[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety between low-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) and the intravitreal ranibizumab in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
Prospective, randomized, single-center, parallel-arm, controlled trial.
Thirty-four eyes of 32 patients with chronic CSC with >6 months' duration of symptoms or recurrent CSC were randomly placed into the low-fluence PDT group (n = 18) or the ranibizumab group (n = 16).
The patients underwent a single session of low-fluence PDT or 3 consecutive monthly injections of ranibizumab. Rescue treatment was available from month 3 if the subretinal fluid (SRF) persisted or recurred after primary treatment; low-fluence PDT was given to the ranibizumab group and intravitreal ranibizumab to the low-fluence PDT group.
The primary outcome was the proportion of eyes with complete resolution of SRF without rescue treatment. Secondary outcomes included the mean changes in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and angiographic findings from baseline to 12 months.
At month 12, 16 eyes (88.9%) of the low-fluence PDT group maintained complete resolution of SRF without rescue treatment versus 2 eyes (12.5%) in the ranibizumab group (P <0.001). Two eyes (11.1%) in the low-fluence PDT group and 11 eyes (68.8%) in the ranibizumab group met the criteria for rescue treatment (P = 0.001). In the low-fluence PDT group, the mean decrease in CRT from baseline was significantly greater than that in the ranibizumab group until month 6 (P <0.05), but the differences became insignificant thereafter. The improvement in BCVA from baseline was superior in the low-fluence PDT group to that in the ranibizumab group, but the differences were not statistically significant except at month 3 (P = 0.025). On indocyanine green angiography, a significantly greater proportion of the low-fluence PDT group (16 eyes; 88.9%) showed a marked reduction in choroidal hyperpermeability after primary treatment than that of the ranibizumab group (0 eyes; P <0.001). No serious adverse events related to the drugs or procedures were observed.
This study represents the overall superiority of low-fluence PDT compared with intravitreal ranibizumab in the treatment of chronic CSC.
The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the general Korean adult population. Methods: The study involved a nationally representative Korean population from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7899 subjects aged ≥40 years participated in health interviews, physical examinations, and ophthalmologic assessment including fundus photography. Results: The overall prevalence of early AMD was estimated at 6.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1-7.4), and that of late AMD was estimated at 0.7% (95% CI, 0.5-0.9), which included 0.5% prevalence of neovascular AMD and 0.2% prevalence of geographic atrophy. The prevalence rates of early and late AMD among participants aged ≥65 years were 16.9% and 1.8%, respectively. Hyperopia was positively associated with the presence of any AMD type (odds ratio [OR], 1.08 for every 1 diopter increase). In multivariate analyses, significant risk factors for the presence of any AMD type were age, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serum positivity (OR, 2.26). The risk factors for late AMD included age, ever smoking history (OR, 2.18), serum GGT level, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions: The prevalence of AMD in Korea was similar to the prevalence of pooled Asian and Western populations. Age and serum GGT level were strongly associated with both the presence of any AMD and late AMD. Additionally, serum HDL level, HBsAg serum positivity, ever smoking history, and systolic blood pressure were identified as risk factors for AMD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Globus is a foreign body sense in the throat without dysphagia, odynophagia, esophageal motility disorders, or gastroesophageal reflux. The etiology is unclear. Previous studies suggested that increased upper esophageal sphincter pressure, gastroesophageal reflux and hypertonicity of esophageal body were possible etiologies. This study was to quantify the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure, contractile front velocity (CFV), proximal contractile integral (PCI), distal contractile integral (DCI) and transition zone (TZ) in patient with globus gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) without globus, and normal controls to suggest the correlation of specific high-resolution manometry (HRM) findings and globus.
Fifty-seven globus patients, 24 GERD patients and 7 normal controls were studied with HRM since 2009. We reviewed the reports, and selected 5 swallowing plots suitable for analysis in each report, analyzed each individual plot with ManoView. The 5 parameters from each plot in 57 globus patients were compared with that of 24 GERD patients and 7 normal controls.
There was no significant difference in the UES pressure, CFV, PCI and DCI. TZ (using 30 mmHg isobaric contour) in globus showed significant difference compared with normal controls and GERD patients. The median values of TZ were 4.26 cm (interquartile range [IQR], 2.30-5.85) in globus patients, 5.91 cm (IQR, 3.97-7.62) in GERD patients and 2.26 cm (IQR, 1.22-2.92) in normal controls (P = 0.001).
HRM analysis suggested that UES pressure, CFV, PCI and DCI were not associated with globus. Instead increased length of TZ may be correlated with globus. Further study comparing HRM results in globus patients within larger population needs to confirm their correlation.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 10/2013; 19(4):473-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NADPH-dependent reduction activities of two paralogous pig AKR1C1s with and without 19 additional amino acid residues in C-terminus were evaluated against steroid hormones including 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, progesterone, androstenedione and 5alpha-androstane-3.17-dione, which act as substrates of the AKR1C1S. Among the hormones, the AKR1C1s exhibited the highest activity against 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the lowest activity against testosterone and progesterone. Furthermore, the AKR1C1s showed the largest differential activities against; 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, but no such change of activities was found against progestrone and testosterone. These results suggest that the C-terminal region of AKR1C1 plays an important effect in the reduction activities of pig AKR1C1. Thus, the differential activities of two AKR1C1 paralogs observed in the present study provide important insights in understanding the molecular evolution.
Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics 06/2013; 50(3):237-41. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anemia is the most common hematologic condition encountered in outpatient clinics. It is often overlooked because it is common among patients; however, anemia is one of the leading indicators of cancer. This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of cancer among anemia patients who visited an outpatient clinic.
The data were collected by reviewing the records of an outpatient clinic from January 2007 to December 2011.
In total, 502 patients (52 males, 450 females) were diagnosed with anemia. Cancer prevalence among anemia patients was 5.57% (25.0%, men; 3.3%, women); further, the most frequently diagnosed cancer was colorectal cancer (22.5%), followed by advanced gastric cancer (16.1%), breast cancer (9.6%), myelodysplastic syndrome (9.6%), cervical cancer (6.4%), renal-cell carcinoma (6.4%), and thyroid cancer (6.4%). The prevalence of cancer was 4.1% in those aged 40-49 years, 4.2% in the subjects in their fifties, 8.0% in those in their sixties, 21.6% in those in their seventies, and 55.6% in those aged over 80 years. The cancer prevalence among iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients was 6.18% (28.8%, men; 3.5%, women). The cancer prevalence in postmenopausal and premenopausal female IDA patients was 16.0% and 1.6%, respectively.
Among anemia patients, male patients aged over 40 years and female patients aged over 60 years, along with postmenopausal female patients, were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer. Consequently, male IDA patients, and female patients aged over 60 years must be carefully evaluated for the possibility of malignancy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation technique in combination with next-generation deep sequencing, we conducted comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of liver genomes from three pig breeds: Berkshire, Duroc and Landrace. The profiles revealed that the distribution patterns of methylation signals along the genome are conserved among the three pig breeds. Specifically, many signals in coding genes were found in introns, and most signals in the repetitive elements were identified in non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons such as long and short interspersed repetitive elements, implying a significant association with alternative splicing and expression of retrotransposable elements respectively. Differentially methylated regions among the three pig breeds were identified in the non-LTR retrotransposons, suggesting that they may lead to differential retrotransposable element activity. Altogether, this study provides advanced swine methylome data and valuable resources for understanding the function of DNA methylation in the evolutionary divergence of different pig breeds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. A 61-year-old woman with diabetic macular edema developed dense vitritis and necrotizing retinitis 3 weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. A diagnostic vitrectomy was performed. The undiluted vitreous sample acquired by vitrectomy was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Polymerase chain reaction of the vitreous was positive for CMV DNA. Other laboratory results did not show evidence of other infectious retinitis and systemic immune dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were also negative. After systemic administration of ganciclovir, retinitis has resolved and there has been no recurrence of retinitis during the follow-up period of 12 months. Ophthalmologists should be aware of potential risk for CMV retinitis after intravitreal bevacizumab injection.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 02/2013; 27(1):61-63.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogenogenic CO oxidation (CO + H(2)O → CO(2) + H(2)) has the potential for H(2) production as a clean renewable fuel. Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, which grows on CO and produces H(2), has a unique gene cluster encoding the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase. The gene cluster was identified as essential for carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic metabolism by gene disruption and transcriptional analysis. To develop a strain of producing high levels of H(2), the gene cluster was placed under the control of a strong promoter. The resulting mutant MC01 showed 30-fold higher transcription of the mRNA encoding CODH, hydrogenase, and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, and a 1.8-fold higher specific activity for CO-dependent H(2) production compared to the wild type strain. The H(2) production potential of the MC01 mutant in a bioreactor culture was 3.8-fold higher than that of the wild type strain. The H(2) production rate of the engineered strain was several-fold higher than those of any other CO-dependent H(2)-producing prokaryotes studied to date. The engineered strain also possessed high activity for the bioconversion of industrial waste gases created as a by-product during steel production. This work represents the first demonstration of H(2) production from steel mill waste gas using a carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbe.
Applied and environmental microbiology 01/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthricin (deoxypodophyllotoxin) is a natural product isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. (Apiaceae). Here, we investigated the effect of anthricin on autophagy and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling as anticancer actions in breast cancer cells. Many studies have supported the contention that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTORC1 pathway is considerably deregulated in breast cancer and that autophagy plays important roles in the development of this type of cancer, although the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our data confirmed that anthricin markedly induced apoptosis in 2 breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Her2/Neu receptor negative). Anthricin treatment decreased the levels of phosphorylated Akt and mTORC1, followed by inhibition of cell growth. Interestingly, blockage of autophagy by a pharmacological inhibitor or genetic deletion of ULK1 and Atg13 accelerated anthricin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy has cytoprotective effects. Taken together, our results indicate that anthricin is an inhibitor of mTOR and that a combination of an autophagy inhibitor and anthricin may serve as a new promising strategy for the treatment of breast cancer cells.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:385219. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Although Alpinia officinarum has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several conditions, such as abdominal pain, emesis, diarrhea, impaired renal function, and dysentery, little is known about its function in obesity. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effect of A. officinarum ethanol extract (AOE) on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). AOE dose-dependently suppressed lipid accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by downregulating CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) genes. Galangin, a major component of A. officinarum, had antiadipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells. AOE supplementation in mice fed a HFD revealed that AOE significantly decreased HFD-induced increases in body, liver, and white adipose tissue weights and decreased serum insulin and leptin levels. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of AOE in obesity, lipid metabolism-related genes were identified. AOE efficiently suppressed protein expressions of C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, SREBP-1, and PPAR-γ in the liver and adipose tissue. The protein expression patterns, observed by immunoblot, were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Collectively, these results suggest that AOE prevents obesity by suppressing adipogenic and lipogenic genes. AOE has potential for use as an antiobesity therapeutic agent that can function by regulating lipid metabolism.
Journal of medicinal food 11/2012; 15(11):959-67. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous medicinal plants and their derivatives have been reported to prevent obesity and related diseases. Although Syzygium aromaticum has traditionally been used as an anodyne, carminative and anthelmintic in Asian countries, its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity has not yet been explored. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-obesity effect of S. aromaticum ethanol extract (SAE) both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the anti-obesity potential of SAE in vitro, the effect of SAE treatment on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. To evaluate its potential in vivo, mice were assigned to three groups: a group fed the American Institute of Nutrition AIN-76A diet (normal group), an experimental group fed a high-fat diet (HFD group) and an experimental group fed an HFD supplemented with 0.5% (w/w) SAE (HFD + SAE group). After 9 weeks of feeding, the body weight; white adipose tissue (WAT) mass; serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, insulin and leptin; hepatic lipid accumulation; and levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver and WAT were measured. In vitro investigation of the effect of SAE treatment on 3T3-L1 cells revealed that it had efficiently inhibited the conversion of cells into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo investigation revealed that SAE supplementation had significantly decreased HFD-induced increases in the body weight, liver weight, WAT mass, and serum TG, TC, lipid, glucose, insulin and leptin levels. Consistent with its effects on liver weight and WAT mass, SAE supplementation was found to have suppressed the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins, including SREBP-1, FAS, CD36 and PPARγ in the liver and WAT, in addition to downregulating mRNA levels of transcription factors including Srebp and Pparg. SAE inhibits fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice via the suppression of transcription factors integral to adipogenesis and lipogenesis, suggesting its potential in preventing obesity.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 09/2012; 4(3):409-414. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formate-dependent proton reduction to H(2) (HCOO(-) + H(2)O → HCO(3)(-) + H(2)) has been reported for hyperthermophilic Thermococcus strains. In this study, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus onnurineus strain NA1, yielded H(2) accumulation to a partial pressure of 1 × 10(5) to 7 × 10(5) Pa until the values of Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) reached near thermodynamic equilibrium (-1 to -3 kJ mol(-1)). The bioenergetic requirement for the metabolism to conserve energy was demonstrated by ΔG values as small as -5 kJ mol(-1), which are less than the biological minimum energy quantum, -20 kJ mol(-1), as calculated by Schink (B. Schink, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61:262-280, 1997). Considering formate as a possible H(2) storage material, the H(2) production potential of the strain was assessed. The volumetric H(2) production rate increased linearly with increasing cell density, leading to 2,820 mmol liter(-1) h(-1) at an optical density at 600 nm (OD(600)) of 18.6, and resulted in the high specific H(2) production rates of 404 ± 6 mmol g(-1) h(-1). The H(2) productivity indicates the great potential of T. onnurineus strain NA1 for practical application in comparison with H(2)-producing microbes. Our result demonstrates that T. onnurineus strain NA1 has a highly efficient metabolic system to thrive on formate in hydrothermal systems.
Applied and environmental microbiology 08/2012; 78(20):7393-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To investigate the associated factors and treatment outcomes in patients with presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection. METHODS: Among 219 consecutive cases of 186 patients who had undergone IVTA injection for macular diseases, presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis was diagnosed if the patient showed severe inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous cavity within 7 days after injection but no organism was isolated on microbiological examination. Clinical features and previously performed surgical procedures were evaluated to assess their association with presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis using logistic regression. After surgical or medical treatment for endophthalmitis, the visual outcome was evaluated in all patients. RESULTS: Noninfectious endophthalmitis developed in six of 219 eyes (2.7 %). Previous vitrectomy, history of IVTA injection, and pseudophakia were significantly associated with the occurrence of presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis after IVTA injection (p = 0.049, 0.034, and 0.009, respectively). Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy also showed statistically significant association (odds ratio = 13.6, p = 0.017). Five of six patients (83.3 %) regained pre-injection vision. CONCLUSION: In addition to previous vitrectomy, history of IVTA injection, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, and pseudophakia may render the eye vulnerable to presumed noninfectious endophthalmitis following IVTA injection. Visual outcome shows generally good prognosis after treatment.
Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 07/2012; · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) versus exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and explore disease-specific features of each disease.
SD-OCT images obtained at the time of diagnosis in 39 eyes with acute CSC (symptom onset < 2 months) and 52 eyes with exudative AMD were compared. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify disease-specific features. The relationship between anatomical findings and visual function was also assessed.
There were significant morphologic differences on SD-OCT between the two diseases, including the presence and height of retinal fluid and morphologic changes of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Multiple regression analysis revealed that a reflective band with posterior shadowing was a disease-specific finding indicating exudative AMD; however, other SD-OCT findings were attributed to differences in age of onset between the two diseases. Visual acuity was correlated with subretinal fluid in CSC, whereas pigment epithelial detachment, intraretinal fluid, and diverse RPE morphologic abnormalities were associated with visual decline in exudative AMD.
A reflective band with posterior shadowing is a disease-specific feature of exudative AMD that may be useful for the differential diagnosis. High-resolution SD-OCT images of the retinal layers identified distinguishing pathologic features of the outer retina between the two diseases. The OCT features associated with visual function were different between the two diseases.
Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging 07/2012; 43(5):374-82. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have a limited understanding of the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the development of type 2 diabetes.
The study subjects included male who had received biennial medical check-ups between 2005 and 2009 and who had been diagnosed with fatty liver disease. The subjects with sustained NAFLD (FL, n=107) and sustained non-NAFLD (NFL, n=1,054) were followed to determine the development of type 2 diabetes.
In the FL group, there were more subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), type 2 diabetes and high HOMA-IR than there were in the NFL group during the 5-year follow-up period (32.7 vs. 17.6%, 1.9 vs. 0.3%, 17.9 vs. 5.2% respectively, p<0.05). The FL group showed a higher risk than NFL group for abnormal glucose metabolism as determined using IFG (odds ratio [OR], 2.13; confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 3.35), type 2 diabetes (OR, 7.63; 95% CI, 1.03 to 56.79) and high HOMA-IR (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.79 to 5.91) and metabolic parameters such as body mass index (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.87 to 6.02), triglyceride (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.92 to 4.86) and fasting blood sugar (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.39 to 3.41).
Sustained NAFLD appears to be associated with an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and deterioration of metabolic parameters in non-obese, non-diabetic Korean men.
Gut and liver 07/2012; 6(3):368-73. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can lead to irreversible central vision loss in the elderly. Although large number of growth factor pathways, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD, no study has directly assessed the whole proteomic composition in the aqueous humor (AH) among AMD patients. The AH contains proteins secreted from the anterior segment tissue, and these proteins may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AMD. Thus, comparisons between the AH proteomic profiles of AMD patients and non-AMD controls may lead to the verification of novel pathogenic proteins useful as potential clinical biomarkers. In this study, we used discovery-based proteomics and Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry (MRM-MS) to analyze AH from AMD patients and AH from controls who underwent cataract surgery. A total of 154 proteins with at least two unique peptides were identified in the AH. Of these 154 proteins identified by discovery-based proteomics, 10 AH proteins were novel identifications. The protein composition in the AH was different between AMD patients and non-AMD controls. Subsequently, a systematic MRM-MS assay was performed in seven highly abundant differentially expressed proteins from these groups. Differential expression of three proteins was observed in the AH of AMD patients compared with that of cataract controls (p<0.0312). Elucidation of the aqueous proteome will establish a foundation for protein function analysis and identify differentially expressed markers associated with AMD. This study demonstrates that integrated proteomic technologies can yield novel biomarkers to detect exudative AMD.
Journal of Proteome Research 06/2012; 11(8):4034-43. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonselective β-blockers (NSBBs), such as propranolol, reportedly exert a pleiotropic effect in liver cirrhosis. A previous report suggested that survival was higher in patients receiving adjusted doses of NSBBs than in ligation patients. This study investigated whether low-dose NSBB medication has beneficial effects in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially in terms of overall survival.
We retrospectively studied 273 cirrhotic patients (199 males; age 53.6±10.2 years, mean±SD) who visited our institution between March 2003 and December 2007; follow-up data were collected until June 2011. Among them, 138 patients were given a low-dose NSBB (BB group: propranolol, 20-60 mg/day), and the remaining 135 patients were not given an NSBB (NBB group). Both groups were stratified randomly according to Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification and age.
The causes of liver cirrhosis were alcohol (n=109, 39.9%), hepatitis B virus (n=125, 45.8%), hepatitis C virus (n=20, 7.3%), and cryptogenic (n=19, 7.0%). The CTP classes were distributed as follows: A, n=116, 42.5%; B, n=126, 46.2%; and C, n=31, 11.4%. Neither the overall survival (P=0.133) nor the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-free survival (P=0.910) differed significantly between the BB and NBB groups [probability of overall survival at 4 years: 75.1% (95% CI=67.7-82.5%) and 81.2% (95% CI=74.4-88.0%), respectively; P=0.236]. In addition, the delta CTP score did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Use of low-dose NSBB medication in patients with liver cirrhosis is not indicated in terms of overall and HCC-free survival.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 06/2012; 18(2):203-12.