Charles H Adler

Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Center Of Maryland, Maryland, United States

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Publications (214)1044.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dysphagia is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia.
    Dysphagia 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00455-015-9612-7 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median post-mortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than 200 grant-funded projects. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.
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    ABSTRACT: The Cervical Dystonia Patient Registry for Observation of OnabotulinumtoxinA Efficacy (CD PROBE; NCT00836017) is a prospective, observational, multicenter, real-world registry designed to assess the safety, effectiveness, and treatment utilization following multiple treatments of onabotulinumtoxinA. Subjects were naïve to botulinum toxin, new to practice, or had not received toxin in ≥16weeks if in a clinical trial. Dosages and treatment intervals varied due to the real-world design. Descriptive and inferential statistics evaluated changes over 3 treatments. 1046 subjects enrolled. Subjects were 74.4% female, 63.5% toxin-naïve, mean age 58.0±14.7years. The mean dose over 2481 treatment sessions was 189.8±87.1U, with average treatment intervals of 14.6 and 15.1weeks. The mean Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale Total score in subjects who completed all assessments (n=479) decreased from 39.2 at baseline to 27.1 at final visit (P<.0001). A high percentage of physicians reported improvement in Clinician Global Impression of Change after initial assessment; this significantly increased at final assessment (n=479, 91.2% vs 95.0%; P<.0001). Similarly, a high percentage of subjects reported improvement in Patient Global Impression of Change after initial assessment, which significantly increased at final assessment (n=470, 83.0% vs 91.7%; P<.0001). Significant reductions in all Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 scores were observed (n=407). Overall, 26.2% of subjects reported adverse events, including muscular weakness (7.0%) and dysphagia (6.4%). Results indicate robust improvement in clinical ratings and excellent tolerability following onabotulinumtoxinA treatment of CD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 12/2014; 349(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.12.030 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Low-contrast vision is thought to be reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD). This may have a direct impact on quality of life such as driving, using tools, finding objects, and mobility in low-light condition. Low-contrast letter acuity testing has been successful in assessing low-contrast vision in multiple sclerosis. We report the use of a new iPad application to measure low-contrast acuity in patients with PD. Objective: To evaluate low- and high-contrast letter acuity in PD patients and controls using a variable contrast acuity eye chart developed for the Apple iPad. Methods: Thirty-two PD and 71 control subjects were studied. Subjects viewed the Variable Contrast Acuity Chart on an iPad with both eyes open at two distances (40 cm and 2 m) and at high contrast (black and white visual acuity) and 2.5% low contrast. Acuity scores for the two groups were compared. Results: PD patients had significantly lower scores (indicating worse vision) for 2.5% low contrast at both distances and for high contrast at 2 m (p < 0.003) compared to controls. No significant difference was found between the two groups for high contrast at 40 cm (p = 0.12). Conclusions: Parkinson's disease patients have reduced low and high contrast acuity compared to controls. An iPad app, as used in this study, could serve as a quick screening tool to complement more formal testing of patients with PD and other neurologic disorders.
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease 11/2014; 5(1). DOI:10.3233/JPD-140470 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: QEEG could provide physiological biomarkers for changes over time in Parkinson's disease (PD) cognitive decline if they track with longitudinal neuropsychological performance. Objective: Our aim was to correlate longitudinal changes in frequency domain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) measures with change in neuropsychological performance testing in PD. Methods: 71 PD subjects, not demented at baseline, were studied from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders cohort. Baseline and follow-up digital EEG from PD subjects were analyzed for QEEG measures of background rhythm frequency and global relative power in delta (2.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz) bands. Baseline and subsequent evaluation included Mini Mental Status Examination and five other neuropsychological tests that load on cognitive domains known to decline in PD. Pearson coefficient was used to assess correlations. Multiple linear regression modeling was used to assess the effect of variable combinations of QEEG and other measures, including age and PD duration. Results: Changes in delta bandpower showed the highest and most consistent pattern of correlations with longitudinal changes in neuropsychological testing. The highest correlation was between delta bandpower increase and decline in the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (-0.59:p < 0.001). Delta bandpower was also increased in the incident dementia group compared to non-dementia at followup. Conclusions: 1) Longitudinal change in the QEEG frequency domain measure of delta bandpower correlated best with longitudinal neuropsychological performance change in PD; 2) These results constitute preliminary evidence that delta bandpower may be a suitable biomarker for evaluating PD cognitive deterioration longitudinally.
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease 11/2014; 5(1). DOI:10.3233/JPD-140480 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathologic changes of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) have been reported to coexist, but whether PSP pathology modifies the clinical course of those individuals is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical features of pathologically confirmed PD subjects with concomitant PSP pathology differ from those with PD alone. Subjects enrolled in the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders had annual movement and cognitive evaluations from enrollment until death/autopsy. All cases between 1997 and 2014 with a final clinicopathological diagnosis of PD with or without PSP at autopsy were analyzed. Overall, 12 of the 125 cases with pathologically confirmed PD had coexisting PSP pathology (9.6%). Those with PD-PSP had more-prominent postural instability, body bradykinesia, difficulty arising from a chair, and falls; asymmetric onset was less common in this group. Downgaze palsy and square wave jerks were infrequent in both groups. Gender, age at death, disease duration, rate of dementia, and presence of rest tremor did not differ between groups. Only 58% of subjects in the PD-PSP group were correctly given a final diagnosis in life of PD, compared to 91% of those with PD alone. The combination of PD and PSP pathology yields a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that often resembles PD, but may be more symmetric at onset and have more-prominent postural instability and falls. Our observations suggest that coexisting PSP pathology may be an important factor contributing to the clinical heterogeneity in PD and a potential confounder in diagnosis.
    10/2014; 2(1). DOI:10.1002/mdc3.12104
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    ABSTRACT: Analyze demographic data collected over a 25-year experience of 718 patients with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) who have been treated with botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) and compare our data with previously published studies. Seven hundred eighteen patients with SD were treated with 6621 BoNT-A injections at Mayo Clinic Arizona between 1989 and 2014. All patients were treated by the same physician team. Background demographic data for each patient were recorded. Of 718 patients, 557 patients were female (77.6%). Six hundred sixty of 718 (91.8%) patients had adductor SD (AdSD), and 58 of 718 (8.1%) patients had abductor SD (AbSD). Average age of onset was 51 years. Of 718 patients, 378 (52.6%) had vocal tremor (VT); VT was present in 54.4% of AdSD patients and 32.1% of AbSD patients. Thirty-seven of 718 (5.2%) patients had other dystonias, including cervical dystonia (2.3%), blepharospasm (1.4%), limb dystonia (1.1%), and oromandibular dystonia (0.3%). A positive family history of SD was present in only 6 of 718 patients (0.8%) and of other dystonias in 11 of 718 patients (1.5%). Spasmodic dysphonia is a chronic and potentially disabling focal laryngeal dystonia. The Mayo Clinic Arizona SD experience compares to prior reports and reveals a female preponderance, onset in middle age, infrequent hereditary pattern, high co-occurrence of VT, and low co-occurrence of other dystonias. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 09/2014; 151(1 Suppl):P73-P73. DOI:10.1177/0194599814541627a138 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Previous research has linked complex or formed visual hallucinations (VH) to Lewy-type alpha-synucleinopathy (LTS) in neocortical and limbic areas. As Alzheimer’s disease pathology often co-occurs with LTS, we questioned whether this pathology - amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles - might also be linked to VH. Methods We performed a semi-quantitative neuropathological study across brainstem, limbic, and cortical structures in subjects with a documented clinical history of VH and a clinicopathological diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). 173 subjects – including 50 with VH and 123 without VH – were selected from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Clinical variables examined included the Mini-mental State Exam, Hoehn & Yahr stage, and total dopaminergic medication dose. Neuropathological variables examined included total and regional LTS and plaque and tangle densities. Results A significant relationship was found between the density of LTS and the presence of VH in PD, AD, and DLB. Plaque and tangle densities also were associated with VH in PD (p=.003 for plaque and p=.004 for tangles) but not in AD, where densities were high regardless of the presence of hallucinations. Furthermore, with DLB cases excluded, comorbidity of PD and AD was significantly more prevalent among subjects +VH than subjects –VH (p<.001). Conclusion These findings suggest that both AD and PD neuropathology contribute to the pathogenesis of VH. Incident VH could be predictive of concomitant AD/PD pathology even when criteria are not met for a second diagnosis.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 09/2014; 20(9). DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.06.018 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Holly A. Shill, Charles H. Adler, Joseph G. Hentz
    Movement Disorders 09/2014; 29(10). DOI:10.1002/mds.25954 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is well-established and may represent one of the earliest signs of the disease.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 08/2014; 20(11). DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.08.006 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03).
    Scientific Reports 07/2014; 4:5797. DOI:10.1038/srep05797 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determine diagnostic accuracy of a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) using neuropathologic diagnosis as the gold standard.METHODS: Data from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders were used to determine the predictive value of a clinical PD diagnosis, using 2 clinical diagnostic confidence levels, PossPD (never treated or not clearly responsive) and ProbPD (responsive to medications). Neuropathologic diagnosis was the gold standard.RESULTS: Based on first visit, 9 of 34 (26%) PossPD cases had neuropathologically confirmed PD while 80 of 97 (82%) ProbPD cases had confirmed PD. PD was confirmed in 8 of 15 (53%) ProbPD cases with <5 years of disease duration and 72 of 82 (88%) with ≥5 years of disease duration. Using final diagnosis at time of death, 91 of 107 (85%) ProbPD cases had confirmed PD. Clinical variables that improved diagnostic accuracy were medication response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, and hyposmia.CONCLUSIONS: Using neuropathologic findings of PD as the gold standard, this study establishes the novel findings of only 26% accuracy for a clinical diagnosis of PD in untreated or not clearly responsive subjects, 53% accuracy in early PD responsive to medication (<5 years' duration), and >85% diagnostic accuracy of longer duration, medication-responsive PD. Caution is needed when interpreting clinical studies of PD, especially studies of early disease that do not have autopsy confirmation. The need for a tissue or other diagnostic biomarker is reinforced.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that a clinical diagnosis of PD identifies patients who will have pathologically confirmed PD with a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 68%.
    Neurology 06/2014; 83(5). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000641 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery and reliable detection of markers for neurodegenerative diseases have been complicated by the inaccessibility of the diseased tissue- such as the inability to biopsy or test tissue from the central nervous system directly. RNAs originating from hard to access tissues, such as neurons within the brain and spinal cord, have the potential to get to the periphery where they can be detected non-invasively. The formation and extracellular release of microvesicles and RNA binding proteins have been found to carry RNA from cells of the central nervous system to the periphery and protect the RNA from degradation. Extracellular miRNAs detectable in peripheral circulation can provide information about cellular changes associated with human health and disease. In order to associate miRNA signals present in cell-free peripheral biofluids with neurodegenerative disease status of patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, we assessed the miRNA content in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from postmortem subjects with full neuropathology evaluations. We profiled the miRNA content from 69 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 67 with Parkinson's disease and 78 neurologically normal controls using next generation small RNA sequencing (NGS). We report the average abundance of each detected miRNA in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum and describe 13 novel miRNAs that were identified. We correlated changes in miRNA expression with aspects of disease severity such as Braak stage, dementia status, plaque and tangle densities, and the presence and severity of Lewy body pathology. Many of the differentially expressed miRNAs detected in peripheral cell-free cerebrospinal fluid and serum were previously reported in the literature to be deregulated in brain tissue from patients with neurodegenerative disease. These data indicate that extracellular miRNAs detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum are reflective of cell-based changes in pathology and can be used to assess disease progression and therapeutic efficacy.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e94839. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094839 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Many clinicopathological studies do not specify the presence of other pathologies located within the brain, so disease heterogeneity may be under appreciated. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies of concomitant pathologies among parkinsonian disorders. Methods Data from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND), an ongoing longitudinal clinical-neuropathological study, was used to analyze concomitant pathologies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), argyrophilic grains (Arg), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), cerebral white matter rarefaction (CWMR) and overlap of each parkinsonian disorder in clinico-pathologically defined Parkinson’s disease (PD; N=140), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; N=90), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; N=64), multiple system atrophy (MSA; N=6), corticobasal degeneration (CBD; N=7); and normal elderly (controls; N=166). Results Of the neuropathologically-confirmed PD cases, 38% had a concomitant diagnosis of AD, 9% PSP, 25% Arg, and 44% CWMR, and 24% CAA. For DLB, 89% had AD, 1% PSP, 21% Arg, and 51% CWMR, and 50% CAA. For PSP cases, 36% had AD, 20% PD, 1% DLB, 44% Arg, 52% CWMR and 25% CAA. Similar heterogeneity was seen for MSA and CBD cases. Many cases had more than one of the above additional diagnoses. Conclusions These data demonstrate a great deal of concomitant pathologies among different types of parkinsonian disorders; this may help explain the heterogeneity of clinical findings.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 05/2014; 20(5). DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.02.012 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visual symptoms are relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and optical coherence tomography has indicated possible retinal thinning. Accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein is thought to be a central pathogenic event in the PD brain but there have not as yet been reports of retinal synucleinopathy. Retinal wholemounts were prepared from subjects with a primary clinicopathological diagnosis of PD (N=9), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; N=3), Alzheimer's disease (N=3), progressive supranuclear palsy (N=2) as well as elderly normal control subjects (N=4). These were immunohistochemically stained with an antibody against α-synuclein phosphorylated at serine 129, which is a specific molecular marker of synucleinopathy. Phosphorylated α-synuclein-immunoreactive (p-syn IR) nerve fibers were present in 7/9 PD subjects and in 1/3 DLB subjects; these were sparsely distributed and superficially located near or at the inner retinal surface. The fibers were either long and straight or were branching, often with multiple en-passant varicosities along their length. The straight fibers most often had an orientation that was radial with respect to the optic disc. Together, these features are suggestive of either retinopetal/centrifugal fibers or of ganglion cell axons. In one PD subject there were sparse p-syn IR neuronal cell bodies with dendritic morphology suggestive of G19 retinal ganglion cells or intrinsically photosensitive ganglion cells. There were no stained nerve fibers or other specific staining in any of the non-PD or non-DLB subjects. It is possible that at least some of the observed visual function impairments in PD subjects might be due to α-synucleinopathy.
    Neuroscience Letters 04/2014; 571. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.04.027 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare profiles of subjects with and without cervical dystonia (CD)-associated pain, to evaluate the contribution of pain and the motor component of CD on quality of life, and to compare the initial botulinum toxin treatment paradigm between pain groups, baseline data were used from the CD Patient Registry for Observation of OnabotulinumtoxinA Efficacy (CD PROBE), a multicenter, prospective, observational registry designed to capture real-world practices and outcomes for onabotulinumtoxinA CD treatment. Subjects were divided into no/mild pain [Pain Numeric Rating Scale (PNRS) score 0–3] and moderate/severe pain groups (PNRS score 4–10). Descriptive and differential statistics were utilized to compare groups. 1,037 subjects completed the first treatment session, reported baseline botulinum toxin status, and completed baseline PNRS. Those with no/mild pain were significantly older at baseline. Those subjects with moderate/severe pain had higher Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale Severity (17.7 ± 5.1 vs. 16.2 ± 5.6, p < 0.0001) and Disability (12.7 ± 6.1 vs. 7.5 ± 5.6, p < 0.0001). CD subjects with moderate/severe pain received a higher mean dose (177.3 ± 82.9 vs. 158.0 ± 67.1 U, p = 0.0001) of onabotulinumtoxinA and were injected in more muscles (4.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.7 ± 1.2, p < 0.0001) at initial treatment. CD PROBE clearly demonstrates the frequency of pain in CD and substantiates its importance when determining an optimal treatment paradigm. Future analyses of CD PROBE will further our understanding of the treatment patterns and outcomes related to onabotulinumtoxinA therapy for this disabling condition. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00415-014-7343-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Journal of Neurology 04/2014; 261(7). DOI:10.1007/s00415-014-7343-6 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent formalization of clinical criteria for Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) codifies many studies on this topic, including those assessing biological correlates. These studies show that the emergence of PDD occurs on the background of severe dopamine deficits with, the main pathological drivers of cognitive decline being a synergistic effect between alpha-synuclein and Alzheimer's disease pathology. The presence of these pathologies correlates with a marked loss of limbic and cortically projecting dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and acetylcholine neurons, although the exact timing of these relationships remains to be determined. Genetic factors, such as triplications in the α-synuclein gene, lead to a clear increased risk of PDD, whereas others, such as parkin mutations, are associated with a reduced risk of PDD. The very recent formalization of clinical criteria for PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) allows only speculation on its biological and genetic bases. Critical assessment of animal models shows that chronic low-dose MPTP treatment in primates recapitulates PD-MCI over time, enhancing the current biological concept of PD-MCI as having enhanced dopamine deficiency in frontostriatal pathways as well as involvement of other neurotransmitter systems. Data from other animal models support multiple transmitter involvement in cognitive impairment in PD. Whereas dopamine dysfunction has been highlighted because of its obvious role in PD, the role of the other neurotransmitter systems, neurodegenerative pathologies, and genetic factors in PD-MCI remains to be fully elucidated. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 04/2014; 29(5). DOI:10.1002/mds.25857 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarkers based on the underlying pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) have the potential to improve diagnosis and understanding of the substrate for cognitive impairment in these disorders. The objective of this study was to compare the patterns of amyloid and dopamine PET imaging in patients with AD, DLB and Parkinson's disease (PD) using the amyloid imaging agent florbetapir F 18 and 18F-AV-133 (florbenazine), a marker for vesicular monamine type 2 transporters (VMAT2). Patients with DLB and AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC) were recruited for this study. On separate days, subjects received intravenous injections of florbetapir, and florbenazine. Amyloid burden and VMAT2 density were assessed quantitatively and by binary clinical interpretation. Imaging results for both tracers were compared across the four individual diagnostic groups and for combined groups based on underlying pathology (AD/DLB vs. PD/HC for amyloid burden and PD/DLB vs. AD/HC for VMAT binding) and correlated with measures of cognition and parkinsonism. 11 DLB, 10 AD, 5 PD, and 5 controls participated in the study. Amyloid binding was significantly higher in the combined AD/DLB patient group (n = 21) compared to the PD/ HC groups (n = 10, mean SUVr: 1.42 vs. 1.07; p = 0.0006). VMAT2 density was significantly lower in the PD/DLB group (n = 16) compared to the AD/ HC group (n = 15; 1.83 vs. 2.97; p < 0.0001). Within the DLB group, there was a significant correlation between cognitive performance and striatal florbenazine binding (r = 0.73; p = 0.011). The results of this study show significant differences in both florbetapir and florbenazine imaging that are consistent with expected pathology. In addition, VMAT density correlated significantly with cognitive impairment in DLB patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00857506, registered March 5, 2009).
    BMC Neurology 04/2014; 14(1):79. DOI:10.1186/1471-2377-14-79 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been controversy as to whether there is an underlying neurodegenerative process of the cerebellum in essential tremor (ET). The aim of this study was to examine whether ET is associated with Purkinje cell (PC) loss. Prospectively categorized ET and control subjects who were longitudinally examined in the Arizona Study for Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and came to autopsy between 1998 and 2013 underwent standardized neuropathological assessment of the brain. PC linear density of the cerebellar hemisphere was calculated in a blinded manner. There were 56 ET cases and 62 age-matched controls free of dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders included in the study. Mean PC linear density was 3.80 ± 0.81 cells per mm for tremor cases and 3.82 ± 0.91 cells per mm for controls (Δ 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.30-0.34). PC counts were not associated with tremor duration (r = 0.06; 95% CI: -0.21-0.32). These data demonstrate that ET is not associated with cerebellar PC loss. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 04/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1002/mds.25845 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant that supports mitochondrial function, has been shown in preclinical Parkinson disease (PD) models to reduce the loss of dopamine neurons, and was safe and well tolerated in early-phase human studies. A previous phase II study suggested possible clinical benefit.Objective To examine whether CoQ10 could slow disease progression in early PD.Design, Setting, and Participants A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial at 67 North American sites consisting of participants 30 years of age or older who received a diagnosis of PD within 5 years and who had the following inclusion criteria: the presence of a rest tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity; a modified Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2.5 or less; and no anticipated need for dopaminergic therapy within 3 months. Exclusion criteria included the use of any PD medication within 60 days, the use of any symptomatic PD medication for more than 90 days, atypical or drug-induced parkinsonism, a Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) rest tremor score of 3 or greater for any limb, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 or less, a history of stroke, the use of certain supplements, and substantial recent exposure to CoQ10. Of 696 participants screened, 78 were found to be ineligible, and 18 declined participation.Interventions The remaining 600 participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 1200 mg/d of CoQ10, or 2400 mg/d of CoQ10; all participants received 1200 IU/d of vitamin E.Main Outcomes and Measures Participants were observed for 16 months or until a disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. The prospectively defined primary outcome measure was the change in total UPDRS score (Parts I-III) from baseline to final visit. The study was powered to detect a 3-point difference between an active treatment and placebo.Results The baseline characteristics of the participants were well balanced, the mean age was 62.5 years, 66% of participants were male, and the mean baseline total UPDRS score was 22.7. A total of 267 participants required treatment (94 received placebo, 87 received 1200 mg/d of CoQ10, and 86 received 2400 mg/d of CoQ10), and 65 participants (29 who received placebo, 19 who received 1200 mg/d of CoQ10, and 17 who received 2400 mg/d of CoQ10) withdrew prematurely. Treatments were well tolerated with no safety concerns. The study was terminated after a prespecified futility criterion was reached. At study termination, both active treatment groups showed slight adverse trends relative to placebo. Adjusted mean changes (worsening) in total UPDRS scores from baseline to final visit were 6.9 points (placebo), 7.5 points (1200 mg/d of CoQ10; P = .49 relative to placebo), and 8.0 points (2400 mg/d of CoQ10; P = .21 relative to placebo).Conclusions and Relevance Coenzyme Q10 was safe and well tolerated in this population, but showed no evidence of clinical benefit.Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00740714
    JAMA Neurology 03/2014; 71(5):543-552. DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.131 · 7.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,044.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Center Of Maryland
      Maryland, United States
  • 1993–2014
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • 2013
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
  • 2010
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Neurology
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Banner Sun Health Research Institute
      Sun City, Arizona, United States
  • 2007
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2000
    • St. Luke's Medical Center (Philippines)
      Alfonso XIII, Mimaropa, Philippines
  • 1998
    • Barrow Neurological Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1996
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, MN, United States