[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), also known as securin, has been implicated in many biological functions, including inhibition of sister chromatid separation, DNA repair, organ development, and regulation of the expression and secretion of angiogenic and metastatic factors. Although most of these functions of securin seem to depend on the localization of PTTG1 in the nucleus of the cell, a fraction of the protein has been also detected in the cytoplasm. Here we demonstrate that, in different cell types, a portion of cytoplasmic PTTG1 is associated with the cis face of the Golgi apparatus and that this localization depends on PTTG1 phosphorylation status. In this organelle, PTTG1 forms a complex with proteins involved in microtubule nucleation, including GM130, AKAP450, and γ-tubulin. RNA interference-mediated depletion of PTTG1 produces a delay in centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubule nucleation. Cells lacking PTTG1 show severe defects in both cell polarization and migration in wound-healing assays. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the role of PTTG1 in microtubule nucleation and cell polarization, two processes directly involved in cell migration. We believe that these findings will contribute to understanding the mechanisms underlying PTTG1-mediated biological functions.
Molecular biology of the cell 09/2011; 22(22):4302-11. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Golgi apparatus in mammals appears as a ribbon made up of interconnected stacks of flattened cisternae that is positioned close to the centrosome in a microtubule-dependent manner. How this organisation is achieved and retained is not well understood. GMAP210 is a long coiled-coil cis-Golgi associated protein that plays a role in maintaining Golgi ribbon integrity and position and contributes to the formation of the primary cilium. An amphipathic alpha-helix able to bind liposomes in vitro has been recently identified at the first 38 amino acids of the protein (amphipathic lipid-packing sensor motif), and an ARF1-binding domain (Grip-related Arf-binding domain) was found at the C-terminus. To which type of membranes these two GMAP210 regions bind in vivo and how this contributes to GMAP210 localisation and function remains to be investigated.
By using truncated as well as chimeric mutants and videomicroscopy we found that both the N-terminus and the C-terminus of GMAP210 are targeted to the cis-Golgi in vivo. The ALPS motif was identified as the N-terminal binding motif and appeared concentrated in the periphery of Golgi elements and between Golgi stacks. On the contrary, the C-terminal domain appeared uniformly distributed in the cis-cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. Strikingly, the two ends of the protein also behave differently in response to the drug Brefeldin A. The N-terminal domain redistributed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites, as does the full-length protein, whereas the C-terminal domain rapidly dissociated from the Golgi apparatus to the cytosol. Mutants comprising the full-length protein but lacking one of the terminal motifs also associated with the cis-Golgi with distribution patterns similar to those of the corresponding terminal end whereas a mutant consisting in fused N- and C-terminal ends exhibits identical localisation as the endogenous protein.
We conclude that the Golgi localisation of GMAP210 is the result of the combined action of the two N- and C-terminal domains that recognise different sub-regions of the cis-GA. Based on present and previous data, we propose a model in which GMAP210 would participate in homotypic fusion of cis-cisternae by anchoring the surface of cisternae via its C-terminus and projecting its distal N-terminus to bind the rims or to stabilise tubular structures connecting neighbouring cis-cisternae.