Jong In Kim

Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Medical Center, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

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Publications (43)76.49 Total impact

  • Meejung Kim · Jong In Kim · Jae Bum Kim · Senyon Choe
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    ABSTRACT: Several of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been reported to induce white as well as brown adipogenesis. Here, we characterized the adipogenic potential of AB204, a recombinant chimeric protein of activin-βA and BMP-2, in in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo settings. BMP-2 is generally known to promote adipogenesis. When compared with BMP-2, which previously showed varying degrees of adipogenesis, AB204 displayed superior in vitro adipogenic differentiation of mouse 3 T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Surprisingly, implantation of hASCs, preconditioned with AB204 for as short a time as 48 h, into the subcutaneous space of athymic nude mice effectively produced fat pads, but not with BMP-2. When BMP-2 and AB204 were injected intraperitoneally, AB204 promoted dramatic systemic adipogenesis of C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet very effectively. The results implicate the novel clinical potential of AB204, including induction of fat tissue ex vivo or in vivo for tissue re-engineering and regenerative medicinal purposes, more than any known natural protein ligand. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/term.2050 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Local degradation caused by drain bias ( ) stressing is recently considered as a key issue in amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). In this letter, we investigate the instability of turned-OFF a-IGZO TFTs under ac stressing. The negative threshold voltage shift, which was well fitted by a stretched exponential function, was accelerated with increasing duty cycle despite the same effective stress time. A capacitance measurement reveals that a higher duty cycle induced more donor states near the drain, implying that the stretched-exponential time dependence cannot be fully explained by trapping mechanism. Temperature-dependent followed the Arrhenius relation, whereas showed unusual temperature dependence in contrast to that under dc stressing. These findings suggest an additional origin such as a stress release effect under an ac stress other than hopping/tunneling mechanism.
    IEEE Electron Device Letters 06/2015; 36(6):1-1. DOI:10.1109/LED.2015.2424966 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the bottom and top channel interface properties are investigated in the back channel etch-type double-gate amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. The authors apply the subthreshold technique by depleting one channel, while sweeping the gate voltage of the opposite channel to separately characterize the bottom and top channel interfaces. The extracted surface energy distribution of the bottom and top channel interface trap densities is well fitted with an exponential distribution, and the top channel interface trap density is found to be around 2.5 times greater than that of the bottom channel interface at the conduction band edge. This is mainly attributed to the poor quality of the top gate SiOx insulator owing to the low plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition temperature or to the defect generation at the back surface of the a-IGZO caused by the plasma damage during the top gate SiOx insulator deposition. The electrons are shown to be more easily trapped at the top channel interface than at the bottom channel interface under high gate bias stresses in the fabricated back channel etch-type double-gate a-IGZO thin-film transistors.
    05/2015; 33(3):030603. DOI:10.1116/1.4919234
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been successfully performed in thrombocytopenic conditions such as in patients with liver cirrhosis but successful ESD for early gastric cancer (EGC) in hematologic diseases has rarely been reported. A 52-year-old male patient, who had previously been diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome 2 years ago, was admitted to our hospital for ESD of EGC. ESD was performed successfully in this patient after platelet concentrates transfusion on the day of ESD. ESD might be an option for the treatment of EGC in thrombocytopenia due to hematologic diseases when optimal supportive managements are applied. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2015;65:173-176).
    The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 03/2015; 65(3):173-6. DOI:10.4166/kjg.2015.65.3.173
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    ABSTRACT: In obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and pro-inflammatory responses are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, it is largely unknown whether adipocyte hypertrophy per se might be sufficient to provoke insulin resistance in obese adipose tissue. Here, we demonstrate that lipid overloaded hypertrophic adipocytes are insulin resistant independent of adipocyte inflammation. Treatment with saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids resulted in adipocyte hypertrophy, but pro-inflammatory responses were only observed in adipocytes treated with saturated fatty acids. Regardless of adipocyte inflammation, hypertrophic adipocytes with large and unilocular lipid droplet exhibited impaired insulin-dependent glucose uptake, associated with defects in GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice (C3H/HeJ) with high fat diet-induced obesity were not protected against insulin resistance, although they were resistant to adipose tissue inflammation. Together, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that adipocyte hypertrophy alone would be crucial to cause insulin resistance in obesity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/2015; 35(10). DOI:10.1128/MCB.01321-14 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the low-frequency noise properties of multilayer WSe2 field effect transistors (FETs) in subthreshold, linear, and saturation regime. The measured noise power spectral density of drain current (S ID ) shows that the low-frequency noise in multilayer WSe2 FET fits well to a 1/fγ power law with γ ∼ 1 in the frequency range of 10 Hz–200 Hz. From the dependence of S ID on the drain current, carrier mobility fluctuation is considered as a dominant low frequency noise mechanism from all operation regimes in multilayer WSe2 FET. Extracted Hooge's parameter in this study is within the value of 0.12, comparable to those of the transition metal dichalcogenide FETs in recent reports.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2015; 106(2):023504. DOI:10.1063/1.4906141 · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The asymmetrical degradation behaviors of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors are studied comprehensively under various gate and drain bias stresses. The transfer curve moves to the negative direction after bias stresses are applied, and different types of asymmetrical degradation are observed depending upon the magnitude of the applied gate and drain bias stresses. After the application of gate-to-source (V GS) and drain-to-source (V DS) bias stresses of (V GS = 16 V, V DS = 16 V) and (V GS = 22 V, V DS = 10 V), the forward mode transfer curve exhibits a more negative shift compared to that of the reverse mode, whereas opposite results are observed under the stress condition of (V GS = 10 V, V DS = 25 V). From the two-dimensional simulation results and the separately extracted subgap density of states in the source and drain sides of the thin film transistors before and after the application of various bias stresses, the local high electric field-induced nonuniform generation rate of the subgap states near the conduction band edge is considered to be the dominant mechanism causing the asymmetrical degradation of the devices under various gate and drain bias stresses. The generation of the subgap states is observed at different locations depending upon the magnitude of the applied gate and drain bias stresses.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2015; 33(1). DOI:10.1116/1.4903527 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic yield of fecal leukocyte and stool cultures is unsatisfactory in patients with acute diarrhea. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical significance of the fecal lactoferrin test and fecal multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with acute diarrhea. Clinical parameters and laboratory findings, including fecal leukocytes, fecal lactoferrin, stool cultures and stool multiplex PCR for bacteria and viruses, were evaluated prospectively for patients who were hospitalized due to acute diarrhea. A total of 54 patients were included (male, 23; median age, 42.5 years). Fecal leukocytes and fecal lactoferrin were positive in 33 (61.1%) and 14 (25.4%) patients, respectively. Among the 31 patients who were available for fecal pathogen evaluation, fecal multiplex PCR detected bacterial pathogens in 21 patients, whereas conventional stool cultures were positive in only one patient (67.7% vs 3.2%, p=0.000). Positive fecal lactoferrin was associated with presence of moderate to severe dehydration and detection of bacterial pathogens by multiplex PCR (21.4% vs 2.5%, p=0.049; 100% vs 56.5%, p=0.032, respectively). Fecal lactoferrin is a useful marker for more severe dehydration and bacterial etiology in patients with acute diarrhea. Fecal multiplex PCR can detect more causative organisms than conventional stool cultures in patients with acute diarrhea. (Gut Liver, Published online December 5, 2014).
    Gut and liver 12/2014; DOI:10.5009/gnl14106 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    Jong In Kim · Gukbin Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Background What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world¿s countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE.Methods The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models.ResultsAlthough significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R2¿=¿0.552, P <0.001).Conclusions Gender inequality of the attainment secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.
    International Journal for Equity in Health 11/2014; 13(1):106. DOI:10.1186/s12939-014-0106-2 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    Jong In Kim · Gukbin Kim
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    ABSTRACT: What are the factors that affect the survival probability of becoming a centenarian for those aged 70? Do the factors include income, health expenditure, the use of mobile telephones, or sanitation? The survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) is defined as an estimate of the production of centenarians by a population. The SPBC (70) is the survival probability of becoming a centenarian for those aged 70. This study estimates the associations between the SPBC (70), and the gross national income, health expenditure, telecommunications, and sanitation facilities in 32 countries. The socioeconomic indicators for this study were obtained from the database of the United Nations Development Programme. In addition, the data for the analysis of centenarians in 32 countries were obtained from the Human Mortality Database, which is maintained by the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. Associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC (70) were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multiple regression models. Significant positive correlations were found between the SPBC (70), and the socioeconomic factors of gross national income (GNI), public expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (PEHGDP), fixed and mobile telephone subscribers (FMTS) as the standard of living, and improved sanitation facilities (ISF). Overall, the SPBC (70) of female and male predictors were used, in order to form a model production of centenarians, with higher GNI and PEHGDP, as well as higher FMTS and ISF as the socioeconomic factors (R2= 0.422, P< 0.001). The socioeconomic level in all 32 countries appears to have an important latent effect on the production of centenarians in both females and males. This study has identified the following four important aspects of socioeconomic indicators in the survival probability of becoming a centenarian for those aged 70: higher overall economic development level, public expenditure on health, mobile telephone subscribers as the standard of living, and the use of improved sanitation facilities for healthy aging. Thus, the socioeconomic level seems to affect an important on the survival probability of becoming a centenarian.
    BMC Geriatrics 10/2014; 14(1):113. DOI:10.1186/1471-2318-14-113 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-heating effect is recently considered to play an essential role in the degradation of amorphous oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). Previous thermal analysis on amorphous oxide TFTs based on conventional infrared thermography, however, had limitations in studying short-channel TFTs due to its low spatial-resolution. Here, we investigated self-heating effect of short-channel amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs by using high-resolution thermoreflectance microscopy. For the TFT with a channel length of 15 μm and a distance of 10.8 μm between source and drain electrodes on an etch stopper, the device temperature due to self-heating reached 70–80 °C, and local heating arose close to the center of the channel compared to the drain side in the literature. The channel length dependence of thermal distribution revealed that the asymmetry of local heating weakened with the decreasing channel length due to a heat dissipation by the source and drain electrodes. Transient thermal analysis under a bias stress unveiled that the maximum temperature as a function of stress time strongly depends on bias stress conditions. The temporal behavior of temperature is possibly attributed to the interaction between self-heating and local degradation.
    Applied Physics Letters 07/2014; 105(4):043501-043501-4. DOI:10.1063/1.4891644 · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Jong In Kim
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    ABSTRACT: This study estimates the longevity index (LI) of centenarians and elucidates the influence of correlates of social factors as healthy ageing on the LI of centenarians in countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The data for the analysis of centenarians in the selected 18 OECD countries were obtained from the population censuses conducted by the National Statistical Offices of these member countries. This study utilized the demographic databases of centenarians from the above countries to calculate the following parameters: the proportion between the centenarians and the total population. Although significant positive correlations were found between the LI of centenarians and social factors such as health expenditure as a percentage of the gross domestic product (HGDP), and public expenditure on health (PH) and dependency expenditure ratio (DR), negative correlations were found between the LI of centenarians and social factors such as, suicide rates in both genders (SR), suicide rates in women (SRW), and occupational injuries (OI). Finally, the LI predictors were used to form a model of healthy ageing, with higher HGDP as health expenditure, and higher DR as dependency expenditure, and lower SRW as risk of life, including lower OI as labor injuries (R 2 = 0.909, P = 0.023). The findings imply that an aged society plays an important role in ensuring the continued longevity of older people; therefore, the governments of OECD countries must strengthen their preventive social programmers and increase their existing support services for the elderly through increased financing of the health sector.
    Ageing International 06/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1007/s12126-012-9178-8
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of education for trainees on the gross findings identified by conventional white-light endoscopy (CWE), the microvascular patterns identified by magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy (MNE), and the pit patterns identified by magnifying chromoendoscopy (MCE) in estimation of the invasion depth of colorectal tumors. Methods. A total of 420 endoscopic images of 35 colorectal tumors were used. Five trainees estimated the invasion depth of the tumors by reviewing the CWE images before education. Afterwards, the trainees estimated the invasion depth of the same tumors after brief education on CWE, MNE and MCE images, respectively. Results. The initial diagnostic accuracy for deep submucosal invasion before education and after education on CWE, MNE, and MCE findings was 54.3%, 55.4%, 67.4%, and 76.6%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy increased significantly after MNE education (P = 0.028). The specificity for deep submucosal invasion before education and after education on CWE, MNE, and MCE findings was 47.9%, 45.7%, 65.0%, and 80.7%, respectively. The specificity increased significantly after MNE (P = 0.002) and MCE (P = 0.005) education. Conclusion. Brief education on microvascular pattern identification by MNE and pit pattern identification by MCE significantly improves trainees' estimations of the invasion depth of colorectal tumors.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 05/2014; 2014:245396. DOI:10.1155/2014/245396 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ferret model is an established animal model of influenza virus infection. Although virus replication in the upper respiratory tract is usually measured using consecutively collected nasal washes, daily evaluation of virus replication in the lung is limited because it requires large numbers of ferrets to be sacrificed at consecutive time points. To overcome this limitation, we performed virus quantification using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The non-invasive BAL allows the consecutive quantification of virus replication in the lung of living ferrets. This method can be useful for the longitudinal evaluation of virus tropism in the lower respiratory tract.
    Journal of veterinary science (Suwŏn-si, Korea) 04/2014; 15(3). DOI:10.4142/jvs.2014.15.3.439 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the device degradation mechanism of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses based on the electronic trap characterization results. The transfer curve exhibits an apparent negative shift as the stress time increases, and a formation of hump is observed in the transfer curve after stresses. A notable increase of the frequency dispersion is observed after stresses in both gate-to-drain capacitance–voltage (CGD–VG) and gate-to-source capacitance–voltage (CGS–VG) curves, which implies that the subgap states are generated by simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses, and the damaged location is not limited to the drain side of TFTs. The larger frequency dispersion is observed in CGD–VG curves after stresses in a wider channel device, which implies that the heat is an important factor in the generation of the subgap states under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses in a-IGZO TFTs. Based on the electronic trap characterization results, we conclude that the impact ionization near the drain side of the device is not a dominant mechanism causing the generation of subgap states and device degradation in a-IGZO TFTs under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses. The generation of oxygen vacancy-related donor-like traps near the conduction band edge is considered as a possible mechanism causing the device degradation under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses in a-IGZO TFTs.
    Semiconductor Science and Technology 03/2014; 29(4):045023. DOI:10.1088/0268-1242/29/4/045023 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to perform a serial assessment of the radiologic parameters of the mechanical axis (MA) and the weight-bearing line (WBL) using a weight-bearing anteroposterior (AP) long-standing view of the lower extremity to determine whether the postoperative MA and WBL change with time. Methods A total of 90 consecutive lower limbs were examined retrospectively from a weight-bearing AP long-standing view of the lower extremity obtained from 120 patients who underwent open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). A total of 30 patients were excluded because of (1) complications (7 patients) such as bone graft collapse or broken screws, malunion, or nonunion arising after surgery and (2) no acquisition of a regular series of weight-bearing AP long-standing views of the lower extremity (23 patients). The AP long-standing view of the lower extremity was taken, and weight-bearing AP long-standing views of the lower extremity at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively were used for assessment of serial change. The Picture Archiving Communication System (Marotech, Inc, St-Augustin-de-Desmaures, Quebec, Canada) was used for radiologic measurements of the WBL ratio and MA. Serial changes were compared between 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. Results The WBL ratio progressively shifted medially, with significant changes at all time points until 1 year postoperatively (1 month to 6 months, P = .04; 6 months to 1 year, P = .04; 1 year to 2 years, P = .22). Even though the MA angle showed a similar decreasing trend, it showed no statistical difference (P > .05). Conclusions This study showed that after OWHTO, the WBL shifts progressively medially until 1 year postoperatively. Level of Evidence Level IV, diagnostic study.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 03/2014; 30(3):319–325. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2013.11.028 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments.
    Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine 11/2013; 2013:314280. DOI:10.1155/2013/314280 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic management of upper gastrointestinal obstruction is safe and feasible. However, its technical and clinical success rate is about 90%, which is primarily due to inability to pass a guide-wire through the stricture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrathin endoscope for correct placement of guide wire to avoid technical failure in upper gastrointestinal obstruction. Retrospective assessment of ultrathin endoscope to traverse the stenosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract in technically difficult cases was performed. Technical and clinical success rates and immediate complications were analyzed. Nine cases were included in this study (eight cases of stent insertion and one case of balloon dilatation). Technical success was achieved in all of the patients (100%) and oral feeding was feasible in all of the cases (100%). Immediate complications, such as migration, perforation, and hemorrhage, did not develop in any of the cases. Ultrathin endoscope-assisted method for upper gastrointestinal obstruction is potentially safe and useful to avoid technical failure.
    07/2013; 46(4):373-8. DOI:10.5946/ce.2013.46.4.373
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital habitual patellar dislocation is a rare condition of the knee where the patella dislocates during flexion and relocates during extension. The congenital form is permanent, irreducible, and presents at birth. It is characterized by a short quadriceps and a major patellofemoral dysplasia and short height. This article presents a rare case of a 27-year-old woman with recurring bilateral habitual dislocation of the patella after a failed previous proximal and distal realignment procedure. Clinical examinations of both knees revealed genu valgus knees and lateral joint pain that recurred after several previous operations. Radiographs of both knees showed patellar dislocation and genu valgum associated with patellofemoral dysplasia and osteoarthritis of the lateral compartment. Long-leg standing radiographs showed an anatomic tibiofemoral angle of right 13° and left 6° valgus and a mechanical tibiofemoral angle of right 8° and left 2° valgus and weight-bearing line of 65% on the right and 48% on the left. The authors performed a distal femoral closing wedging osteotomy to correct the valgus deformity, and then percutaneous lateral release and medial reefing were performed to stabilize the patellas of both knees simultaneously.
    Orthopedics 06/2013; 36(6):840-3. DOI:10.3928/01477447-20130523-35 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture is controversial, especially in skeletally immature patients, because of concerns about physeal damage. To reduce the risk of physeal injury, an arthroscopic technique was performed. A bioabsorbable suture anchor was inserted through anteromedial portals and fixed to a bioabsorbable suture anchor at the center of the fracture bed; it was then passed through the threads at the ACL avulsion fragment and tied with the ACL substance. After this, the avulsion fragment was repaired by an all-inside technique between the distal portion of the ACL and the transverse ligament and periosteum by a suture hook. The arthroscopic hybrid technique using a suture anchor with an all-inside repair is more rigid and safe. In addition, this physeal-sparing fixation is possible in immature patients.
    05/2013; 2(2):e117-20. DOI:10.1016/j.eats.2012.12.005

Publication Stats

203 Citations
76.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2015
    • Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Medical Center
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
  • 2011–2015
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Forest Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Keimyung University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Wonkwang University
      Riri, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Konkuk University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2014
    • Inje University
      Kŭmhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea