[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Historically, only 10% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed with early-stage, potentially curable disease. In this study, chronic hepatitis virus-infected patients were prospectively screened to determine: (i) the proportion of patients diagnosed with potentially curable HCC, and (ii) survival following curative therapy. METHODS: The study included 8900 chronic hepatitis virus-infected patients enrolled in a prospective screening programme, of whom 1335 (15.0%) were infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 7120 (80.0%) with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 445 (5.0%) with both HBV and HCV. Screening was conducted every 6 months and included serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement and ultrasonography. Curative treatments included liver transplantation, resection, radiofrequency ablation and/or ethanol injection. RESULTS: Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 765 (8.6%) patients. Of 1602 patients with cirrhosis, 758 (47.3%) developed HCC. Curative treatment was possible in 523 (68.4%) of the 765 HCC patients. Two- and 5-year rates of overall survival in the curative treatment group were 65% and 28%, respectively, compared with 10% and 0% in the advanced disease group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prospective screening of patients at high risk for the development of HCC increases the proportion of patients diagnosed with potentially curable disease. This may result in an increase in the number of longterm survivors. Screening strategies should focus on patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection who have progressed to cirrhosis because more than 40% of these patients will develop HCC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Preoperative treatment of resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and activity of bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI in this setting.Methods:Patients aged 18-75 years, PS 0-1, with resectable liver-confined metastases from CRC were eligible. They received bevacizumab 5 mg kg(-1) followed by irinotecan 180 mg m(-)(2), leucovorin 200 mg m(-)(2), 5-fluorouracil 400 mg m(-)(2) bolus and 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg m(-)(2) 46-h infusion, biweekly, for 7 cycles. Bevacizumab was stopped at cycle 6. A single-stage, single-arm phase 2 study design was applied with 1-year progression-free rate as the primary end point, and 39 patients required.Results:From October 2007 to December 2009, 39 patients were enrolled in a single institution. Objective response rate was 66.7% (95% exact CI: 49.8-80.9). Of these, 37 patients (94.9%) underwent surgery, with a R0 rate of 84.6%. Five patients had a pathological complete remission (14%). Out of 37 patients, 16 (43.2%) had at least one surgical complication (most frequently biloma). At 1 year of follow-up, 24 patients were alive and free from disease progression (61.6%, 95% CI: 44.6-76.6). Median PFS and OS were 14 (95% CI: 11-24) and 38 (95% CI: 28-NA) months, respectively.Conclusion:Preoperative treatment of patients with resectable liver metastases from CRC with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI is feasible, but further studies are needed to define its clinical relevance.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 4 April 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.140 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims and background. Extrahepatic spread of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed during the clinical course of the disease is not frequent; however, with the prolonged survival of HCC patients, the incidence of extrahepatic metastases seems to be increasing. Methods and study design. We present four unusual cases of extrahepatic metastasis from HCC: the first concerns a patient who underwent a liver transplantation for HCC with cirrhosis and three years later developed metastases in the lung and the left orbit; the second is that of a patient who developed an extraperitoneal pararectal metastasis; in the third case a large osteolytic lesion developed on the left iliac bone, and in the fourth case we found an isolated metastasis in the left mandible. Results and conclusions. These cases offer important information related to the unusual biology of isolated metastases from HCC after successful treatment of the primary cancer.
PMID:23549015[PubMed - in process]
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in the management of jaundiced patients with resectable pancreatic cancer (RPC) is controversial. Obstructive jaundice determines hepatic dysfunction which can increase the operative risks. Experimental studies demonstrated that PBD could be associated with improved surgical outcomes. However, clinical studies did not confirm these findings. Initial clinical studies conducted with percutaneous approach failed to demonstrate a real advantage for patients undergoing PBD before pancreaticoduodenectomy. Overall morbidity was higher in patients undergoing PBD, because of procedure-related complications. Similar results were obtained with endoscopic PBD. Six meta-analyses have not clarified the role of PBD in the management of patients with malignant jaundice undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, because of lack of uniformity among all the studies published. Recently, the results of a large randomized controlled trial indicated that direct surgery should be the best therapeutic strategy for jaundiced patients with RPC. The debate whether jaundiced patients with RPC should undergo PBD continues and the advent of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy added some arguments in favor of PBD. The latter is still considered the first step for jaundiced patients when they present with cholangitis, intense pruritus or severe jaundice; surgery cannot be scheduled within 7-10 days from the diagnosis; neoadjuvant chemoradiation is planned, as part of the treatment. While endoscopic PBD is considered the preferred approach, there is still controversy about the type of biliary stent which should be used. Emerging data support the insertion of short (4-6 cm) biliary self-expandable metallic stent, especially if surgery is not immediately planned.
Current drug targets 03/2012; 13(6):753-63. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have suggested that ibuprofen, a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits the promotion and proliferation of certain tumors. Recently, we demonstrated the antiproliferative effects of ibuprofen on the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. However, high doses of ibuprofen were required to elicit these antiproliferative effects in vitro. The present research compared the antiproliferative effects of ibuprofen delivered freely and released by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) in MKN-45 cells.
MKN-45 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells were treated with ibuprofen-loaded PLGA NPs. The proliferation of MKN-45 cells was then assessed by cell counting. The uptake of NPs was imaged by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The release of ibuprofen from ibuprofen-loaded PLGA NPs in the cells was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Dramatic inhibition of cellular proliferation was observed in cells treated with ibuprofen-loaded PLGA NPs versus those treated with free ibuprofen at the same concentration. The localization of NPs was cytoplasmic. The initiation of ibuprofen release was rapid, commencing within 2 hours, and then increased slowly over time, reaching a maximum concentration at 24 hours. The inhibition of proliferation was confirmed to be due to the intracellular release of ibuprofen from the NPs. Using PLGA NPs as carriers, ibuprofen exerted an antiproliferative activity at concentrations > 100 times less than free ibuprofen, suggesting greater efficiency and less cellular toxicity. In addition, when carried by PLGA NPs, ibuprofen more quickly induced the expression of transcripts involved in proliferation and invasiveness processes.
Ibuprofen exerted an antiproliferative effect on MKN-45 cells at low concentrations. This effect was achieved using PLGA NPs as carriers of low doses of ibuprofen.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:5683-91. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possess antiproliferative activities that can affect cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effects of ibuprofen on the MKN-45 cell line. Cells were treated with ibuprofen for 24, 48 or 72 h, and cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Using microarray technology, we studied changes in the gene expression profiles over time after ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen induced a dose- and time-dependent reduction in cell number without altering cell viability. Genes involved in the 'biological oxidation' and 'G(1)/S checkpoint' pathways were the most significantly represented at 24 h, whereas genes involved in the 'cell cycle' and 'DNA replication' pathways were represented at 48 and 72 h. Genes associated with the 'apoptosis' pathway were also significantly represented at 72 h. Modulation of the expression of p53 and p53-induced genes (CDKN1A/p21 and GADD45), which are involved in the G(1)/S transition, suggested an effect of ibuprofen on cell-cycle progression. Using flow cytometry, we observed an early block in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle after ibuprofen treatment. In addition, P450 family transcripts were upregulated and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased following 12 h of ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen induced ROS, which resulted in cellular alterations that promoted a p53-dependent G(1) blockade. These findings suggest that ibuprofen exerts its antiproliferative actions through cell-cycle control and the induction of apoptosis. Both of these mechanisms appear to be independent of ibuprofen's anti-inflammatory effects.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 12/2011; 11(6):412-28. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an arginine auxotroph due to argininosuccinate synthetase I deficiency. This study's purpose was to evaluate the effects of pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI) in terms of toxicity, tumor response, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and serum arginine levels.
Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive either 80 IU/m(2) or 160 IU/m(2) of ADI weekly for up to 6 months. Adverse events, serum arginine, AFP levels, and antibody production against ADI were measured on a regular basis. In addition, disease response and time to progression according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and survival rates were evaluated.
Four patients were excluded from the survival analysis because they developed exclusion criteria after randomization, but before first treatment. The number of patients in the two cohorts were similar (n = 37 in the low-dose cohort, n = 39 in the high-dose cohort). Mean (+/-SE) survival for all subjects was 15.8 months (474 days +/- 39 days) from time of diagnosis of unresectable disease. Arginine levels remained below baseline for 50 days while antibodies against ADI reached a plateau at approximately the same time. There were no deaths attributed to ADI treatment. Only two patients were withdrawn for immunogenic-related adverse events. Grade 2, 3, or 4 toxicities were recorded in 92, 19, and 0 patients, respectively.
Pegylated ADI is a promising drug that capitalizes on a significant enzymatic deficiency in HCC. It is safe, well tolerated, and may benefit patients with unresectable HCC.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2010; 28(13):2220-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have taken into consideration papers published in the last 10 years on the treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer and the pre-operative prognostic factors needed to consider these subjects eligible for surgical treatment. Peritoneal carcinomatosis should not be considered an absolute contraindication to hepatic resection if it is possible to perform a complete resection of all peritoneal and liver disease.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 10/2009; 100(4):345-7. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantification of the magnitude of thrombotic risk associated with malignancy and with anti-cancer therapy is indispensable to use anticoagulant drugs which selectively interfere with haemostatic mechanisms protecting patients from venous thromboembolism (VTE) and probably from tumor progression. However, none of activation coagulation markers has any predictive value for the occurrence of the thrombotic events in one individual patient. Current clotting methods can't reveal the overall dynamic clot formation; in contrast thromboelastographic methods specifically assess overall coagulation kinetics and its strength in whole blood.
Objective of study was to evaluate if the activation of coagulation as eventually revealed by ROTEM thromboelastometry could assess an hypercoagulable state in surgical neoplastic patients.
Fifty consecutive patients with carcinoma of the digestive tract in preoperative period (23 M, 27 F aging 61.5 (45-79 years) and 147 healthy subjects (71 M, 76 F) were studied. A recent thromboelastometric method based on thrombelastography after Hartert was employed. Measurements were performed on ROTEM Coagulation Analyzer. The continuous coagulation data from 50 min course were transformed into dynamic velocity profiles of WB clot formation.
Standard parameters (CT, CFT, MCF) of cancer patients were similar to controls. CT (in cancer patients): females 50 s (38.3-58.7), males 50 s (42-71.2) vs 51 s (42-59), p = 0.1210 / 53 s (42-74.8), p = 0.1975 (in controls). CFT (in cancer patients): females 72 s (32- 92.4), males 80 s (50.2- 128.7) vs 78 s (62-100), p = 0.0128 / 80 s (59-124.4), p = 0.9384 (in controls). MCF (in cancer patients): females 70 mm (59.9-82.5), males 63 mm (56-73.7) vs 69 mm (59-95.8), p = 0.9911 / 69 mm (53.6-90), p = 0.0135 (in controls). Females showed a higher MaxVel when compared to males. The MaxVel was increased in cancer patients: females 19 mm /100 s (14.3-49.5) males 18 mm / 100 s (11-27) vs 15 mm 100 s (11.8-22), p < 0.001 / 13 mm / 100 s (10-21.8), p < 0.001 in controls. The t-MaxVel was shortened in cancer patients: females 65s (48.6-112.8), males 81s (50.1-135.9) vs 115s (56.8-166), p < 0.001 / 115 s (59.8-180.8), p = 0.0002 in controls. The AUC was increased in cancer patients: females 6451 mm 100(5511-8148), males 5984 mm 100 (5119-6899) vs 5778 mm 100 (4998-6655), p < 0.001 / 5662 mm 100 (4704-6385), p = 0.0105.
Unlike other assays measuring variations in a single component during coagulation, the thrombelastographic method records a profile of real-time continuous WB clot formation, and may provide extensive informations on haemostasis in neoplastic patients before surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Cripto-1 (CR-1), a cell membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein that can also be cleaved from the membrane, is expressed at high levels in several different types of human tumors. We evaluated whether CR-1 is present in the plasma of patients with breast and colon cancer, and if it can represent a new biomarker for these malignancies.
We determined CR-1 plasma levels using a sandwich-type ELISA in 21 healthy volunteers, 54 patients with breast cancer, 33 patients with colon carcinoma, and 21 patients with benign breast lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis was also used to assess CR-1 expression in cancerous tissues.
Very low levels of CR-1 (mean+/-SD) were detected in the plasma of healthy volunteers (0.32+/-0.19 ng/mL). A statistically significant increase in the levels of plasma CR-1 was found in patients with colon carcinoma (4.68+/-3.5 ng/mL) and in patients with breast carcinoma (2.97+/-1.48 ng/mL; P<0.001). Although moderate levels of plasma CR-1 were found in women with benign lesions of the breast (1.7+/-0.99 ng/mL), these levels were significantly lower than in patients with breast cancer (P<0.001). Finally, immunohistochemical analysis and real-time reverse transcription-PCR confirmed strong positivity for CR-1 in colon and/or breast tumor tissues.
This study suggests that plasma CR-1 might represent a novel biomarker for the detection of breast and colon carcinomas.
Clinical Cancer Research 09/2006; 12(17):5158-64. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Locally advanced rectal cancer carries out a dismail prognosis despite optimal surgery in terms of local and distant relapses. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation offers good results with tumor downstaging and downsizing and leads to more radical surgery with conservative intent. Selection of patients and an intensive chemotherapy may improve long term results. Our experience with a combined polichemotherapy and radiotherapy for low advanced rectal cancer is presented.
I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]. 01/2005; 4(3):S8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemostatic system compounds not routinely studied, have been evaluated to define the individual risk of VTE (venous thromboembolism) and to influence the prognosis using selective drugs. Significantly high values of fibrinogen, free-TFPI, F1 + 2 fragments and TAT complexes on coagulation side and PAI-1 and TAFI on fibrinolysis side have been detected. Thrombin seems to have a role in the inhibition of TAFI dependent fibrinolysis not inhibited by heparin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative chemoradiation allows downstaging of locally advanced rectal cancer and in selected patients also a sufficient downsizing to ensure sphincter preservation. Selection of patients warranting a preoperative approach is improved by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which is able to define the involvement of mesorectal circumferential margin. Similarly it would be crucial to define the response to chemoradiation during the treatment but traditional morphologic imaging techniques may fail in differentiating neoplastic tissue from scarring. PET-FDG has been successfully used in the detection of metastatic colorectal cancer allowing imaging of deposits as small as 0.5 cm and may have a role in evaluating early response to chemoradiation.
In the present study, in patients with T3-T4 rectal cancer undergoing preoperative chemoradiation PET-FDG and flow cytometry analysis on endoscopic biopsy specimen have been performed before, during and after preoperative chemoradiation.
Chemoradiation treatment has been successful in terms of downsizing and downstaging of the tumor. PET-FDG was able to demonstrate local response at only ten-fifteen days after the beginning of neoadjuvant therapy, also identifying non responding patients.
FDG-PET may have a role in defining the response to chemoradiation and modulate the treatments strategy in patients with advanced rectal cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), in association with leucovorin (LV), is the most used chemotherapy agent in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Response rate, as well as side-effect incidence, increases with the dose intensity of regimens that are used. The most common dose-limiting toxicity for 5-FU/LV modulation is diarrhea. To assess the modification of small intestinal function, we investigated the changes in intestinal permeability (IP) and intestinal absorption (IA) in 41 chemo-naive patients (21 men and 22 women; mean age, 61 +/- 9 years) with advanced colorectal cancer after treatment with the association of folinic acid and 5-FU. After chemotherapy administration, we found a marked increase in IP and a reduction in IA, measured as cellobiose-mannitol (CE-MA) ratio (p < 0.0001) and D-xylose absorption (p = 0.0001), respectively. Patients who experienced diarrhea have an increase in CE-MA ratio and a reduction in D-xylose absorption values, both statistically significant. Cellobiose-mannitol ratio and D-xylose absorption tests can be used for the assessment of toxic effect of 5-FU on mature intestinal epithelium and also for evaluating the role of cytoprotective agents.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 04/2001; 32(3):228-30. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), in association with leucovorin (LV), is the most used chemotherapy agent in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Response rate, as well as side-effect incidence, increases with the dose intensity of regimens that are used. The most common dose-limiting toxicity for 5-FU/LV modulation is diarrhea. To assess the modification of small intestinal function, we investigated the changes in intestinal permeability (IP) and intestinal absorption (IA) in 41 chemo-naive patients (21 men and 22 women; mean age, 61 ± 9 years) with advanced colorectal cancer after treatment with the association of folinic acid and 5-FU. After chemotherapy administration, we found a marked increase in IP and a reduction in IA, measured as cellobiose-mannitol (CE-MA) ratio (p < 0.0001) and D-xylose absorption (p = 0.0001), respectively. Patients who experienced diarrhea have an increase in CE-MA ratio and a reduction in D-xylose absorption values, both statistically significant. Cellobiose-mannitol ratio and D-xylose absorption tests can be used for the assessment of toxic effect of 5-FU on mature intestinal epithelium and also for evaluating the role of cytoprotective agents.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 02/2001; 32(3):228-230. · 3.20 Impact Factor