[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients receiving antiplatelet medications are considered to be at an increased risk for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma. However, most studies have categorized all antiplatelet drugs into one category. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and the requirement of a repeat head computed tomography (RHCT) in patients on preinjury clopidogrel therapy.
Patients with traumatic brain injury with intracranial hemorrhage on initial head CT were prospectively enrolled. Patients on preinjury clopidogrel were matched with patients exclusive of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy using a propensity score in a 1:1 ratio for age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), head Abbreviated Injury Scale (h-AIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), neurologic examination, and platelet transfusion. Outcome measures were progression on RHCT scan and need for neurosurgical intervention.
A total of 142 patients with intracranial hemorrhage on initial head CT scan (clopidogrel, 71; no clopidogrel, 71) were enrolled. The mean (SD) age was 70.5 (15.1) years, 66% were male, median GCS score was 14 (range, 3-15), and median h-AIS (ISS) was 3 (range, 2-5). The mean (SD) platelet count was 210 (101), and 61% (n = 86) of the patients received platelet transfusion. Patients on preinjury clopidogrel were more likely to have progression on RHCT (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-7.1) and RHCT as a result of clinical deterioration (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5). The overall rate of neurosurgical intervention was 4.2% (n = 6). Patients on clopidogrel therapy were more likely to require a neurosurgical intervention (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1).
Preinjury clopidogrel therapy is associated with progression of initial insult on RHCT scan and need for neurosurgical intervention. Preinjury clopidogrel therapy as an independent variable should warrant the need for a routine RHCT scan in patients with traumatic brain injury.
Prognostic study, level I; therapeutic study, level II.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 03/2014; 76(3):817-820.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute care surgery (ACS) model has been shown to improve work flow efficiency and to reduce hospital stay. We hypothesized that, in patients with gallbladder (GB) disease who were admitted through our emergency department (ED) and then underwent surgery, the ACS model shortened the time to surgery, decreased the length of hospital stay, and reduced hospital costs.
We retrospectively queried our GB surgery practice records for 2008 (before the establishment of the ACS model at our institution in 2009). We then performed time and cost comparison with our prospectively maintained GB surgery practice database for 2010. We excluded any inpatient GB surgeries and any GB surgeries that were performed for choledocholithiasis and acute pancreatitis.
Our study was composed of 94 patients from the pre-ACS period (2008) and 234 patients from the ACS period (2010). Patients' baseline characteristics were similar between the two periods, except for a higher percentage of females in the ACS period (77% vs. 66%, p = 0.04). Approximately one third of patients from both periods had acute cholecystitis. In the ACS period, the mean time to surgery, that is, from ED arrival to operating room arrival, was shorter (20.8 [13.8] hours vs. 25.7 [16.2] hours, p = 0.007); more patients underwent surgery within 24 hours after ED arrival (75% vs. 59%, p = 0.004); and more patients underwent surgery between 12:00 midnight and 7:00 AM (25% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001). As a result, hospital length of stay was 1.4 days shorter in the ACS period, with cost saving per patient of approximately $1,000.
We found that implementation of ACS model led to benefits for patients who came to our ED with GB disease, including shorter time to surgery, shorter hospital stay, and decreased hospital costs. The ACS model benefits the health care system.
Therapeutic study, level IV.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 03/2014; 76(3):710-714.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Senate Bill 1108 (SB-1108) allows adult citizens to carry concealed weapons without a permit and without completion of a training course. It is unclear whether the law creates a "deterrent factor" to criminals or whether it escalates gun-related violence. We hypothesized that the enactment of SB-1108 resulted in an increase in gun-related injuries and deaths (GRIDs) in southern Arizona.
We performed a retrospective cohort study spanning 24 months before (prelaw) and after (postlaw) SB-1108. We collected injury and death data and overall crime and accident trends. Injured patients were dichotomized based on whether their injuries were intentional (iGRIDs) or accidental (aGRIDs). The primary outcome was any GRID. To determine proportional differences in GRIDs between the two periods, we performed χ analyses. For each subgroup, we calculated relative risk (RR).
The number of national and state background checks for firearms purchases increased in the postlaw period (national and state p < 0.001); that increase was proportionately reflected in a relative increase in state firearm purchase in the postlaw period (1.50% prelaw vs. 1.59% postlaw, p < 0.001). Overall, victims of events potentially involving guns had an 11% increased risk of being injured or killed by a firearm (p = 0.036) The proportion of iGRIDs to overall city violent crime remained the same during the two periods (9.74% prelaw vs. 10.36% postlaw; RR, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.17). However, in the postlaw period, the proportion of gun-related homicides increased by 27% after SB-1108 (RR, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.58).
Both nationally and statewide, firearm purchases increased after the passage of SB-1108. Although the proportion of iGRIDs to overall city violent crime remained the same, the proportion of gun-related homicides increased. Liberalization of gun access is associated with an increase in fatalities from guns.
Epidemiologic study, level III.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 03/2014; 76(3):569-575.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rate of mortality and factors predicting worst outcomes in the geriatric population presenting with trauma are not well established. This study aimed to examine mortality rates in severe and extremely severe injured individuals 65 years or older and to identify the predictors of mortality based on available evidence in the literature.
We performed a systematic literature search on studies reporting mortality and severity of injury in geriatric trauma patients using MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science.
An overall mortality rate of 14.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8-21.7%) in geriatric trauma patients was observed. Increasing age and severity of injury were found to be associated with higher mortality rates in this patient population. Combined odds of dying in those older than 74 years was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.34-2.08) compared with the elderly population aged 65 years to 74 years. However, the odds of dying in patients 85 years and older compared with those of 75 years to 84 years was not different (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.99-1.52). A pooled mortality rate of 26.5% (95% CI, 23.4-29.8%) was observed in the severely injured (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥ 16) geriatric trauma patients. Compared with those with mild or moderate injury, the odds of mortality in severe and extremely severe injuries were 9.5 (95% CI, 6.3-14.5) and 52.3 (95% CI, 32.0-85.5; p ≤ 0.0001), respectively. Low systolic blood pressure had a pooled odds of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.59-2.94) for mortality.
Overall mortality rate among the geriatric population presenting with trauma is higher than among the adult trauma population. Patients older than 74 years experiencing traumatic injuries are at a higher risk for mortality than the younger geriatric group. However, the trauma-related mortality sustains the same rate after the age of 74 years without any further increase. Moreover, severe and extremely severe injuries and low systolic blood pressure at the presentation among geriatric trauma patients are significant risk factors for mortality.
Systematic review and meta-analysis, level IV.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 03/2014; 76(3):894-901.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have described potential benefits of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist therapy in sepsis, there is a paucity of data on the use of β1-selective antagonists (B1AA). The purposes of this study were to describe the effects of B1AA on survival in septic animals and to explore for molecular mechanisms of potential treatment benefit.
C57BL/6 male mice received intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Continuous infusion of a B1AA (esmolol) or an equal volume of saline (control) was initiated at 4 hours after injection. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis at 120 hours was used to explore for mortality differences. A subgroup of animals was sacrificed for microarray expression analysis. Top candidate genes were validated in vitro and in silico. Expression of our candidate genes in a human microarray database (GSE28750) was explored.
B1AA infusion resulted in increased survival (p = 0.001) at 120 hours. Mean survival difference was 23.6 hours (p = 0.002). Hazard ratio for mortality with B1AA is 0.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.72). Immunologic disease (p = 0.0003-0.036) and cell death/survival (p = 0.0001-0.042) were significantly associated with improved survival in septic mice treated with B1AA. Further analysis of the gene structure revealed that eight genes shared common promoter activating sequence for NFKB and/or BRCA1 motifs. Analysis of a human sepsis database identified the up-regulation of CAMP (p = 0.032) and TNFSF10 (p = 0.001) genes in septic patients compared with healthy controls.
Continuous infusion of a B1AA initiated after septic insult improves survival at 5 days in a murine model. Benefits may be caused by modulation of gene expression in immunologic pathways leading to an increase in CAMP and TNFSF10 expression. This observed effect may be explained by the activation of NFKB and BRCA1 genes involved in immune response and cell repair pathways. Our findings support further investigation of the use of B1AA in the treatment of sepsis.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 02/2014; 76(2):320-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geriatric patients are at higher risk for adverse outcomes after injury because of their altered physiological reserve. Mortality after trauma laparotomy remains high; however, outcomes in geriatric patients after trauma laparotomy have not been well established. The aim of our study was to identify factors predicting mortality in geriatric trauma patients undergoing laparotomy.
A retrospective study was performed of all trauma patients undergoing a laparotomy at our level 1 trauma center over a 6-y period (2006-2012). Patients with age ≥55 y who underwent a trauma laparotomy were included. Patients with head abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score ≥ 3 or thorax AIS ≥ 3 were excluded. Our primary outcome measure was mortality. Significant factors in univariate regression model were used in multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the factors predicting mortality.
A total of 1150 patients underwent a trauma laparotomy. Of which 90 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 67 ± 10 y, 63% were male, and median abdominal AIS was 3 (2-4). Overall mortality rate was 23.3% (21/90) and progressively increased with age (P = 0.013). Age (P = 0.02) and lactate (P = 0.02) were the independent predictors of mortality in geriatric patients undergoing laparotomy.
Mortality rate after trauma laparotomy increases with increasing age. Age and admission lactate were the predictors of mortality in geriatric population undergoing trauma laparotomies.
Journal of Surgical Research 01/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction: Smartphones can be used to record and transmit high-quality clinical photographs. The aim of this study was to describe our experience with smartphone telephotography in the care of trauma patients. We hypothesized that smartphone telephotography can be safely and effectively implemented on a trauma service. Subjects and Methods: We performed a 2-year (January 2011-December 2012) prospective analysis of all patient photographs recorded by members of our trauma team at our Level I trauma center. All members of the trauma team recorded patient photographs and e-mailed them to a secure e-mail account. An administrative assistant uploaded a copy of each photgrapho into the patient's electronic medical record. We assessed the number of photographs collected and uploaded, as well as the success, failure, and complication rates. Results: Our trauma team sent 7,200 photographs to a secure e-mail account. Of those, 6,120 (85%) were considered, after an initial review, to be of good quality. Of these, 3,320 photographs (54%) were successfully uploaded into a patient's electronic medical record; the remaining 2,800 photographs lacked adequate labeling and could not be uploaded. The average interval to uploading was 3 months. In total, 10 photographs were uploaded into the wrong patient's electronic medical record, for an error rate of 0.003%. We received only three complaints during the study period. Conclusions: Telephotography can be safely and effectively implemented in trauma clinical practice. Fears of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations are not valid, as the incidence of patient complaints is minimal when telephotography is implemented under strict guidelines and rules. Dedicated administrative personnel are essential for effective implementation of smartphone photography.
Telemedicine and e-Health 01/2014; · 1.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anticipation of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a factor for performing damage-control laparotomy (DCL). Recent years have seen changes in resuscitation patterns and a decline in the use of DCL. We hypothesized that reductions in both crystalloid resuscitation and the use of DCL is associated with a reduced rate of ACS in trauma patients.
We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent trauma laparotomies at our Level 1 trauma center over a 6-year period (2006-2011). We defined DCL as a trauma laparotomy in which the fascia was not closed at the initial operation. We defined ACS by elevated intravesical pressures and end-organ dysfunction. Our primary outcome measure was a development of ACS.
A total of 799 patients were included. We noted a significant decrease in the DCL rate (39% in 2006 vs. 8% in 2011, p < 0.001), the crystalloid volume per patient (mean [SD], 12.8 [7.8] L in 2006 vs. 6.6 [4.2] L in 2011; p < 0.001), rate of ACS (7.4% in 2006 vs. 0% in 2011, p < 0.001), and mortality rate (22.8% in 2006 vs. 10.6% in 2011, p < 0.001). However, we noted no significant changes in the mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) (p = 0.09), in the mean abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score (p = 0.17), and in the mean blood product volume per patient (p = 0.67). On multivariate regression analysis, crystalloid resuscitation (p = 0.01) was the only significant factor associated with the development of ACS.
Minimizing the use of crystalloids and DCL was associated with better outcomes and virtual elimination of ACS in trauma patients. With the adaption of new resuscitation strategies, goals for a trauma laparotomy should be definitive surgical care with abdominal closure. ACS is a rare complication in the era of damage-control resuscitation and may have been iatrogenic.
Therapeutic, retrospective study, level III.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Firearm control laws vary across the United States and remain state specific. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between variation in states' firearm control laws and the risk of firearm-related injuries in pediatric population. We hypothesized that strict firearm control laws impact the incidence of pediatric firearm injury.
All patients with trauma Ecodes and those 18 years or younger were identified from the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Individual states' firearm control laws were evaluated and scored based on background checks on firearm sales, permit requirements, assault weapon and large-capacity magazine ban, mandatory child safety lock requirements, and regulations regarding firearms in college and workplaces. States were then dichotomized into strict firearm laws (SFLs) and non-strict firearm laws (non-SFLs) state based on median total score. The primary outcome measure was incidence of firearm injury. Data were compared between the two groups using simple linear regression analysis.
A total of 60,224 pediatric patients with trauma-related injuries across 44 states were included. Thirty-three states were categorized as non-SFL and 11 as SFL. Two hundred eighty-six (0.5%) had firearm injuries, of which 31 were self-inflicted. Mean firearm injury rates per 1,000 trauma patients was higher in the non-SFL states (mean [SD]: SFL, 2.2 [1.6]; non-SFL, 5.9 [5.6]; p = 0. 001). Being in a non-SFL state increased the mean firearm injury rate by 3.75 (β coefficient, 3.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-7.25; p = 0.036).
Children living in states with strict firearm legislation are safer. Efforts to improve and standardize national firearm control laws are warranted.
Prognostic study, level III.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014; 76(1):146-51.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict outcomes in geriatric patients. However, FI has never been applied as a prognostic measure after trauma. The aim of our study was to identify hospital admission factors predicting discharge disposition in geriatric trauma patients.
We performed a 1-year prospective study at our Level 1 trauma center. All trauma patients 65 years or older were enrolled. FI was calculated using 50 preadmission variables. Patient's discharge disposition was dichotomized as favorable outcome (discharge home, rehabilitation) or unfavorable outcomes (discharge to skilled nursing facility, death). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors that predict unfavorable outcome.
A total of 100 patients were enrolled, with a mean (SD) age of 76.51 (8.5) years, 59% being males, median Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 14 (range, 9-18), median head Abbreviated Injury Scale (h-AIS) score of 2 (2-3), and median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 (12-15). Of the patients, 69% had favorable outcome, and 31% had unfavorable outcome. On univariate analysis, FI was found to be a significant predictor for unfavorable outcome (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.3). After adjusting for age, ISS, and GCS score in a multivariate regression model, FI remained a strong predictor for unfavorable discharge disposition (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.8).
The concept of frailty can be implemented in geriatric trauma patients with similar results as those of nontrauma and nonsurgical patients. FI is a significant predictor of unfavorable discharge disposition and should be an integral part of the assessment tools to determine discharge disposition for geriatric trauma patients.
Prognostic study, level II.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014; 76(1):196-200.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coagulopathy is a major determinant of disability and death in patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. However, the correlation between coagulopathy defined by routine coagulation tests and clinical outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not well defined. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of coagulopathy diagnosed by routine laboratory tests on outcomes in TBI patients.
We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all isolated TBI patients exclusive of prehospital antiplatelet and anticoagulants with coagulation tests, namely, international normalized ratio (INR), platelet count, and partial thromboplastin time at admission. We defined coagulopathy by an INR of 1.5 or greater, partial thromboplastin time of 35 or greater, or platelet count of 100 × 10/µL or less. Outcome measures were progression on repeat head computed tomography (RHCT), need for neurosurgical intervention, and mortality.
A total of 591 patients were enrolled, with a mean (SD) age of 47.4 (26.5) years and 67% being male. Of the patients, 13.3% were coagulopathic at admission. Platelet count of 100 × 10/µL or less was an independent predictor of progression on RHCT (odd ratio [OR], 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-10), need for neurosurgical intervention (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.2-6.1), and mortality (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-4.8). INR was an independent predictor of progression on RHCT (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3).
Routine bedside coagulation parameters at admission play an important role in predicting outcomes in blunt TBI. Platelet count is the strongest predictor for progression of initial insult on RHCT, need for neurosurgical intervention, and mortality.
Prognostic study, level III.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014; 76(1):121-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anticoagulation agents are proven risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of our study is to describe the epidemiology of prehospital coumadin, aspirin, and Plavix (CAP) patients with ICH and evaluate the use of repeat head computed tomography (CT) in this group. We performed a retrospective study from our trauma registry. All patients with intracranial hemorrhage on initial CT with prehospital CAP therapy were included. Demographics, CT scan findings, number of repeat CT scans, progressive findings, and neurosurgical intervention were abstracted. A comparison between prehospital CAP and no-CAP patients was done using χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 1606 patients with blunt TBI charts were reviewed of whom 508 patients had intracranial bleeding on initial CT scan and 72 were on prehospital CAP therapy. CAP patients were older (P < 0.001), had higher Injury Severity Score and head Abbreviated Injury Scores on admission (P < 0.001), were more likely to present with an abnormal neurologic examination (P = 0.004), and had higher hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay (P < 0.005). Eighty-four per cent of patients were on antiplatelet therapy and 27 per cent were on warfarin. The CAP patients have a threefold increase in the rate of worsening repeat head CT (26 vs 9%, P < 0.05). Prehospital CAP therapy is high risk for progression of bleeding on repeat head CT. Routine repeat head CT remains an important component in this patient population and can provide useful information.
The American surgeon 01/2014; 80(1):43-47. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One third of US adults are obese. The impact of obesity on outcomes after blunt traumatic injury has been studied with discrepant results. The aim of our study was to evaluate outcomes in morbidly obese patients after blunt trauma. We hypothesized that morbidly obese patients have adverse outcomes as compared with nonobese patients after blunt traumatic injury.
We performed a retrospective analysis of all blunt trauma patients (≥18 years) using the National Trauma Data Bank for years 2007 to 2010. Patients with recorded comorbidity of morbid obesity (body mass index ≥ 40) were identified. Patients transferred, dead on arrival, and with isolated traumatic brain injury were excluded. Propensity score matching was used to match morbidly obese patients to non-morbidly obese patients (body mass index < 40) in a 1:1 ratio based on age, sex, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and systolic blood pressure on presentation. The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcome was hospital complications.
A total of 32,780 patients (morbidly obese, 16,390; nonobese, 16,390) were included in the study. Morbidly obese patients were more likely to have in-hospital complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-1.9), longer hospital stay (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), and longer intensive care unit stay (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.2). The overall mortality rate was 2.8% (n = 851). Mortality was higher in morbidly obese patients compared with the nonobese patients (3.0 vs. 2.2; OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5).
In a cohort of matched patients, morbid obesity is a risk factor for the development of in-hospital complications and mortality after blunt traumatic injury. The results of our study call for attention through focused injury prevention efforts. Future studies are needed to help define the consequences of obesity that influence outcomes.
Prognostic study, level III.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014; 76(1):176-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
A definitive consensus on the standardization of practice of a routine repeat head computed tomography (RHCT) scan in patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage is lacking. We hypothesized that, in examinable patients without neurological deterioration, RHCT scan does not lead to neurosurgical intervention (craniotomy/ craniectomy).
Methods: This was a 3-year prospective cohort analysis of patients with age > 18 years without antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy presenting to our level 1 trauma center with ICH on initial head CT and a follow-up RHCT. Neurosurgical intervention (NSI) was defined by craniotomy/craniectomy. Neurologic deterioration was defined as altered mental status, focal neurological deficits and/or pupillary changes.
A total of 1,129 patients were included. Routine RHCT was performed in 1,099 patients. The progression rate was 19.7% (216/1099), with subsequent NSI in four patients. The four patients had an abnormal neurological examination with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of ≤ 8 requiring intubation. Thirty patients had a RHCT secondary to neurological deterioration. 53% (16/30) had progression on RHCT of which, 75% (12/16) required NSI. There was an association between deterioration in neurological exam and need for NSI (odds ratio: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.7–9.1). The negative predictive value (NPV) of a deteriorating neurological exam in predicting the need for NSI was 100% in patients with GCS > 8.
Routine repeat head CT scan is not warranted in patients with normal neurological exam. Routine repeat head CT scan does not supplement the need for neurological examination for determining the management in patients with traumatic brain injury.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2014; · 4.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current prehospital standard of care using a large bore intravenous catheter for tension pneumothorax (tPTX) decompression is associated with a high failure rate. We developed a modified Veress needle (mVN) for this condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the mVN as compared with a 14-gauge needle thoracostomy (NT) in a swine tPTX model.
tPTX was created in 16 adult swine via thoracic CO2 insufflation to 15 mm Hg. After tension physiology was achieved, defined as a 50% reduction of cardiac output, the swine were randomized to undergo either mVN or NT decompression. Failure to restore 80% baseline systolic blood pressure within 5 minutes resulted in crossover to the alternate device. The success rate of each device, death, and need for crossover were analyzed using χ.
Forty-three tension events were created in 16 swine (24 mVN, 19 NT) at 15 mm Hg of intrathoracic pressure with a mean CO2 volume of 3.8 L. tPTX resulted in a 48% decline of systolic blood pressure from baseline and 73% decline of cardiac output, and 42% had equalization of central venous pressure with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. All tension events randomized to mVN were successfully rescued within a mean (SD) of 70 (86) seconds. NT resulted in four successful decompressions (21%) within a mean (SD) of 157 (96) seconds. Four swine (21%) died within 5 minutes of NT decompression. The persistent tension events where the swine survived past 5 minutes (11 of 19 NTs) underwent crossover mVN decompression, yielding 100% rescue. Neither the mVN nor the NT was associated with inadvertent injuries to the viscera.
Thoracic insufflation produced a reliable and highly reproducible model of tPTX. The mVN is vastly superior to NT for effective and safe tPTX decompression and physiologic recovery. Further research should be invested in the mVN for device refinement and replacement of NT in the field.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 12/2013; 75(6):1071-1075.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet transfusion is increasingly used in patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) on aspirin therapy to minimize the progression of ICH. We hypothesized (null) that platelet transfusion in this cohort of patients does not improve platelet function.
We performed a prospective interventional trail on patients with traumatic ICH on daily high-dose (325 mg) aspirin therapy. All patients received one pack of apheresis platelets. Blood samples were collected before and 1 hour after platelet transfusion. Platelet function was assessed using Verify Now Platelet Function Assay, and a cutoff of greater than 550 aspirin reaction units was used to define functioning platelets (FP).
Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. On presentation, 79% (22 of 28) of the patients had nonfunctioning platelets (NFPs), and transfusion of platelets did not improve platelet function as 81% (18 of 22) still had NFP. Of the 22 patients, 4 converted from NFP to FP after transfusion. There was no difference in the progression of ICH (37.5% vs. 30%, p = 0.7) or neurosurgical intervention (12.5% vs. 15%, p = 0.86) between patients with FP and NFP after platelet transfusion.
Administration of one pack of apheresis platelet did not improve platelet function. In our study, progression of ICH and the need for neurosurgical intervention were independent of platelet function. Further randomized clinical trials are required to assess both the dose dependence effect and role of platelet transfusion in patients on antiplatelet therapy with traumatic ICH.
Therapeutic study, level III.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 12/2013; 75(6):990-994.