[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mean 5-6-month survival after failed standard chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) necessitates more effective treatments for refractory mCRC. For untreated mCRC, S-1 + oral leucovorin (SL) therapy offers promising results without severe toxicity. The ML18147 trial demonstrated that bevacizumab (Bev) prolongs overall survival after mCRC progression. We conducted a single-centre phase-II trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SL/Bev combination chemotherapy as mCRC salvage therapy.
Major eligibility criteria were confirmed adenocarcinoma diagnosis; age >20 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, 0-2; and progression after administration/intolerance of/to approved drugs for mCRC. (5-FU, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, Bev, and anti-EGFR antibody, if KRAS wild-type). S-1 (80-120 mg/body) and leucovorin (25 mg) were orally administered in a 1-week-on/1-week-off schedule. Bev (5 mg/kg) was administered on day 1 of every 2-week cycle. The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR).
A total of 31 patients were enrolled. DCR was 65 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 48-100 %] and the response rate was 7 % (95 % CI, 0.7-22 %). One patient showing partial response to SL/Bev had a BRAF-mutant tumor. Median progression-free survival and overall survivals were 5.3 [95 % CI, 2.1-9.3] and 9.9 [95 % CI, 7.4-NA] months, respectively. The most-frequent grade-3/4 adverse events were mucositis (26 %) and diarrhea (11 %), which were manageable by dose reduction/interruption.
SL/Bev showed impressive activity in refractory mCRC and was tolerable, suggesting its potential as an alternative chemotherapy for refractory mCRC.
This study has been registered in University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry ( ID UMIN000009083 ) on 11 October 2012.
BMC Cancer 08/2015; 15(1):601. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1606-1 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Systemic chemotherapy for patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) is generally palliative, although some patients experience long-term survival after treatment. Thus, we identified clinical characteristics that are associated with long-term survival of patients with MGC after palliative chemotherapy.
Materials and methods:
We retrospectively reviewed 514 MGC patients who received systemic chemotherapy at our institution from 2001 to 2008. To identify clinical predictors of survival beyond 2 years, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and 5-year survival rates were estimated among MGC patients following chemotherapy.
Among 514 patients, 96 (19%) and 16 (3%) survived beyond 2 and 5 years, respectively, and performance status of 0 or 1 (odds ratio [OR]=3.39; p=0.01), previous gastrectomy (OR=1.86; p=0.01), single metastatic site (OR=1.80; p=0.03), and normal alkaline phosphatase levels (OR=2.81; p<0.01) were identified as independent predictors of long-term survival. Of the 16 5-year survivors, six were alive at the end of the study and showed no evidence of disease despite cessation of chemotherapy.
The present data demonstrate distinct clinical characteristics that are associated with long-term survival of MGC patients, and indicated that palliative chemotherapy can be curative in highly selected patients.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 08/2015; 16(13):5433-8. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5433 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of addition of docetaxel to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (CF) in patients with clinical stage III or T3 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Information about 209 esophageal cancer patients with stage III or T3 disease, who underwent NAC consisting of CF with or without docetaxel, was reviewed. The survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. The relevant variables were included in the propensity score model.
NAC was administered to 149 patients in the CF group and 60 patients in the docetaxel plus CF (DCF) group. Overall, 129 patients treated with CF and 58 patients treated with DCF underwent surgery after NAC. The overall response rate was significantly higher in the DCF group compared with the CF group (61.0 vs. 43.2 %, p = 0.021). After matching, recurrence-free survival did not differ statistically between the CF and DCF groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.37, p = 0.46]. After matching, the improvement in overall survival in the DCF group reached statistical significance (HR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.24-0.999, p = 0.050). No significant differences in rate of locoregional or distant recurrences were observed between the CF and DCF groups (53.0 vs. 48.3 %, p = 0.54).
NAC with DCF is superior to CF in patients with clinical stage III or T3 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 06/2015; 76(2). DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2806-8 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative risk of cancer recurrence with postoperative adjuvant FOLFOX/CapeOX therapy(Ox)for stage III colorectal cancer is reduced by approximately 20%when compared to that with fluorouracil plus Leucovorin. We performed a questionnaire survey to evaluate the quality of life(QOL)and extent of side effects in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. In order to evaluate the risks and benefits of oxaliplatin administration, we also examined the differences in awareness of oxaliplatin side effects between patients and medical staff. Responses were obtained from 147 patients, 54 doctors, and 84 nurses. Analysis of the patient responses showed higher current QOL scores regardless of the chemotherapy regimen, although patients in the Ox group had a high rate of residual sensory peripheral neuropathy. In the Ox group, 81% of patients responded that the side effects were moderate. In contrast, 40% of medical staff identified the side effects of oxaliplatin as severe, which differed from that reported by the patients. Considering that Ox adjuvant chemotherapy may reduce the risk of recurrence by approximately 20%, the risk/benefit balance is acceptable.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 04/2015; 42(4):457-61.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate whether human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status, and c-MET status are independent prognostic factors for advanced gastric cancer patients who received standard chemotherapy.
Unresectable or recurrent gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma treated with S-1 plus cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy were eligible. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were examined for HER2, EGFR, and c-MET status using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Additionally, gene amplification was examined using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2. Positivity was defined as an IHC score of 3+ or an IHC score of 2+/FISH positive for HER2, and an IHC score of 2+ or 3+ for both EGFR and c-MET.
Of the 293 patients from nine institutions, 43 (15 %) were HER2 positive, 79 (27 %) were EGFR positive, and 120 (41 %) were c-MET positive. Ten patients (3 %) showed positive co-expression of HER2, EGFR, and c-MET. After a median follow-up time of 58.4 months with 280 deaths, there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) in terms of HER2 and EGFR status. However, there was a significant difference in OS between c-MET-positive and c-MET-negative patients [median, 11.9 months vs 14.2 months; hazard ratio, 1.31 (95 % confidence interval, 1.03-1.67); log-rank P = 0.024]. Multivariate analysis also showed that c-MET positivity was still a prognostic factor for OS [hazard ratio, 1.30 (95 % confidence interval, 1.02-1.67); P = 0.037].
The study suggested that c-MET-positive status had poor prognostic value. These data could be used as the basis for future clinical trials for targeting agents for advanced gastric cancer patients.
Gastric Cancer 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10120-015-0471-6 · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF mutations after adjustment for microsatellite instability (MSI) status in Japanese colorectal cancer (CRC) population.
We assessed KRAS and BRAF mutations and MSI status in 813 Japanese patients with curatively resected, stage I-III CRC and examined associations of these mutations with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) using uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.
KRAS and BRAF mutations were detected in 312 (38%) of 812 and 40 (5%) of 811 tumors, respectively. KRAS mutations occurred more frequently in females than in males (P = 0.02), while the presence of BRAF mutations was significantly associated with the female gender (P = 0.006), proximal tumor location (P < 0.001), mucinous or poorly differentiated histology (P < 0.001), and MSI-high tumors (P < 0.001). After adjusting for relevant variables, including MSI status, KRAS mutations were associated with poorer DFS (HR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.03-1.75) and OS (HR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.09-1.97). BRAF mutations were poor prognostic factors for DFS (HR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.19-4.06) and OS (HR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.15-4.71). Neither the BRAF by MSI interaction test nor the KRAS by MSI interaction test yielded statistically significant results for DFS and OS.
KRAS and BRAF mutations are associated with inferior survival, independent of MSI status, in Japanese patients with curatively resected CRC.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 21(4):1275-83. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i4.1275 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adding oxaliplatin to fluorouracil-based chemotherapy can improve the survival of patients with stage III colorectal cancer by approximately 20 %. Reportedly, cancer patients are much more likely to prefer chemotherapy than medical professionals, although there is only a very small chance of achieving benefits from treatment. However, chronic neurotoxicity may be long lasting after the administration of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate potential side effects and differences in attitude between colorectal cancer patients and medical staff regarding the risk-benefit trade-offs of chemotherapy.
Relapse-free colorectal cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, doctors, and nurses were surveyed using a questionnaire regarding the side effects of chemotherapy and hypothetical clinical scenarios to quantify gains in the risk of relapse that were deemed necessary to make chemotherapy worthwhile.
Responses were obtained from 147 patients, 54 doctors, and 84 nurses. Of these, 39 % of patients and 85 % of doctors replied that moderate side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy were worthwhile to achieve an absolute gain in the risk of relapse of 10 % from a baseline of 40 %. More severe side effects, as reported by colorectal cancer patients, were not associated with the larger gains necessary to make treatment worthwhile. Seven percent of patients treated with oxaliplatin, 40 % of doctors, and 43 % of nurses replied that side effects associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were severe.
Doctors should consider potential heterogeneity in side effects and attitudes regarding the risk-benefit balance of adjuvant chemotherapy, and that patient perspectives should enhance shared decision-making.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1007/s10147-014-0772-5 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report a patient with gastric adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) overexpression who was successfully treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. The patient was a 66-year-old man preoperatively diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma with no evidence of distant metastases. On histopathological examination, the curatively resected tumor was identified as ASC with mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components. Multiple liver metastases developed 2.5 months after surgery. Because immunohistochemical staining for HER2 was strong in both components, combination chemotherapy with capecitabine, cisplatin, and trastuzumab was initiated. A partial response was confirmed after 6 treatment cycles and PET and CT scans performed after 13 cycles revealed disease resolution with no uptake in the metastatic lesions. No evidence of disease progression has been observed 16 months after initial chemotherapy. This report suggests the potential utility of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy for HER2-positive gastric ASC.
Case Reports in Oncology 03/2014; 7(1):210-6. DOI:10.1159/000362088
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognostic and predictive values of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain unclear. We reviewed all mCRC patients at a single institution to evaluate the relationship between CA19-9 levels and survival.
Two hundred and fifty-two patients underwent first-line chemotherapy using oxaliplatin-based regimens between April 2005 and December 2009. The relationship between baseline CA19-9 levels and survival was analyzed. Moreover, we evaluated the relationship between baseline CA19-9 levels and clinicopathological factors.
One hundred and fifty patients had elevated baseline CA19-9 levels (elevated group), and 79 patients had normal baseline CA19-9 (normal group) levels. Both KRAS and BRAF mutation rates were higher in the elevated group than in the normal group. Elevated CA19-9 level was a poor prognostic factor compared with normal CA19-9 levels (P = 0.0021). In the elevated group, the median survival time with bevacizumab was significantly longer with bevacizumab than without it (median OS, 27.8 vs. 15.3 months, P = 0.0019). However, the median survival time was not different with or without bevacizumab in the normal group (median OS, 36.5 vs. 38.0 months, P = 0.9515).
Our results suggest that baseline CA19-9 level is an independent prognostic factor in mCRC patients, and it correlated with the KRAS/BRAF mutation status. Bevacizumab exhibits clinical activity only for high CA19-9 levels in mCRC.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 12/2013; 73(2). DOI:10.1007/s00280-013-2367-7 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) of the salivary glands has often a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) component, which resembles ductal carcinoma of the breast and frequently overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). We report a case of metastatic CXPA with SDC component who was treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy and has had a durable complete response.
A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with CXPA of the right parotid gland. The resected tumor was histologically diagnosed as CXPA with a predominant SDC component that showed strong positivity for HER2 protein and HER2 gene amplification. Multiple pulmonary metastatic lesions were detected after surgery, and combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. A complete response was confirmed after 7 treatment cycles, and no evidence of disease progression has been observed after 13 months of initiation of therapy.
This report suggests a potential utility of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy for HER2-positive CXPA.
Case Reports in Oncology 09/2013; 6(3):450-5. DOI:10.1159/000355219
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term outcomes of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients treated with S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) combination chemotherapy remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to evaluate these outcomes to identify the prognostic factors affecting patient survival.
We retrospectively analyzed 153 AGC patients treated with SP at a single institution between January 2005 and July 2011.
Median overall survival (OS) was 15.0 months [95 % confidence interval (CI), 12.5-17.9 months]. Three independent prognostic factors affecting poor survival were identified: performance status (PS) ≥ 1 [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.39, 95 % CI, 1.58-3.62); >1 metastatic site (HR = 1.57, 95 % CI, 1.10-2.26], and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels (HR = 1.70, 95 % CI, 1.16-2.49). A simple prognostic index was generated using three risk groups: good (no risk factor), moderate (one or two risk factors), and poor (three risk factors). The median OS for good-, moderate-, and poor-risk groups was 28.6, 14.8, and 7.3 months, respectively (log-rank test; P < 0.0001). Among the twelve 3-year survivors, 9 (75 %) had a PS of 0 and 8 (67 %) had only one metastatic site.
Three prognostic factors were identified in AGC patients treated with SP. Using a simple prognostic index, the patients were divided into three risk groups, in which the survival differences were markedly significant, suggesting that patients with good PS and only one metastatic site may have a higher chance of long-term survival than those with poor PS and multiple metastatic sites.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; 19(4). DOI:10.1007/s10147-013-0610-1 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combination of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) as preoperative treatment for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been investigated. We conducted a multicenter phase II feasibility study of preoperative chemotherapy with DCF for ESCC. Patients with clinical stage II/III ESCC (TNM-6(th) ) were eligible. Chemotherapy consisted of intravenous docetaxel (70-75 mg/m(2) ) and cisplatin (70-75 mg/m(2) ) on day 1, and continuous infusion of fluorouracil (750 mg/m(2) /day) on days 1 to 5. Antibiotic prophylaxis on days 5 to 15 was mandatory. This regimen was repeated every 3 weeks with a maximum of 3 cycles allowed. After completion of chemotherapy, esophagectomy with extended lymphadenectomy was performed. Primary endpoint was the completion rate of protocol treatment. Forty-two eligible patients were enrolled. During chemotherapy, the most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities were neutropenia (83%), anorexia (7%), and stomatitis (5%). Forty-one (98%) patients underwent surgery. The completion rate of protocol treatment was 90.5% (38/42). No treatment-related death was observed and the incidence of operative morbidity was tolerable. According to RECIST, overall response rate after the completion of DCF was 64.3%. Pathological complete response was achieved in 17%. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 74.5% and 88.0%, respectively. Although these data are preliminary, preoperative DCF was well tolerated. Antitumor activity was highly promising and warrants further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Cancer Science 08/2013; 104(11). DOI:10.1111/cas.12274 · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Metastatic colorectal cancer with KRAS codon 12 or 13 mutations is not currently treated with anti-epidermal growth factor antibodies. A recent retrospective study in Western countries raised the possibility that KRAS p.G13D mutation may not be absolutely predictive of non-response compared with other KRAS mutations from the findings of longer overall survival and progression-free survival following cetuximab treatment. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between KRAS status and cetuximab efficacy among Japanese patients.
Data of 109 patients from nine institutions in Japan were retrospectively analysed. All patients were refractory or intolerant to fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan, and they were treated with a cetuximab + irinotecan regimen. The response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival and overall survival were compared according to KRAS status.
Overall, 76 (70%), 7 (6%) and 26 (24%) patients had KRAS wild-type, KRAS p.G13D and other KRAS mutations. Their various parameters were as follows: response rate: 30% (23/76), 14% (1/7) and 0% (0/26); disease control rate: 71% (54/76), 71% (5/7) and 54% (14/26); median progression-free survival: 4.6 months (95% confidence interval, 2.8-6.3), 4.1 months (0-9.9) and 2.1 months (1.5-2.8); and median overall survival: 11.2 months (6.4-16.0), 8.5 months (5.3-11.8) and 6.8 months (4.1-9.6), respectively.
Although no statistically significant difference in progression-free survival or overall survival was observed between KRAS p.G13D-mutant and other mutant tumours, the disease control rate was higher in KRAS p.G13D-mutant patients and a partial response was observed in one such patient. Our study suggested that cetuximab showed some activity in KRAS p.G13D-mutant colorectal cancer patients. Further research is warranted.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2012; 42(12). DOI:10.1093/jjco/hys160 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Standard chemotherapy is increasingly discontinued after successful “induction” in patients (pts) undergoing 1st line treatment for mCRC. MGN1703 is a synthetic DNA-based immunomodulator acting as an agonist of TLR-9 that has shown preclinical
activity in mCRC. This study has been conducted to assess clinical efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of MGN1703 as maintenance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is a clinically important and sometimes dose-limiting toxicity of cancer treatment, including standard-dose chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Consequently, dose reductions or treatment delays resulting from mucositis may impair treatment effectiveness. Symptoms are oral mucositis, dysphagia, abdominal pain and diarrhea, depending on the affected site. Although the underlying pathobiology of oral mucositis has been considerably elucidated over the past decade, there are few interventions for the prevention or treatment validated by randomized trials. The most commonly accepted intervention is basic oral care. Diarrhea is most common in patients treated with irinotecan and in some cases, life-threatening. No definitive interventions for the prevention of diarrhea exist, but there is evidence that loperamide and octreotide are effective for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. In future, there is a need for well designed trials, preferably including a placebo or no treatment control, validating more effective interventions for managing chemotherapy- induced mucositis.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 11/2011; 38(11):1761-6.