ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are the main determinants of tissue remodeling in both physiological and pathological processes. Metabolic processes, which generate oxidants and antioxidants can be influenced by environmental factors such as electromagnetic fields (EMF). We analyzed the effects of EMF on the activity and expression of MMPs in THP-1 cells. Cells were exposed to a 50 Hz, 1 mT EMF for 24 h and incubated with or without LPS. Our data indicate that THP-1 cells exposed to EMF causes a reduction of anti-oxidant enzyme activity and an enhancement of nitrogen intermediates involving the iNOS pathway. We then analyzed the role of nitration of TIMP-1 in increasing the activity of MMPs in EMF exposed cells. Molecular modeling tools were employed to identify the most plausible sites in the active conformation of TIMP-1; at least two protein sites, Y120 and Y38 and/or Y72 were identified. Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) may affect protein targets, such as TIMP-1, which are crucial for the regulation of MMP activities by oxidation of sulfydryl groups, or by nitration of tyrosine residues. These results may suggest a pathway connecting an imbalance of MMPs and their cognate inhibitor TIMP-1.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 09/2011; 227(6):2767-74. · 3.87 Impact Factor