[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of clinical demographics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients is important but there are few prospectively collected data in Korea. The objective of the present study was to describe the current status of mechanically ventilated patients in Korea as of 2010. We analyzed the data of Korean patients (275 patients in 12 Korean intensive care units [ICU]) participating in a multinational prospective cohort study on mechanical ventilation. The most common indication for mechanical ventilation was pneumonia (23%). Pressure-limited ventilation modes were preferred over volume-cycled ventilation modes. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation was used in only seven (2%) patients as the initial ventilatory support. Median duration of mechanical ventilation was 7 days and ICU mortality was 36%. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) score at ICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 1.034; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.036; P=0.033), peak pressure (OR, 1.054; 95% CI, 1.016-1.095; P=0.006), and the number of failed organs (OR, 2.132; 95% CI, 1.634-2.781; P<0.001) were independently associated with ICU mortality. This study provides a snapshot of current practice of mechanical ventilation in Korea.
Journal of Korean medical science. 06/2014; 29(6):864-70.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is predicted to be the third most common cause of death worldwide by 2020, often suffer from depression, one of the most common and modifiable comorbidities of COPD. This study assessed the prevalence of depression in patients with COPD and the association of depression with disease severity.
This was a multicenter, prospective cross-sectional study of 245 patients with stable COPD. Disease severity was assessed using two scales: the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) stage and BODE index. Depression was measured using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scales. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation, and multivariate logistic regression.
Depression defined as a CES-D score of 24 and higher was observed in 17.6 % of patients with COPD. The prevalence of depression increased with disease severity based on the BODE quartile (r = 0.16; P = 0.014). By contrast, no difference was observed in the prevalence of depression among the severity groups using the GOLD staging system (r = - 0.01; P = 0.898). Elementary school graduates were more likely to experience depression than graduates of high school and above [odds ratio (OR) = 3.67; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.37-9.85] and patients in BODE quartile II were more likely to experience depression than those with BODE quartile I (OR = 2.5; 95 % CI 1.04-6.06).
Depression was associated with disease severity according to the BODE quartile in patients with COPD. BODE quartile II was a significant predictor of depression. Screening patients with a high risk of depression and proactive intervention for those patients are needed.
Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 01/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes a rare case of a patient with splenic tuberculosis (TB) who developed spontaneous splenic rupture after 10 weeks of antituberculous chemotherapy. The patient responded well to the antituberculous regimen prior to the spontaneous splenic rupture. We considered a paradoxical reaction as a cause of the splenic rupture. The patient underwent splenectomy and continuously received initial antituberculous drugs without change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous splenic rupture as a paradoxical reaction to antituberculous chemotherapy in an immunocompetent host with splenic TB.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 11/2013; 75(5):218-221.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: COPD Severity MetricsSESSION TYPE: Original Investigation SlidePRESENTED ON: Sunday, October 27, 2013 at 03:00 PM - 04:00 PMPURPOSE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is predicted to be the third most common cause of deaths worldwide by 2020, experience significant impairment in their quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the association of health-related quality of life (HRQL) with disease severity according to the body mass index, degree of airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in Korean patients with COPD.METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective cross-sectional study of 245 Korean patients with stable COPD. At enrollment, all patients completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Medical outcomes short form-36 (SF-36). The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to assess the association between health status scores and clinical or functional variables.RESULTS: Categorizing the BODE scores into four stages, we found that higher BODE stages were associated with higher (worse) SGRQ scores. The differences among the BODE stages in health status indexes were significant for total SGRQ as well as all three of the SGRQ subscales. In all sections of the SGRQ, scores were moderately to strongly associated with the BODE stages (r=0.25~0.65). The association between SF-36 and the BODE index was significant (p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL was associated with disease severity according to the BODE stage in a large Korean population of COPD patients.CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: BODE stage is useful for predicting the worsening of HRQL in COPD patients, which suggest action should be taken to support especially in advanced COPD patients.DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Kiuk Kim, Eun Jung Cho, Mi Hyun Kim, Woo Hyun Cho, Doo Soo Jeon, Yun Seong Kim, Min Ki LeeNo Product/Research Disclosure Information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of death among the elderly. Several studies have reported the clinical usefulness of serum procalcitonin, a biomarker of bacterial infection. However, the association between the levels of procalcitonin and the severity in the elderly with CAP has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of procalcitonin as a predictor of severity and mortality in the elderly with CAP.
This study covers 155 CAP cases admitted to Pusan National University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. Patients were divided into two groups (≥65 years, n=99; <65 years, n=56) and were measured for procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell, confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, blood pressure, 65 years or older (CURB-65) and pneumonia severity of index (PSI).
The levels of procalcitonin were significantly correlated with the CURB-65, PSI in totals. Especially stronger correlation was observed between the levels of procalcitonin and CURB-65 in the elderly (procalcitonin and CURB-65, ρ=0.408 with p<0.001; procalcitonin and PSI, ρ=0.293 with p=0.003; procalcitonin and mortality, ρ=0.229 with p=0.023). The correlation between the levels of CRP or WBC and CAP severity was low. The existing cut-off value of procalcitonin was correlated with mortality rate, however, it was not correlated with mortality within the elderly.
The levels of procalcitonin are more useful than the levels of CRP or WBC to predict the severity of CAP. However, there was no association between the levels of procalcitonin and mortality in the elderly.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 05/2013; 74(5):207-14.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), defined as ventilator care for ≥21 days, who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital in Korea.
During the study period, a total of 2,644 patients were admitted to the medical ICU, and 136 patients (5.1%) were enrolled between 2005 and 2010.
The mean age of the patients was 61.3±14.5 years, and 94 (69.1%) were male. The ICU and six-month cumulative mortality rates were 45.6 and 58.8%, respectively. There were 96 patients with tracheostomy placement after admission and their mean period from admission to the day of tracheostomy was 21.3±8.4 days. Sixty-three patients (46.3%) were successfully weaned from ventilator care. Of the ICU survivors (n=74), 34 patients (45.9%) were transferred to other hospitals (not university hospitals). Two variables (thrombocytopenia [hazard ratio (HR), 1.964; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.225~3.148; p=0.005] and the requirement for vasopressors [HR, 1.822; 95% CI, 1.111~2.986; p=0.017] on day 21) were found to be independent factors of survival on based on the Cox proportional hazard model.
We found that patients requiring PMV had high six-month cumulative mortality rates, and that two clinical variables (measured on day 21), thrombocytopenia and requirement for vasopressors, may be associated with prognostic indicators.
Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 10/2012; 73(4):224-30.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the tumor burden as characterized by the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured by F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT) in predicting recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients with pathologically documented stages I-IIIA NSCLC. MTV and TLG were obtained according to various thresholds of the standard uptake value (SUV) of primary tumor using preoperative F-18 FDG PET-CT. We used comparison receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis to test the statistical significance of the differences among the multiple volumetric parameters calculated by various SUV cutoff values. RFS and OS were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.
On comparison receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, no significant difference was found among the volumetric parameters calculated using various thresholds of SUV. Regardless of the thresholds, patients with smaller MTV and lower TLG showed longer RFS and OS. MTV and TLG measured by F-18 FDG PET-CT were found to have better predictive performance than SUVmax for recurrence and death. According to multivariate analyses, MTV2.5 was revealed as a significant prognostic factor for RFS. Tumor size over 3 cm was selected as a significant prognostic indicator of OS.
Volume-based parameters of F-18 FDG PET-CT may have a role in providing prognostic information in NSCLC patients who have received surgical treatment.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 03/2012; 33(6):613-20. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We assessed the diagnostic usefulness of Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN).Methods: Thirty-five patients (17 malignant and 18 benign) were recruited. Double phase Tc-99m MIBI SPECT was performed 10 min and then 2 h after an injection of 925 MBq of Tc-99m MIBI. Visual interpretation grades of the Tc-99m MIBI scan were used for the determination of SPN characteristics. Receiver–operator curve analyses were performed for the optimal cut-off values of visual and quantitative indices for differentiation of benign and malignant SPN.Results: The optimal visual grades were grade 4 and 5. When 3+ was used as the cut-off value for the detection of malignant SPN, the sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m SPECT were 47.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.758. The optimal planar lesions to non-lesion (L/N) ratios were 2.3 for the early image and 1.6 for the delayed image. The optimal SPECT L/N ratios were 3.1 for the early and 1.6 for the delayed image. The SPECT early L/N was superior to other quantitative indices and visual analysis.Conclusion: This study shows that Tc-99m MIBI SPECT is a useful non-invasive method for the evaluation of SPN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we demonstrated that the human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-like protein (As-MIF) isolated from helminths could inhibit allergic airway inflammation via the recruitment of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells.
To evaluate the clinical importance of As-MIF as an antiasthma drug, we evaluated immune responses after recombinant As-MIF (rAs-MIF) treatment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures.
PBMC was isolated from 10 patients with atopic asthma, 8 patients with nonatopic asthma, and 12 nonatopic healthy subjects, and various concentrations of rAs-MIF were transferred into the PBMC culture medium. After 3 days, we measured the levels of T helper 2 and T helper 1 cytokines via ELISA.
In atopic asthma, IL-4 and IL-5 production was significantly reduced in the PBMC cultures after rAs-MIF treatment. These inhibitory effects were not observed in the nonatopic asthma group. By way of contrast, IL-10 production in the PMBC cultures was significantly increased after rAs-MIF treatment in all experimental groups.
The results of this study are similar to those previously reported in a mouse study, suggesting that As-MIF might be a candidate for the specific treatment of asthma.
Journal of Asthma 12/2011; 49(1):10-5. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported that a 24 kDa protein (22U homologous; As22U) of Anisakis simplex larvae could elicit several Th2-related chemokine gene expressions in the intestinal epithelial cell line which means that As22U may play a role as an allergen. In order to determine the contribution of As22U to allergic reactions, we treated mice with 6 times intra-nasal application of recombinant As22U (rAs22U). In the group challenged with rAs22U and ovalbumin (OVA), the number of eosinophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly increased, as compared to the group receiving only OVA. In addition, mice treated with rAs22U and OVA showed significantly increased airway hyperresponsiveness. Thus, severe inflammation around the airway and immune cell recruitment was observed in mice treated with rAs22U plus OVA. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 cytokines in the BALF increased significantly after treatment with rAs22U and OVA. Similarly, the levels of anti-OVA specific IgE and IgG1 increased in mice treated with rAs22U and OVA, compared to those treated only with OVA. The Gro-α (CXCL1) gene expression in mouse lung epithelial cells increased instantly after treatment with rAs22U, and allergy-specific chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and thymus-and-activation-regulated-chemokine (CCL17) gene expressions significantly increased at 6 hr after treatment. In conclusion, rAs22U may induce airway allergic inflammation, as the result of enhanced Th2 and Th17 responses.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 12/2011; 49(4):373-80. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) have been incorporated into several national guidelines for latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnosis. However, their optimal application is still controversial and evolving. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of confirmatory IGRAs in addition to tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) in high school students with TST-positive (TST+) results who have had contact with another student who had TB (referred to in this article as "contacts") in TB outbreaks in a high BCG-vaccinated population.
We conducted a retrospective observational study of contacts in five school TB outbreaks in South Korea. The progression rates of TB within 2 years were compared among the groups based on the results of TSTs and QuantiFERON-TB gold assays (QFT-Gs).
Among 1,826 contacts, 21 (1.2%) developed active TB. Of the untreated groups, the rate of progression to TB was higher in the group with TST-positive (TST+) results (6.1%, six of 99) than in that with TST-negative (TST-) results (0.6%, 10 of 1,556; P < .001). Among TST+ contacts, the rate of progression to TB was higher in the group with QFT-G-positive (QFT-G+) results (18.75%, six of 32) than that with QFT-G-negative (QFT-G(-)) results (0%, 0 of 67; P = .001). None of the 67 contacts with TST+/QFT-G(-) results progressed to active TB.
The addition of a confirmatory IGRA for TST+ contacts could effectively focus the targeting of LTBI treatment to fewer contacts in an intermediate-incidence setting in a high BCG-vaccinated population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent in vitro study showed that the three compounds of antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action (amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir) could result in synergistic antiviral activity against influenza virus. However, no clinical studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of combination antiviral therapy in patients with severe influenza illness. A total of 245 adult patients who were critically ill with confirmed pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and were admitted to one of the intensive care units of 28 hospitals in Korea were reviewed. Patients who required ventilator support and received either triple-combination antiviral drug (TCAD) therapy or oseltamivir monotherapy were analyzed. A total of 127 patients were included in our analysis. Among them, 24 patients received TCAD therapy, and 103 patients received oseltamivir monotherapy. The 14-day mortality was 17% in the TCAD group and 35% in the oseltamivir group (P = 0.08), and the 90-day mortality was 46% in the TCAD group and 59% in the oseltamivir group (P = 0.23). None of the toxicities attributable to antiviral drugs occurred in either group of our study, including hemolytic anemia and hepatic toxicities related to the use of ribavirin. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratio for the association of TCAD with 90-day mortality was 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 1.42; P = 0.24). Although this study was retrospective and did not provide virologic outcomes, our results suggest that the treatment outcome of the triple combination of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir was comparable to that of oseltamivir monotherapy.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2011; 55(12):5703-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to get a better understanding of the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in type 2 helper T (Th2) cell responses against Trichinella spiralis infection, we analyzed Th2 responses in T. spiralis-infected PAR2 knockout (KO) mice. The levels of the Th2 cell-secreted cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were markedly reduced in the PAR2 KO mice as compared to the wild type mice following infection with T. spiralis. The serum levels of parasite-specific IgE increased significantly in the wild type mice as the result of T. spiralis infection, but this level was not significantly increased in PAR2 KO mice. The expression level of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and eotaxin gene (the genes were recently known as Th2 response initiators) of mouse intestinal epithelial cells were increased as the result of treatment with T. spiralis excretory-secretory proteins. However, the expression of these chemokine genes was inhibited by protease inhibitor treatments. In conclusion, PAR2 might involve in Th2 responses against T. spiralis infection.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 09/2011; 49(3):235-43. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection presents with variable severity. However, little is known about clinical predictors of disease severity. We studied the clinical predictors of severe pandemic H1N1 pneumonia and their correlation with radiological findings.
We reviewed medical and radiological records of adults with pandemic H1N1 pneumonia. After classification of patients into severe and non-severe groups, the following data were evaluated: demographic data, pneumonia severity index (PSI), CURB65, risk factors, time to first dose of antiviral medication, routine laboratory data, clinical outcome, and radiological characteristics.
Of 37 patients with pandemic H1N1 pneumonia, 12 and 25 were assigned to the severe and non-severe groups, respectively. PSI score, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dyhydrogenase (LDH) levels were higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group (p = 0.035, 0.0003, 0.0023, and 0.0002, respectively). AST, ALT, and LDH levels were positively correlated with the radiological findings (p < 0.0001, 0.0003, and < 0.0001, respectively) and with the number of involved lobes (p = 0.663, 0.0134, and 0.0019, respectively). The most common finding on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans was ground-glass attenuation with consolidation (n = 22, 60%), which had a predominantly patchy distribution (n = 31).
We demonstrated a positive correlation between clinical findings, such as serum AST, ALT, and LDH levels, and radiological findings. A combination of clinical and HRCT indicators would be useful in predicting the clinical outcome of pandemic H1N1 pneumonia.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 06/2011; 26(2):160-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate treatment outcome, mortality, and predictors of both in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at 3 TB referral hospitals in the public sector of Korea. We included MDR-TB patients treated at 3 TB referral hospitals in 2004 and reviewed retrospectively their medical records and mortality data. Of 202 MDR-TB patients, 75 (37.1%) had treatment success and 127 (62.9%) poor outcomes. Default rate was high (37.1%, 75/202), comprising 59.1% of poor outcomes. Male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-7.49), positive smear at treatment initiation (aOR, 5.50; 95% CI, 1.22-24.90), and extensively drug-resistant TB (aOR, 10.72; 95% CI, 1.23-93.64) were independent predictors of poor outcome. The all-cause mortality rate was 31.2% (63/202) during the 3-4 yr after treatment initiation. In conclusion, the treatment outcomes of patients with MDR-TB at the 3 TB hospitals are poor, which may reflect the current status of MDR-TB in the public sector of Korea. A more comprehensive program against MDR-TB needs to be integrated into the National Tuberculosis Program of Korea.
Journal of Korean medical science 01/2011; 26(1):33-41. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis, a major problem during the post-transplant period, typically presents with pneumonia or tracheobronchitis in lung transplant recipients. In contrast, primary cutaneous aspergillosis is very rarely observed in lung-transplant recipients. In this report, we describe a case of tracheobronchial aspergillosis following primary cutaneous aspergillosis in a lung-transplant recipient. Early diagnosis of tracheobronchial aspergillosis is important because occult tracheobronchial aspergillosis can be potentially lethal. Our report suggests that surveillance bronchoscopy may facilitate identification of occult tracheobronchial invasion in lung-transplant recipients with primary cutaneous aspergillosis.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(2):131-4. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to define the mechanism underlying the host immune downregulation inherent to Trichinella spiralis infection, we compared the levels of Th1, Th2, and regulatory cytokines and CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)(+) T (T(reg)) cell recruitment, as well as cellular pathology in the airway between T. spiralis infected and uninfected asthma-induced mice. After the induction of allergic airway inflammation, we noted influxes of inflammatory cells into the peribronchial tree. However, in the T. spiralis infection groups, cellular infiltration was minimal around the bronchial tree, with only a smattering of inflammatory cells. In the OVA-challenged group after T. spiralis infection, the numbers of macrophages and eosinophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid were reduced by 23% and 52%, respectively, as compared to those of the OVA-challenged group. Airway hyperresponsiveness of OVA-challenged mice after T. spiralis infection was significantly suppressed as compared to the OVA-only challenged mice. The T. spiralis-infected mice exhibited a significant reduction in IL-5 concentrations relative to that noted in the OVA-challenged group (p<0.01). Nevertheless, the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β levels were increased significantly as the result of T. spiralis infection, and we verified the recruitment of T(reg) cells in lung draining lymph nodes via T. spiralis infection. Therefore, T(reg) cells, which were recruited by T. spiralis infection, might ameliorate lung function and reduce allergic airway inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dendritic cell vaccine has been developed as a novel strategy for generating antitumor immunity in the treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the maximal tolerated dose, safety, and immunologic response of a new dendritic cell vaccine (DC-Vac) into which tumor lysate was loaded by electroporation and pulse in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Fifteen patients with inoperable stage III or IV NSCLC were assigned to cohorts that received 3, 6, or 12 × 10(6) DC-Vac intradermally 3 times at 2 week intervals. We also evaluated immunologic and tumor responses.
The maximum dose of DC-Vac (12 × 10(6)) was shown to be safe. In 5 of 9 patients, the vaccine resulted in increased interferon (IFN)-γ production by CD8+ cells after exposure to tumor lysate. Additionally, there were mixed responses which do fulfill progressive disease definition but demonstrate some clinical benefit in two patients.
The administration of tumor lysate-loaded autologous dendritic cells by electroporation and pulse was non-toxic and induced immunologic responses to tumor antigens. The two mixed tumor responses which were achieved may represent a potential benefit of this new DC-Vac.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2010; 70(2):188-94. · 3.14 Impact Factor