ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: The frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) markers was assessed in two groups of patients over 60 years - one without and the other with hypertension. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 585 asymptomatic elderly patients (227 males), 93 without and 492 with hypertension. Data on patients were obtained by interview, analysis of medical records and physical examinations. Serum and urine creatinine, proteinuria, microalbuminuria (MAU, turbidimetry), and urinary sediment were analyzed. Results: Among the 585 patients, there were 54.5% with a positive family history for hypertension and 14% for kidney diseases. MAU was significantly more frequent (30 vs. 11%) and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) higher (71 ± 14 vs. 64 ± 14 ml/min/1.73 m) in patients without hypertension than in those with hypertension. The majority of patients with stage 3 CKD had eGFR >45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) with normal urinary findings. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found age and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to be associated with reduced eGFR, MAU and proteinuria. In addition, smoking was associated with eGFR, but a family history for kidney disease and belonging to the group without hypertension were associated with MAU. Conclusion: The high prevalence of markers for CKD in symptomless elderly without hypertension confirmed that the elderly, as a high-risk population, should be screened based on increased age alone.
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 06/2012; 35(6):497-503. · 1.46 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Belgrade screening study was undertaken in order to detect persons with CKD markers in at risk populations and to educate primary care physicians how to carry out CKD screening.
The study was performed by primary care physicians from thirteen Belgrade health centers in collaboration with nephrologists from clinical centers. Subjects without previously known kidney disease were enrolled: 1316 patients with hypertension without diabetes, 208 patients with type 2 diabetes and 93 subjects older than 60 years without hypertension or diabetes. The survey consisted of an interview, consisted of an interview, estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR-MDRD), single urine dipstick detection of proteinuria, hematuria, glucosuria, microalbuminuria.
Microalbuminuria with or without proteinuria in combination with eGFR>60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was detected in 17% , 41% and 24% of patients with hypertension, diabetes and those above 60 years, respectively. Reduced eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) was found in 23%, 12% and 22% of the same patient groups. The prevalence of CKD markers increased with increasing number of risk factors.
High prevalence of CKD markers in at risk population detected by primary care physicians in this collaborative study seems to be the best way to encourage primary care physicians to carry out regular CKD screening.
Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 01/2012; 32(1):59-66. · 1.00 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Numerous screenings of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been performed all over the world. This screening study was undertaken with the aim of estimating the prevalence of low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and microalbuminuria (MAU) and/or proteinuria in a population at risk for CKD and to detect factors associated with these CKD markers.
This cross-sectional study included 1617 patients without previously known kidney disease who came for regular check-ups to their general practitioners in 13 Belgrade health centers over a 3-month period. Patients selected were as follows: 1316 with hypertension, 208 with type 2 diabetes, and 93 older than 60 years without hypertension or diabetes. Screening included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, single MAU dipstick measurement (Micral-test® strip) and proteinuria and GFR estimation by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease.
MAU was found in 419 (25.9%) patients, proteinuria in 163 (10.1%), and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 370 (22.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender, age, duration of hypertension, and smoking were associated with eGFR. Male gender, hypertension, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, proteinuria, and systolic blood pressure were associated with MAU.
High prevalence of MAU/proteinuria and reduced eGFR were found in high-risk persons for CKD. Besides nonmodifiable, significant modifiable factors for MAU were use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and strict regulation of hypertension and the factor for reduced eGFR was smoking.
Renal Failure 09/2011; 33(10):969-76. · 0.82 Impact Factor