[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Drosophila Groucho protein and its mammalian orthologues the transducin-like enhancers of split (TLEs) are critical transcriptional corepressors that repress Wnt and other signaling pathways. Although it is known that Groucho/TLEs are recruited to target genes by pathway-specific transcription factors, molecular events after the corepressor recruitment are largely unclear. We report that association of TLEs with O-GlcNAc transferase, an enzyme that catalyzes posttranslational modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, is essential for TLE-mediated transcriptional repression. Removal of O-GlcNAc from Wnt-responsive gene promoters is critical for gene activation from Wnt-responsive promoters. Thus, these studies identify a molecular mechanism by which Groucho/TLEs repress gene transcription and provide a model whereby O-GlcNAc may control distinct intracellular signaling pathways.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The post-translational modification of intracellular proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates essential cellular processes such as signal transduction, transcription, translation, and protein degradation. Misfolded, damaged, and unwanted proteins are tagged with a chain of ubiquitin moieties for degradation by the proteasome, which is critical for cellular homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and ubiquitination in the control of protein degradation. Understanding the mechanisms of action of O-GlcNAcylation in the ubiquitin-proteosome system shall facilitate the development of therapeutics for human diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins are extensively modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties. This sugar modification regulates fundamental cellular processes in response to diverse nutritional and hormonal cues. The enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminase (O-GlcNAcase) mediate the addition and removal of O-GlcNAc, respectively. Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated in a plethora of human diseases, including diabetes, cancer, aging, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disease. Because metabolic dysregulation is a vital component of these diseases, unraveling the roles of O-GlcNAc in metabolism is of emerging importance. Here, we review the current understanding of the functions of O-GlcNAc in cell signaling and gene transcription involved in metabolism, and focus on its relevance to diabetes, cancer, circadian rhythm, and mitochondrial function.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2013; · 8.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian clocks are coupled to metabolic oscillations through nutrient-sensing pathways. Nutrient flux into the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway triggers covalent protein modification by O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Here we show that the hexosamine/O-GlcNAc pathway modulates peripheral clock oscillation. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) promotes expression of BMAL1/CLOCK target genes and affects circadian oscillation of clock genes in vitro and in vivo. Both BMAL1 and CLOCK are rhythmically O-GlcNAcylated, and this protein modification stabilizes BMAL1 and CLOCK by inhibiting their ubiquitination. In vivo analysis of genetically modified mice with perturbed hepatic OGT expression shows aberrant circadian rhythms of glucose homeostasis. These results establish the counteraction between O-GlcNAcylation and ubiquitination as a key mechanism that regulates the circadian clock and suggest a crucial role for O-GlcNAc signaling in transducing nutritional signals to the core circadian timing machinery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic glucose production (HGP) maintains blood glucose levels during fasting but can also exacerbate diabetic hyperglycemia. HGP is dynamically controlled by a signaling/transcriptional network that regulates the expression/activity of gluconeogenic enzymes. A key mediator of gluconeogenic gene transcription is PGC-1α. PGC-1α's activation of gluconeogenic gene expression is dependent upon its acetylation state, which is controlled by the acetyltransferase GCN5 and the deacetylase Sirt1. Nevertheless, whether other chromatin modifiers-particularly other sirtuins-can modulate PGC-1α acetylation is currently unknown. Herein, we report that Sirt6 strongly controls PGC-1α acetylation. Surprisingly, Sirt6 induces PGC-1α acetylation and suppresses HGP. Sirt6 depletion decreases PGC-1α acetylation and promotes HGP. These acetylation effects are GCN5 dependent: Sirt6 interacts with and modifies GCN5, enhancing GCN5's activity. Lepr(db/db) mice, an obese/diabetic animal model, exhibit reduced Sirt6 levels; ectopic re-expression suppresses gluconeogenic genes and normalizes glycemia. Activation of hepatic Sirt6 may therefore be therapeutically useful for treating insulin-resistant diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major cause of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients is inappropriate hepatic gluconeogenesis. PGC-1α is a master regulator of gluconeogenesis, and its activity is controlled by various posttranslational modifications. A small portion of glucose metabolizes through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which leads to O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Using a proteomic approach, we identified a broad variety of proteins associated with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), among which host cell factor C1 (HCF-1) is highly abundant. HCF-1 recruits OGT to O-GlcNAcylate PGC-1α, and O-GlcNAcylation facilitates the binding of the deubiquitinase BAP1, thus protecting PGC-1α from degradation and promoting gluconeogenesis. Glucose availability modulates gluconeogenesis through the regulation of PGC-1α O-GlcNAcylation and stability by the OGT/HCF-1 complex. Hepatic knockdown of OGT and HCF-1 improves glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. These findings define the OGT/HCF-1 complex as a glucose sensor and key regulator of gluconeogenesis, shedding light on new strategies for treating diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recruitment of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) to promoters plays an important role in gene repression. Glucocorticoid signaling represses the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and AP-1 through direct binding, yet the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report that OGT is an important component of GR-mediated transrepression. OGT associates with ligand-bound GR in a multi-protein repression complex. Overexpression of OGT potentiates the GR transrepression pathway, whereas depletion of endogenous OGT by RNA interference abolishes the repression. The recruitment of OGT by GR leads to increased O-GlcNAcylation and decreased phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II on target genes. Functionally, overexpression of OGT enhances glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in resistant cell lines while knockdown of OGT prevents sensitive cell lines from apoptosis. These studies identify a molecular mechanism of GR transrepression, and highlight the function of O-GlcNAc in hormone signaling.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(16):12904-12. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have proposed roles for hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the modulation of circuit activity of the melanocortin system. Here we show that suppression of ROS diminishes pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) cell activation and promotes the activity of neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-co-producing (NPY/AgRP) neurons and feeding, whereas ROS-activates POMC neurons and reduces feeding. The levels of ROS in POMC neurons were positively correlated with those of leptin in lean and ob/ob mice, a relationship that was diminished in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. High-fat feeding resulted in proliferation of peroxisomes and elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) mRNA levels within the hypothalamus. The proliferation of peroxisomes in POMC neurons induced by the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone decreased ROS levels and increased food intake in lean mice on high-fat diet. Conversely, the suppression of peroxisome proliferation by the PPAR antagonist GW9662 increased ROS concentrations and c-fos expression in POMC neurons. Also, it reversed high-fat feeding-triggered elevated NPY/AgRP and low POMC neuronal firing, and resulted in decreased feeding of DIO mice. Finally, central administration of ROS alone increased c-fos and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pStat3) expression in POMC neurons and reduced feeding of DIO mice. These observations unmask a previously unknown hypothalamic cellular process associated with peroxisomes and ROS in the central regulation of energy metabolism in states of leptin resistance.
Nature medicine 01/2011; 17(9):1121-7. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily have vital roles in regulating immunity and inflammation. The founding member, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), is the prototype to demonstrate immunomodulation via transrepression of the AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have emerged as key regulators of inflammation. This review examines the history and current advances in nuclear receptor regulation of inflammation by the crosstalk with AP-1 and NF-κB signaling, focusing on the roles of GR and PPARs. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism by which nuclear receptors inhibit proinflammatory signaling pathways will enable novel therapies to treat chronic inflammation.
PPAR Research 01/2011; 2011:742785. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is a long-standing view that the circadian clock functions to proactively align internal physiology with the 24-h rotation of the earth. Recent studies, including one by Schmutz and colleagues (pp. 345-357) in the February 15, 2010, issue of Genes & Development, delineate strikingly complex connections between molecular clocks and nuclear receptor signaling pathways, implying the existence of a large-scale circadian regulatory network coordinating a diverse array of physiological processes to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Genes & development 04/2010; 24(8):741-7. · 12.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to the post-translational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This tandem system serves as a nutrient sensor to couple systemic metabolic status to cellular regulation of signal transduction, transcription, and protein degradation. Here we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) harbours a previously unrecognized type of phosphoinositide-binding domain. After induction with insulin, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate recruits OGT from the nucleus to the plasma membrane, where the enzyme catalyses dynamic modification of the insulin signalling pathway by O-GlcNAc. This results in the alteration in phosphorylation of key signalling molecules and the attenuation of insulin signal transduction. Hepatic overexpression of OGT impairs the expression of insulin-responsive genes and causes insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. These findings identify a molecular mechanism by which nutritional cues regulate insulin signalling through O-GlcNAc, and underscore the contribution of this modification to the aetiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As sensors for fat-soluble hormones and dietary lipids, oscillations in nuclear receptor (NR) expression in key metabolic tissues may contribute to circadian entrainment of nutrient and energy metabolism. Surveying the diurnal expression profiles of all 49 mouse nuclear receptors in white and brown adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle revealed that of the 45 NRs expressed, 25 are in a rhythmic cycle and 3 exhibit a single transient pulse of expression 4 hr into the light cycle. While thyroid hormones are generally constant, we find that TRalpha and beta dramatically cycle, suggesting that fundamental concepts such as "basal metabolism" may require reexamination. The dynamic but coordinated changes in nuclear receptor expression, along with their key target genes, offers a logical explanation for known cyclic behavior of lipid and glucose metabolism and suggests novel roles for endocrine and orphan receptors in coupling the peripheral circadian clock to divergent metabolic outputs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the knowledge that nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are modified with N-acetylglucosamine has existed for decades, little has been shown as to its function until recently. There are now substantial data highlighting the significance of proper regulation of this modification in multiple cellular processes. Currently, only two enzymes are known that regulate this modification. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) modifies protein substrates posttranslationally by adding the N-acetylglucosamine. Bifunctional nuclear/cytoplasmic O-GlcNAcase and acetyl transferase (NCOAT) is responsible for cleaving the modification from target proteins. Here, we demonstrate for the first time an unusual association of these two opposing enzymes into a single O-GlcNAczyme complex. NCOAT and OGT associate strongly through specific domains such that NCOAT accompanies OGT, with histone deacetylases (HDACs), into transcription corepression complexes. Exclusion of NCOAT activities from OGT association blocks proper estrogen-dependent cell signaling as well as mammary development in transgenic mice. This demonstrates that NCOAT is in a strategic position to rapidly counteract OGT and HDAC without requiring its recruitment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system classically selects its substrates for degradation by tagging them with ubiquitin. Here, we describe another means of controlling proteasome function in a global manner. The 26S proteasome can be inhibited by modification with the enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). This reversible modification of the proteasome inhibits the proteolysis of the transcription factor Sp1 and a hydrophobic peptide through inhibition of the ATPase activity of 26S proteasomes. The Rpt2 ATPase in the mammalian proteasome 19S cap is modified by O-GlcNAc in vitro and in vivo and as its modification increases, proteasome function decreases. This mechanism may couple proteasomes to the general metabolic state of the cell. The O-GlcNAc modification of proteasomes may allow the organism to respond to its metabolic needs by controlling the availability of amino acids and regulatory proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides at serine or threonine residues, yet the precise functional roles of this modification are largely unknown. Here, we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that catalyzes this posttranslational modification, interacts with a histone deacetylase complex by binding to the corepressor mSin3A. Functionally, OGT and mSin3A cooperatively repress transcription in parallel with histone deacetylation. We propose that mSin3A targets OGT to promoters to inactivate transcription factors and RNA polymerase II by O-GlcNAc modification, which acts in concert with histone deacetylation to promote gene silencing in an efficient and specific manner.