[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Deficiency in clearance of self nuclear antigens, including DNA, is the hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic autoimmnue disease characterized by the production of various autoantibodies, immune complex deposition and severe organ damage. Our previous studies revealed that administration of syngeneic BALB/c mice with activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA) could induce SLE disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a secreted pattern recognition receptor with binding activity to DNA, has been proved to be a modulator of inflammation, but whether MBL takes responsibility for DNA clearance, modulates the DNA-mediated immune responses, and is involved in the development of DNA-induced SLE disease remain poorly understood.
The levels of serum MBL significantly decreased in lupus mice induced by ALD-DNA and were negatively correlated with SLE disease. MBL blunted macrophage M2b polarization by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling while enhancing the activation of CREB. Furthermore, MBL suppressed the ability of ALD-DNA–stimulated macrophages to polarize T cells toward Th1 cells and Th17 cells. Importantly, MBL supplement in vivo could ameliorate lupus nephritis.
These results suggest MBL supplement could alleviate SLE disease and might imply a potential therapeutic strategy for DNA-induced SLE, which would further our understanding of the protective role of MBL in SLE disease.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e62465. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062465 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Macrophage M2b polarization conferred by self-DNA immunization initiates and propagates lupus nephritis.
Knockdown of DNA-dependent activator of interferon-regulatory factors (DAI) ameliorates SLE syndrome via blunting macrophage M2b polarization.
DAI functions as a DNA sensor in self-DNA-induced macrophage M2b polarization and lupus nephritis.
We disclose the mechanism by which self-DNA induces macrophage M2b polarization and lupus nephritis DNA-dependent activator of interferon-regulatory factors (DAI) functions as a cytoplasmic DNA sensor that activates the innate immune system. We previously found that activated lymphocyte-derived self-apoptotic DNA (ALD-DNA) immunization led to pathological macrophage activation and M2b polarization, which could initiate and propagate murine lupus nephritis. However, the specific DNA sensor(s) as well as underlying molecular mechanisms involved in ALD-DNA-induced macrophage M2b polarization in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease remains unknown. In this study, we reported that DAI expression was significantly increased in SLE patients as well as in lupus mice. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that DAI was involved in ALD-DNA-induced macrophage activation and M2b polarization. Moreover, ALD-DNA notably induced dimerization/oligomerization of DAI and consequently activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) signaling pathways via calcium signaling, resulting in macrophage activation and M2b polarization. More importantly, blockade of DAI in vivo or selective knockdown of DAI in macrophages could ameliorate SLE syndrome via blunting macrophage M2b polarization and inhibiting inflammatory response in lupus mice. Our results suggest that DAI could function as a DNA sensor and a regulator in ALD-DNA-induced macrophage M2b polarization and lupus nephritis, providing the possible molecular mechanisms involved in ALD-DNA-induced macrophage M2b polarization in SLE disease and making DAI as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of SLE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Lupus nephritis, a major cause of morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is generally thought to be induced by macrophage-mediated inflammation following deposition of various autoantibodies in kidneys. We previously reported that macrophage aberrant activation induced by activated lymphocyte-derived apoptotic DNA (apopDNA) have been found to play pathogenic roles in the immunodysregulation in lupus nephritis. However, DNA sensor(s) involved in apopDNA-induced macrophage activation and lupus nephritis remains largely undefined. Herein, we aimed to reveal the DNA sensor(s) involved in SLE disease.
Correlation between the level of absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a cytoplasmic DNA receptor in the inflammasome pathway, and the clinical severity of SLE disease were analyzed in SLE patients as well as in lupus mice. Activated macrophages induced by apopDNA were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot for AIM2 expression. After silencing of AIM2 via siRNA-mediated knockdown in vitro and in vivo, macrophage activation, inflammatory response, and SLE syndrome were assessed.
AIM2 expression was closely correlated with the severity of disease in SLE patients and in lupus mice. Importantly, AIM2 expression was significantly increased in apopDNA-induced macrophages and closely correlated with macrophage activation. Knockdown of AIM2 significantly blunted apopDNA-induced macrophage activation. Furthermore, blockade of AIM2 expression notably ameliorated SLE syndrome via impeding macrophage activation and dampening inflammatory response in apopDNA-induced lupus mice.
Our results implied that AIM2 might act as an important DNA sensor and a potential biomarker for apopDNA-induced macrophage functional maturation and SLE disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein with an ability to bind to nuclear antigen, has been reported to regulate cytokine secretion and modulate immune responses. We previously reported that activated syngeneic lymphocyte-derived apoptotic DNA (apopDNA) could induce macrophage activation and contribute to the initiation and progression of lupus nephritis. It is reasonable to hypothesize that CRP might regulate apopDNA-induced macrophage activation. Herein, CRP was shown to promote macrophage-mediated apopDNA uptake by binding to apopDNA (CRP/apopDNA complex). Notably, CRP/apopDNA treatment inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by macrophages which could be induced by apopDNA alone. Further coculture and transwell studies revealed that CRP/apopDNA-induced macrophages prohibited apopDNA-induced macrophage activation in an IL-10 dependent manner. These results provide insight into the potential mechanism of CRP regulatory activity in macrophage activation induced by apopDNA in the context of lupus nephritis and other autoimmune diseases.
Protein & Cell 08/2011; 2(8):672-9. DOI:10.1007/s13238-011-1084-4 · 3.25 Impact Factor