associated with significant downregulation of the Hippo pathway. These findings identify praja2 as a novel upstream regulator of the Hippo cascade, linking the ubiquitin proteasome system to deregulated glioblastoma growth.
    Nature Communications 01/2013; 4:1822. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant motility and invasive ability are relevant hallmarks of malignant tumor cells. Pathways regulating the movement of cancer cells from the site of primary tumor toward adjacent and/or distant tissues are not entirely defined. By using a model of malignant transformation induced by Ras, we identified Wnt4 as an early target of Ras oncogenic signaling. Here we show that Wnt4 is repressed by Ras and that forced Wnt4 expression inhibits Ras-induced cell motility. Accordingly, we found that Wnt4 is downregulated in human anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, the most malignant and metastatic thyroid cancer histotype. Wnt4 interferes with Ras-induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization through non-canonical pathways, by altering the balance between the activation of different Rho-family small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). Finally, we demonstrate that Wnt4 is post-transcriptionally repressed by miR-24, a Ras-induced micro RNA (miRNA) targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Wnt4. Taken together our data highlight a novel Ras-regulated miRNA-dependent circuitry regulating the motile phenotype of cancer cells.Oncogene advance online publication, 1 October 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.419.
    Oncogene 10/2012; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), traditionally linked to cancer poor prognosis and multidrug resistance, is undetectable in normal gastric mucosa and overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). We propose that P-gp may be involved in Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-related gastric carcinogenesis by inhibiting apoptosis. Aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of P-gp in fetal stomach and in Hp-related gastric carcinogenesis, the epigenetic control of the multi-drug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene, the localization and interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) and the effect of the selective silencing of P-gp on cell survival. P-gp and Bcl-xl expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 28 spontaneously abortive human fetuses, 66 Hp-negative subjects, 138 Hp-positive chronic gastritis (CG) of whom 28 with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 45 intestinal type GCs. P-gp/Bcl-x(L) colocalization was investigated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and protein-protein interaction by co-immunoprecipitation, in basal conditions and after stress-induced apoptosis, in GC cell lines AGS and MKN-28 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep-G2. The role of P-gp in controlling apoptosis was evaluated by knocking down its expression with a specific small interfering RNAs in stressed AGS and MKN-28 cell lines. P-gp is expressed in the gastric mucosa of all human fetuses while, it is undetectable in adult normal mucosa and re-expressed in 30/110 Hp-positive non-IM-CG, 28/28 IM-CG and 40/45 GCs. P-gp expression directly correlates with that of Bcl-x(L) and with the promoter hypomethylation of the MDR1 gene. In GC cell lines, P-gp is localized on the plasma membrane and mitochondria where it colocalizes with Bcl-x(L). Co-immunoprecipitation confirms the physical interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) in AGS, MKN-28 and Hep-G2, at both basal level and after stress-induced apoptosis. The selective silencing of P-gp sensitizes GC cells to stress-induced apoptosis. P-gp behaves as an oncofetal protein that, by cross-talking with Bcl-x(L), acts as an anti-apoptotic agent in Hp-related gastric carcinogenesis.
    Laboratory Investigation 07/2012; 92(10):1407-18. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic stimuli such as insulin and insulin like growth factor cause cellular accumulation of G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which in turn is able to induce insulin resistance. Here we show that in fibroblasts, GRK2 is able to increase ATP cellular content by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis; also, it antagonizes ATP loss after hypoxia/reperfusion. Interestingly, GRK2 is able to localize in the mitochondrial outer membrane, possibly through one region within the RGS homology domain and one region within the catalytic domain. In vivo, GRK2 removal from the skeletal muscle results in reduced ATP production and impaired tolerance to ischemia. Our data show a novel sub-cellular localization of GRK2 in the mitochondria and an unexpected role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and ATP generation.
    Cellular Signalling 02/2012; 24(2):468-75. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta cell failure is caused by loss of cell mass, mostly by apoptosis, but also by simple dysfunction (decline of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, downregulation of specific gene expression). Apoptosis and dysfunction are caused, at least in part, by lipoglucotoxicity. The mechanisms implicated are oxidative stress, increase in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) flux and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Oxidative stress plays a role in glucotoxicity-induced beta cell dedifferentiation, while glucotoxicity-induced ER stress has been mostly linked to beta cell apoptosis. We sought to clarify whether ER stress caused by increased HBP flux participates in a dedifferentiating response of beta cells, in the absence of relevant apoptosis. We used INS-1E cells and murine islets. We analysed the unfolded protein response and the expression profile of beta cells by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. The signal transmission pathway elicited by ER stress was investigated by real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Glucosamine and high glucose induced ER stress, but did not decrease cell viability in INS-1E cells. ER stress caused dedifferentiation of beta cells, as shown by downregulation of beta cell markers and of the transcription factor, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was inhibited. These effects were prevented by the chemical chaperone, 4-phenyl butyric acid. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transmission pathway was implicated, since its inhibition prevented the effects induced by glucosamine and high glucose. Glucotoxic ER stress dedifferentiates beta cells, in the absence of apoptosis, through a transcriptional response. These effects are mediated by the activation of ERK1/2.
    Diabetologia 01/2012; 55(1):141-53. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex and multifunctional organelle. It is the intracellular compartment of protein folding, a complex task, both facilitated and monitored by ER folding enzymes and molecular chaperones. The ER is also a stress-sensing organelle. It senses stress caused by disequilibrium between ER load and folding capacity and responds by activating signal transduction pathways, known as unfolded protein response (UPR). Three major classes of transducer are known, inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), and protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), which sense with their endoluminal domain the state of protein folding, although the exact mechanism(s) involved is not entirely clear. Depending on whether the homeostatic response of the UPR is successful in restoring an equilibrium between ER load and protein folding or not, the two possible outcomes of the UPR so far considered have been life or death. Indeed, recent efforts have been devoted to understand the life/death switch mechanisms. However, recent data suggest that what appears to be a pure binary decision may in fact be more complex, and survival may be achieved at the expenses of luxury cell functions, such as expression of differentiation genes.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2012; 27(1):1-12. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial (MITO) antiapoptotic heat-shock protein. The information available on the TRAP1 pathway describes just a few well-characterized functions of this protein in mitochondria. However, our group's use of mass-spectrometric analysis identified TBP7, an AAA-ATPase of the 19S proteasomal subunit, as a putative TRAP1-interacting protein. Surprisingly, TRAP1 and TBP7 colocalize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as demonstrated by biochemical and confocal/electron microscopic analyses, and interact directly, as confirmed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. This is the first demonstration of TRAP1's presence in this cellular compartment. TRAP1 silencing by short-hairpin RNAs, in cells exposed to thapsigargin-induced ER stress, correlates with upregulation of BiP/Grp78, thus suggesting a role of TRAP1 in the refolding of damaged proteins and in ER stress protection. Consistently, TRAP1 and/or TBP7 interference enhanced stress-induced cell death and increased intracellular protein ubiquitination. These experiments led us to hypothesize an involvement of TRAP1 in protein quality control for mistargeted/misfolded mitochondria-destined proteins, through interaction with the regulatory proteasome protein TBP7. Remarkably, expression of specific MITO proteins decreased upon TRAP1 interference as a consequence of increased ubiquitination. The proposed TRAP1 network has an impact in vivo, as it is conserved in human colorectal cancers, is controlled by ER-localized TRAP1 interacting with TBP7 and provides a novel model of the ER-mitochondria crosstalk.
    Cell death and differentiation 10/2011; 19(4):592-604. · 8.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell migration is dependent on the control of signaling events that play significant roles in creating contractile force and in contributing to wound closure. We evaluated wound closure in fibroblasts from mice overexpressing (TgPED) or lacking ped/pea-15 (KO), a gene overexpressed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cultured skin fibroblasts isolated from TgPED mice showed a significant reduction in the ability to recolonize wounded area during scratch assay, compared to control fibroblasts. This difference was observed both in the absence and in the presence of mytomicin C, an inhibitor of mitosis. In time-lapse experiments, TgPED fibroblasts displayed about twofold lower velocity and diffusion coefficient, as compared to controls. These changes were accompanied by reduced spreading and decreased formation of stress fibers and focal adhesion plaques. At the molecular level, TgPED fibroblasts displayed decreased RhoA activation and increased abundance of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by PD98059 restored RhoA activation, cytoskeleton organization and cell motility, and almost completely rescued wound closure of TgPED fibroblasts. Interestingly, skin fibroblasts isolated from KO mice displayed an increased wound closure ability. In vivo, healing of dorsal wounds was delayed in TgPED and accelerated in KO mice. Thus, PED/PEA-15 may affect fibroblast motility by a mechanism, at least in part, mediated by ERK1/2.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 07/2011; 227(5):2106-16. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mobilizes compartmentalized pulses of cyclic AMP. The main cellular effector of cAMP is protein kinase A (PKA), which is assembled as an inactive holoenzyme consisting of two regulatory (R) and two catalytic (PKAc) subunits. cAMP binding to R subunits dissociates the holoenzyme and releases the catalytic moiety, which phosphorylates a wide array of cellular proteins. Reassociation of PKAc and R components terminates the signal. Here we report that the RING ligase praja2 controls the stability of mammalian R subunits. Praja2 forms a stable complex with, and is phosphorylated by, PKA. Rising cAMP levels promote praja2-mediated ubiquitylation and subsequent proteolysis of compartmentalized R subunits, leading to sustained substrate phosphorylation by the activated kinase. Praja2 is required for efficient nuclear cAMP signalling and for PKA-mediated long-term memory. Thus, praja2 regulates the total concentration of R subunits, tuning the strength and duration of PKA signal output in response to cAMP.
    Nature Cell Biology 03/2011; 13(4):412-22. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, selenocystine, a nutritionally available selenoamino acid, was identified for the first time as a novel agent with anti proliferative activity on human keloids. The 20 μM concentration after 48 h treatment used here was the most effective to reduce keloid fibroblast growth. We analyzed the gene expression profile of selenocystine treatment response in keloid fibroblasts by the microarray system to characterize the effects of selenocystine on human keloids. The major alterations in keloid fibroblasts following selenocystine exposure included up-regulation of the genes encoding cell death and transcription factors. Prominent down-regulation of genes involved in development, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton, as well as extra cellular matrix genes, usually strongly up-regulated in keloids, resulted following selenocystine exposure. The range of the down-regulated genes and the degree of the decreased expression appeared to be correlated with the degree of the morphological alterations in selenocystine treated keloids.
    Genomics 02/2011; 97(5):265-76. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway causes not only proliferation and suppression of apoptosis but also the antioncogenic response of senescence. How these contrasting effects are reconciled to achieve cell transformation and cancer formation is poorly understood. In a system of two-step carcinogenesis (dedifferentiated PC EIA, transformed PC EIA-polyoma-middle T [PC EIA + Py] and PC EIA-v-raf [PC EIA + raf] cells], v-raf cooperated with EIA by virtue of a strong prosurvival effect, not elicited by Py-middle T, evident toward serum-deprivation-and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was detected by DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining. The prosurvival function of v-raf was, in part, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent, as shown by pharmacological MEK inhibition. The MEK-dependent antiapoptotic effect of v-raf was exerted despite a lower level of P-ERK1/2 in EIA + raf cells with respect to EIA + Py/EIA cells, which was dependent on a high tyrosine phosphatase activity, as shown by orthovanadate blockade. An ERK1/2 tyrosine phosphatase was likely involved. The high tyrosine phosphatase activity was instrumental to the complete suppression of senescence, detected by β-galactosidase activity, because tyrosine phosphatase blockade induced senescence in EIA + raf but not in EIA + Py cells. High tyrosine phosphatase activity and evasion from senescence were confirmed in an anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line. Therefore, besides EIA, EIA + raf cells suppress senescence through a new mechanism, namely, phosphatase-mediated P-ERK1/2 inhibition, but, paradoxically, retain the oncogenic effects of the Raf-ERK pathway. We propose that the survival effect of Raf is not a function of absolute P-ERK1/2 levels at a given time but is rather dynamically dependent on greater variations after an apoptotic stimulus.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 02/2011; 13(2):120-30. · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2011; 43.
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    ABSTRACT: PTPD1, a cytosolic non-receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase, stimulates the Src-EGF transduction pathway. Localization of PTPD1 at actin cytoskeleton and adhesion sites is required for cell scattering and migration. Here, we show that during EGF stimulation, PTPD1 is rapidly recruited to endocytic vesicles containing the EGF receptor. Endosomal localization of PTPD1 is mediated by interaction with KIF16B, an endosomal kinesin that modulates receptor recycling at the plasma membrane. Silencing of PTPD1 promotes degradation of EGF receptor and inhibits downstream ERK signaling. We also found that PTPD1 is markedly increased in bladder cancer tissue samples. PTPD1 levels positively correlated with the grading and invasiveness potential of these tumors. Transgenic expression of an inactive PTPD1 mutant or genetic knockdown of the endogenous PTPD1 severely inhibited both growth and motility of human bladder cancer cells. These findings identify PTPD1 as a novel component of the endocytic machinery that impacts on EGF receptor stability and on growth and motility of bladder cancer cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2010; 285(50):39260-39270. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the function and the role of the scaffold protein AKAP121, tethering cAMP dependent protein kinase A to the outer wall of mitochondria, in neonatal ventricular myocytes and the heart. Competitive peptides displacing AKAP121 from mitochondria in the tissue and in the cells were used to investigate the role of AKAP121 in mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell survival. Displacement of AKAP121 from mitochondria by synthetic peptides triggers the death program in cardiomyocytes. Under pathological conditions in vivo, in a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by ascending aorta banding, the levels of AKAP121 are significantly down-regulated. Disappearance of AKAP121 is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, high oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In vivo delocalization of AKAP121 by competitive peptides replicates some of the molecular signatures induced by pressure overload: mitochondrial dysfunction, increased mitochondrial ROS, and apoptosis. These data suggest that AKAP121 regulates the response to stress in cardiomyocytes, and therefore AKAP121 downregulation might represent an important event contributing to the development of cardiac dysfunction.
    Cardiovascular research 10/2010; 88(1):101-10. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PTPD1, a cytosolic non-receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase, stimulates the Src-EGF transduction pathway. Localization of PTPD1 at actin cytoskeleton and adhesion sites is required for cell scattering and migration. Here, we show that during EGF stimulation, PTPD1 is rapidly recruited to endocytic vesicles containing the EGF receptor. Endosomal localization of PTPD1 is mediated by interaction with KIF16B, an endosomal kinesin that modulates receptor recycling at the plasma membrane. Silencing of PTPD1 promotes degradation of EGF receptor and inhibits downstream ERK signaling. We also found that PTPD1 is markedly increased in bladder cancer tissue samples. PTPD1 levels positively correlated with the grading and invasiveness potential of these tumors. Transgenic expression of an inactive PTPD1 mutant or genetic knockdown of the endogenous PTPD1 severely inhibited both growth and motility of human bladder cancer cells. These findings identify PTPD1 as a novel component of the endocytic machinery that impacts on EGF receptor stability and on growth and motility of bladder cancer cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(50):39260-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TRAP1, a mitochondrial chaperone (Hsp75) with antioxidant and antiapoptotic functions, is involved in multidrug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cells. Through a proteomic analysis of TRAP1 coimmunoprecipitation complexes, the Ca(2+)-binding protein Sorcin was identified as a new TRAP1 interactor. This result prompted us to investigate the presence and role of Sorcin in mitochondria from human colon carcinoma cells. Using fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis of purified mitochondria and submitochondrial fractions, we showed the mitochondrial localization of an isoform of Sorcin with an electrophoretic motility lower than 20 kDa that specifically interacts with TRAP1. Furthermore, the effects of overexpressing or downregulating Sorcin and/or TRAP1 allowed us to demonstrate a reciprocal regulation between these two proteins and to show that their interaction is required for Sorcin mitochondrial localization and TRAP1 stability. Indeed, the depletion of TRAP1 by short hairpin RNA in colorectal carcinoma cells lowered Sorcin levels in mitochondria, whereas the depletion of Sorcin by small interfering RNA increased TRAP1 degradation. We also report several lines of evidence suggesting that intramitochondrial Sorcin plays a role in TRAP1 cytoprotection. Finally, preliminary evidence that TRAP1 and Sorcin are both implicated in multidrug resistance and are coupregulated in human colorectal carcinomas is provided. These novel findings highlight a new role for Sorcin, suggesting that some of its previously reported cytoprotective functions may be explained by involvement in mitochondrial metabolism through the TRAP1 pathway.
    Cancer Research 08/2010; 70(16):6577-86. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces terminal differentiation in PC12, a pheochromocytoma-derived cell line. NGF binds a specific receptor on the membrane and triggers the ERK1/2 cascade, which stimulates the transcription of neural genes. We report that NGF significantly affects mitochondrial metabolism by reducing mitochondrial-produced reactive oxygen species and stabilizing the electrochemical gradient. This is accomplished by stimulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally via Ki-Ras and ERK1/2. Activation of MnSOD is essential for completion of neuronal differentiation because 1) expression of MnSOD induces the transcription of a neuronal specific promoter and neurite outgrowth, 2) silencing of endogenous MnSOD by small interfering RNA significantly reduces transcription induced by NGF, and 3) a Ki-Ras mutant in the polylysine stretch at the COOH terminus, unable to stimulate MnSOD, fails to induce complete differentiation. Overexpression of MnSOD restores differentiation in cells expressing this mutant. ERK1/2 is also downstream of MnSOD, as a SOD mimetic drug stimulates ERK1/2 with the same kinetics of NGF and silencing of MnSOD reduces NGF-induced late ERK1/2. Long term activation of ERK1/2 by NGF requires SOD activation, low levels of hydrogen peroxide, and the integrity of the microtubular cytoskeleton. Confocal immunofluorescence shows that NGF stimulates the formation of a complex containing membrane-bound Ki-Ras, microtubules, and mitochondria. We propose that active NGF receptor induces association of mitochondria with plasma membrane. Local activation of ERK1/2 by Ki-Ras stimulates mitochondrial SOD, which reduces reactive oxygen species and produces H(2)O(2). Low and spatially restricted levels of H(2)O(2) induce and maintain long term ERK1/2 activity and ultimately differentiation of PC12 cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2010; 285(31):24141-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces terminal differentiation in PC12, a pheochromocytoma-derived cell line. NGF binds a specific receptor on the membrane and triggers the ERK1/2 cascade, which stimulates the transcription of neural genes. We report that NGF significantly affects mitochondrial metabolism by reducing mitochondrial-produced reactive oxygen species and stabilizing the electrochemical gradient. This is accomplished by stimulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally via Ki-Ras and ERK1/2. Activation of MnSOD is essential for completion of neuronal differentiation because 1) expression of MnSOD induces the transcription of a neuronal specific promoter and neurite outgrowth, 2) silencing of endogenous MnSOD by small interfering RNA significantly reduces transcription induced by NGF, and 3) a Ki-Ras mutant in the polylysine stretch at the COOH terminus, unable to stimulate MnSOD, fails to induce complete differentiation. Overexpression of MnSOD restores differentiation in cells expressing this mutant. ERK1/2 is also downstream of MnSOD, as a SOD mimetic drug stimulates ERK1/2 with the same kinetics of NGF and silencing of MnSOD reduces NGF-induced late ERK1/2. Long term activation of ERK1/2 by NGF requires SOD activation, low levels of hydrogen peroxide, and the integrity of the microtubular cytoskeleton. Confocal immunofluorescence shows that NGF stimulates the formation of a complex containing membrane-bound Ki-Ras, microtubules, and mitochondria. We propose that active NGF receptor induces association of mitochondria with plasma membrane. Local activation of ERK1/2 by Ki-Ras stimulates mitochondrial SOD, which reduces reactive oxygen species and produces H2O2. Low and spatially restricted levels of H2O2 induce and maintain long term ERK1/2 activity and ultimately differentiation of PC12 cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2010; 285(31):24141-24153. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) induces terminal differentiation in PC12, a pheochromocytoma-derived cell line. NGF stimulates a specific receptor on the membrane and ERK1/2 cascade, which induces the transcription of neural genes. We report that NGF significantly affects mitochondrial metabolism by reducing mitochondrial-produced ROS and stabilizing the electrochemical gradient. This is accomplished by stimulation of mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally via Ki-Ras and ERK1/2. Activation of MnSOD is essential for completion of neuronal differentiation, because: 1) expression of MnSOD induces the transcription of a neuronal specific promoter and neurite outgrowth; 2) silencing of endogenous MnSOD by siRNA significantly reduces transcription induced by NGF; 3) a Ki-Ras mutant in the poly-lysine stretch at the COOH terminus, unable to stimulate MnSOD, fails to induce complete differentiation. Differentiation of cells expressing this mutant, is restored over-expressing MnSOD. ERK1/2 is also downstream of MnSOD, since a SOD mimetic drug stimulates ERK1/2 with the same kinetics of NGF and silencing of MnSOD reduces NGF stimulated ERK1/2. Long-term activation of ERK1/2 by NGF requires SOD activation, low levels of hydrogen peroxide and the integrity of microtubular cytoskeleton. Confocal immunofluorescence shows that NGF stimulates the formation of a complex containing membrane-bound Ki-Ras, microtubules and mitochondria. We propose that activation of NGF receptor induces association of mitochondria with plasma membrane. Local activation of ERK1/2 by Ki-Ras stimulates mitochondrial SOD, which reduces ROS and produces H2O2. Low and spatially restricted levels of H2O2 induce and maintain long-term ERK1/2 activity and ultimately differentiation of PC12 cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2010; · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

934 Citations
372.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2013
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Molecular Medicine and Health Biotechnology
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1999
    • Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione Pascale"
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • University of Pavia
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1998
    • Università degli Studi di Napoli L'Orientale
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1982–1986
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      Bethesda, MD, United States