Atanacio Valencia-Mendoza

Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

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Publications (17)56.05 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Present and analyze cost-effectiveness information of public health interventions proposed by the Mesoamerican Health Initiative in child nutrition, vaccination, malaria, dengue, and maternal, neonatal, and reproductive health. A systematic literature review was conducted on cost-effectiveness studies published between January 2000 and August 2009 on interventions related to the health areas previously mentioned. Studies were included if they measured effectiveness in terms of Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or death averted. Child nutrition and maternal and neonatal health interventions were found to be highly cost-effective (most of them below US$200 per DALY averted for nutritional interventions and US$100 for maternal and neonatal health). For dengue, information on cost-effectiveness was found just for application of larvicides, which resulted in a cost per DALY averted ranking from US$40.79 to US$345.06. Malarial interventions were found to be cost-effective (below US$150 per DALY averted or US$4,000 per death averted within Africa). In the case of pneumococcus and rotavirus vaccination, cost-effectiveness estimates were always above one GDP per capita per DALY averted. In Mesoamerica there are still important challenges in child nutrition, vaccination, malaria, dengue and maternal, neonatal, and reproductive health, challenges that could be addressed by scaling-up technically feasible and cost-effective interventions.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2011; 53 Suppl 3:S375-85. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    Laura G Danese-Dlsantos, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Atanacio Valencia-Mendoza
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    ABSTRACT: A common characteristic of health systems in most developing countries is unequal access to health services. As a result, members of the poorest population groups often do not receive formal attention for health services, because they cannot afford it. In 2001 in Mexico, to address income-related differences in the use of health services, the government launched a major healthcare reform, which includes a health insurance program called Seguro Popular, aimed at improving healthcare access among poor, uninsured residents. This paper analyzes the before and after changes in the demand for curative ambulatory health services focusing on the association of income-related characteristics and the utilization of formal healthcare providers vs. no healthcare service utilization. By using two nationally representative health surveys (ENSA-2000 and ENSANUT-2006), we modeled an individual's decision when experiencing an illness to use services provided by the (1) Ministry of Health (MoH), (2) social security, (3) private entities, or (4) to not use formal services (no healthcare service utilization). Poorer individuals were more likely in 2006 than in 2000 to respond to an illness by using formal healthcare providers. Trends in provider selection differed, however. The probability of using public services from the MoH increased among the poorest population, while the findings indicated an increase in utilization of private health services among members of low- and middle-income groups. No significant change was seen among formal workers -covered by social security services-, regardless of socioeconomic status. Overall, for 2006 the Mexican population appears less differentiated in using healthcare across economic groups than in 2000. This may be related, in part, to the implementation of Seguro Popular, which seems to be stimulating healthcare demand among the poorest and previously uninsured segment of the population. Still, public health authorities need to address the remaining income-related healthcare utilization differences, the differences in quality between public and private health services, and the general perception that MoH facilities offer inferior services.
    BMC Public Health 01/2011; 11:771. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present the main results of the regional situation diagnosis and intervention plan developed in 2010 as part of the planning activities of the Mesoamerican Health System by the Working Group on Maternal, Reproductive and Neonatal Health. A group of experts and representatives from countries in the region (Central America and nine southern Mexican states) conducted an exhaustive review of available data to construct a situational analysis and a review of effective practices for improving maternal, reproductive and neonatal health. Finally, the group proposed a regional action plan, defining regional goals and specific interventions. The situational diagnosis suggests that, although there has been progress in the last 10 years, maternal and neonatal mortality rates are still unnaceptably high in the region, with a substantial variability across countries. The group proposed as a regional goal the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in accordance with the Millenium Development Goals. The regional plan recommends specific maternal and neonatal health interventions emphasizing obstetric and neonatal emergency care, skilled birth attendance and family planning. The plan also includes a five year implementation strategy, along with training and evaluation strategies. The regional plan for maternal, neonatal and reproductive health has the potential to be successful, provided it is effectively implemented.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2011; 53 Suppl 3:S312-22. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet 01/2010; 375(9709):114-5. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the cost-effectiveness of screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using a commercially available detection test and treating individuals at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a middle-income country. We developed a Markov model to evaluate the cost per LTBI case detected, TB case averted and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for a cohort of 1000 individuals at high risk for HIV infection over 20 years. Baseline model inputs for LTBI prevalence were obtained from published literature and cross-sectional data from tuberculosis (TB) screening using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) testing among sex workers and illicit drug users at high risk for HIV recruited through street outreach in Tijuana, Mexico. Costs are reported in 2007 US dollars. Future costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% per year. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model robustness. Over 20 years, we estimate the program would prevent 78 cases of active TB and 55 TB-related deaths. The incremental cost per case of LTBI detected was US$730, cost per active TB averted was US$529 and cost per QALY gained was US$108. In settings of endemic TB and escalating HIV incidence, targeting LTBI screening and treatment among high-risk groups may be highly cost-effective.
    The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease: the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 09/2009; 13(8):962-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S296 salud pública de méxico / vol. 51, suplemento 2 de 2009 Valencia-Mendoza A y col.-efectividad de políticas para el tamizaje de cáncer de mama en México. Salud Publica Mex 2009;51 supl 2:S296-S304. Resumen Objetivo. Generar información de costo-efectividad para optimizar las políticas para el cáncer de mama (CaMa) en México. Material y métodos. Se construyó un modelo Markov que incorpora cuatro procesos interrelacionados del CaMa: la evolución natural, la detección con mamografía, el tratamiento y la dinámica de mortalidad por otras causas, a partir del cual se modelaron 13 estrategias. Resultados. Las estrategias (edad de inicio, porcentaje de cobertura, periodicidad en años)= (48, 25, 2), (40, 50, 2) y (40, 50, 1) representan la ruta óptima de expansión del programa, con un costo por año de vida ganado de 75.3, 116.4 y 171.1 (miles de pesos), respectivamente. Conclusiones. Las estrategias Abstract Objective. Generate cost-effectiveness information to allow policy makers optimize breast cancer (BC) policy in Mexico. Material and methods. We constructed a Markov model that incorporates four interrelated processes of the disease: the natural history; detection using mammography; treatment; and other competing-causes mortality, according to which 13 different strategies were modeled. Results. Strategies (starting age, % of coverage, frequency in years)= (48, 25, 2), (40, 50, 2) and (40, 50, 1) constituted the optimal method for expanding the BC program, yielding 75.3, 116.4 and 171.1 thousand pesos per life-year saved, respectively.Conclusions: The strategies included in the optimal method for expanding the program produce a cost per life-year saved of less than two times the GNP per capita and hence are cost-effective according to WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Generate cost-effectiveness information to allow policy makers optimize breast cancer (BC) policy in Mexico. Material and methods. We constructed a Markov model that incorporates four interrelated processes of the disease: the natural history; detection using mammography; treatment; and other competing-causes mortality, according to which 13 different strategies were modeled. Results. Strategies (starting age, % of coverage, frequency in years)= (48, 25, 2), (40, 50, 2) and (40, 50, 1) constituted the optimal method for expanding the BC program, yielding 75.3, 116.4 and 171.1 thousand pesos per life-year saved, respectively.Conclusions: The strategies included in the optimal method for expanding the program produce a cost per life-year saved of less than two times the GNP per capita and hence are cost-effective according to WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2009; 51. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Generate cost-effectiveness information to allow policy makers optimize breast cancer (BC) policy in Mexico. We constructed a Markov model that incorporates four interrelated processes of the disease: the natural history; detection using mammography; treatment; and other competing-causes mortality, according to which 13 different strategies were modeled. Strategies (starting age, % of coverage, frequency in years)= (48, 25, 2), (40, 50, 2) and (40, 50, 1) constituted the optimal method for expanding the BC program, yielding 75.3, 116.4 and 171.1 thousand pesos per life-year saved, respectively. The strategies included in the optimal method for expanding the program produce a cost per life-year saved of less than two times the GNP per capita and hence are cost-effective according to WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2009; 51 Suppl 2:s296-304. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.
    BMC Public Health 01/2009; 9 Suppl 1:S6. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • I Rivas-Oropeza, A Valencia-Mendoza, G Sánchez-González
    Value in Health 01/2009; 12(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program. A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months. Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%), 5,040 hospital admissions (66%), and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%). At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved. At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine is likely to be significantly more cost-effective among poorer populations and among those with less access to prompt medical care - such that poverty reduction programs would be expected to reduce the future cost-effectiveness of the vaccine.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2008; 8:103. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    Atanacio Valencia-Mendoza, Stefano Bertozzi
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Estimar el grado en el cual variables individuales, del hogar y comunitarias predicen la utilización de servicios ambulatorios curativos en México. Material y métodos. Ante un problema de salud los individuos pueden elegir utilizar servicios médicos, servicios de la Secretaría de Salud (SSa), de la Seguridad Social (SS) o Privados (SP). Esta elección es modelada con datos de la ENSA 2000 mediante un modelo logístico multinomial anidado. Resultados. El predictor más importante de la utilización de servicios de salud fue la derechohabiencia a la SS. Se encontró una fuerte relación positiva entre estatus socioeconómico (ESE) y la utilización de servicios de salud. Dicha relación es mayor para la utilización de SP, seguida de la SS. Se encontró una relación negativa entre el ESE y la utilización de servicios de la SSa. Conclusión. Expandir la cobertura de aseguramiento reduciría significativamente las inequidades en salud debidas a la baja utilización de servicios de salud por los no beneficiarios.
    Salud pública de México, ISSN 0036-3634, Vol. 50, Nº. 5, 2008, pags. 397-407. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the challenges and accomplishments of the Mexican health system as it faced the HIV/AIDS epidemic over the 20 years since discovery of the virus. A review of the relevant literature was done. The topics revised were: HIV/AIDS epidemiology, the early response of the health system and civil society, prevention and risk behaviors, care and treatment, and financing and resources allocation. In Mexico a rapid initial public response surely contributed to containing any early spread of the epidemic to select populations; whether that spread will continue to be contained is an open question. Sexual risk practices remain high not only among traditional risk populations but also among youth. Even though the epidemic remains concentrated in Mexico, principally among MSM and IDU, only 13% of public HIV prevention funds are directed to key populations at especially high risk of becoming infected or infecting others. In recent years antiretroviral coverage has increased rapidly with funding increasing from 30 to 367 million pesos from 2001 to 2003 and coverage now approaching 100%. Of all health spending on HIV/AIDS in the public sector, 82.4% is spent by the social security institutes and 17.6% by the Ministry of Health. The former provides medical care to about half of PLHA while the latter, in addition to caring for the other half, supports the large majority of prevention expenses. One of the challenges faced by the health system which has largely achieved universal antiretroviral coverage is how to provide quality care with appropriate monitoring, promotion of adherence and recognition and treatment of resistance and adverse effects--without dramatically increasing costs.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 01/2004; 56(2):242-52. · 0.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estimating Seguro Popular de Salud's (SPS) initial outcome regarding households' catastrophic health spending (CHS). The relationship of other important factors to the CE was also estimated. A cross-sectional study, based on evaluating Seguro Popular's survey, was carried out in the Mexican states of Colima and Campeche during 2002; it was carried out during the first semester of 2005. SPS and other co-variables' relationship with CHS was estimated by using the probit model. Such relationship was then estimated again using the bi-probit model, but taking endogeneity between CHS and SPS affiliation into consideration. Some simulations led to a detailed analysis of the influence of the use by type of service on the CHS. The probability of SPS-affiliated households incurring CHS was about 8% less than un-affiliated households (controlled for other co-variables and corrected for endogeneity). The probability of incurring CHS was always less for affiliated people, independently of the income bracket which they belonged to and the kind of services used. The results suggested that SPS is financially protecting households; nevertheless, the goal of a 75 % reduction in CHS has still to be achieved.
    Revista de salud publica (Bogota, Colombia) 10(1):18-32.
  • Atanacio Valencia-Mendoza, Stefano M Bertozzi
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the degree to which individual and household variables jointly predict utilization of curative ambulatory services in Mexico for four types of health providers. Patient choice of provider (self-care, Ministry of Health, social security, or private provider) when they become ill is modeled using a nested multinomial logit model that uses household and individual variables as predictors. The data are from the Mexican National Health Survey conducted in 2000. Being a social security beneficiary is one of the most important predictors of utilization. A strong positive relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and demand for services was also found, with the strongest relationship being for private providers, followed by social security. Utilization of Ministry of Health (MoH) services was negatively associated with household SES. Expansion of health insurance coverage should significantly reduce health inequalities due to reduced care-seeking by non-beneficiaries.
    Salud publica de Mexico 50(5):397-407. · 0.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

44 Citations
56.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2011
    • Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
      Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
  • 2009
    • Escuela Nacional de Salud Publica
      La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba