P Xie

Zhejiang University, Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China

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Publications (10)8.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are involved in lipid metabolism through transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. The objective of the current study was to clone and characterise the PPARα and PPARγ genes in the pigeon. 2. The full-length of 1941-bp PPARα and 1653-bp PPARγ were cloned from pigeons. The two genes were predicted to encode 468 and 475 amino acids, respectively. Both proteins contained two C4-type zinc fingers, a nuclear hormone receptor DNA-binding region signature and a HOLI domain, and had high identities with other corresponding avian genes. 3. Using quantitative real-time PCR, pigeon PPARα gene expression was shown to be high in kidney, liver, gizzard, and duodenum whereas PPARγ was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue.
    British Poultry Science 05/2014; 55(2). DOI:10.1080/00071668.2014.889281 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of different fat sources in pigeon diets on performance, gut morphology, digestive enzymes and colorectal microbiota of their squabs was investigated from hatching to 28 days of age. Parent White King pigeons (240 males and 240 females) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments, each including six replications of 10 pairs (one pair per cage). Four hundred eighty newly hatched squabs were randomly allocated, and two squabs were raised by a pair of parent pigeons. Pigeons were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% lard oil (LO), palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), respectively. After four weeks of experimental feeding, FO inclusion caused the lowest body weight gain of squabs and the highest lipase activity in the jejunum content. Compared with other treatments, Group SO showed a greater villus height and duodenal surface area in squabs. In Group PO the alkaline phosphatase activity in duodenal mucosa of squabs was decreased, while in Group LO the alkaline phosphatase activity in the jejunal mucosa was highest. The leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity in the duodenal, jejunal and ileal mucosa of squabs was highest in Group SO. In the colorectal content of squabs, in Group LO the highest percentages of microbiota of the enteric group (Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, Coriobacterium and Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella) were induced. Because supplementation of SO has beneficial effects on gut development and digestive function at comparable growth performance, it is probably a better choice for oil supplementation in parental pigeon diets.
    Archives of animal nutrition 04/2013; 67(2):147-60. DOI:10.1080/1745039X.2013.776329 · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 03/2013; 8(3):502-510. DOI:10.3923/ajava.2013.502.510 · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacological level of zinc oxide is a common recommendation of swine industries, but that could produce metal toxicity to plants and soil microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of lower level of capsulated zinc oxide as an alternative to pharmacological level of zinc oxide for weaned piglets. In this study, 90 weaned piglets were randomly assigned into 3 groups (each group with 3 replicates, 10 piglets per replicate) and were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0 (the control group), 3000 mg kg(-1) zinc from zinc oxide (the zinc oxide group) and 1500 mg kg(-1) zinc from capsulated zinc oxide (the capsulated zinc oxide group) for 7 days. Results indicated that lower level of capsulated zinc oxide tended to increase the average daily gain (p = 0.062), significantly decreased diarrhea ratio (p<0.01) and significantly increased the serum concentrations of immunoglobulins and zinc (p<0.01) compared to the control group. Serum concentration of insulin-like factor-I (IGF-I), mRNA levels for IGF-I in liver, jejunum and mRNA level for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) in jejunum were markedly improved by capsulated zinc oxide. There was no difference between zinc oxide group and capsulated zinc oxide group, except for the fecal zinc concentration. Lower level of capsulated zinc oxide significantly decreased the fecal zinc concentration compared to the zinc oxide group (p<0.01). These results showed that lower level of capsulated zinc oxide exhibited beneficial effects on weaned piglets and could be an alternative to pharmacological level of zinc oxide in weaned piglets.
    Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 12/2012; 7(12):1290-1300. DOI:10.3923/ajava.2012.1290.1300 · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. A previous experiment in our laboratory found that L-threonine supplementation at 0·2 and 0·3% increased egg production and the concentration of serum IgG, respectively. The objective of this current trial was to determine if both supplementation levels can positively influence histological structure, goblet cell numbers, or antioxidant enzyme activities. 2. Babcock Brown layers (n = 576), 40 weeks of age, were allocated to three treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 32 hens. Each group received the same basal diet formulated with maize, peanut meal and crystalline amino acids. L-threonine was added to the basal diet at 0 (control), 0·2, and 0·3%, respectively for 8 weeks. Chemical analysis of the diets for threonine values were 0·47, 0·66 and 0·74 %, respectively. 3. The numbers of goblet cells did not change due to L-threonine supplementation. Also, L-threonine had no affect on the villus height and mucosal thickness. No differences were found due to treatments among groups in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in jejunum or ileum. L-threonine supplementation at 0·2% maximised the concentration of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in both serum and liver. 4. In conclusion, L-threonine supplementation had no affect on gut morphology but may have an antioxidant function at 0·2%.
    British Poultry Science 10/2012; 53(5):640-5. DOI:10.1080/00071668.2012.726707 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in transporting long-chain fatty acids. In the current study, a full-length cDNA of FAT/CD36 was first cloned from the intestine of White King pigeon by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length cDNA of pigeon FAT/CD36 was 2,282 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 224 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 642 bp, and an open reading frame of 1,416 bp encoding a protein of 471 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 52.7 kDa. Sequence comparison indicated that FAT/CD36 of pigeon had high identity with other avian FAT/CD36. Using quantitative real-time PCR, expression of FAT/CD36 was the greatest in the duodenum at 28 d posthatch, and in the jejunum, the expression of FAT/CD36 at 14 d posthatch was greater than at 8 d but the same as 28 d posthatch. However, in the ileum, expression of FAT/CD36 peaked at embryonic d 15 and 8 d posthatch. The effects of long-chain fatty acids on pigeon FAT/CD36 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA expression were also investigated in vitro. It showed that a low concentration (5 μM) of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid can significantly increase FAT/CD36 and PPARγ mRNA level in pigeon jejunum. However, for linolenic acid or arachidonic acid, the induction of both gene expressions needed a higher concentration (50 μM or 250 μM). Two hundred and 50 μM palmitic acid was shown to suppress FAT/CD36 gene expression. The results suggest that FAT/CD36 may be a representative of intestine development in pigeon, and it could be regulated by long-chain fatty acids via PPARγ pathway.
    Poultry Science 07/2012; 91(7):1670-9. DOI:10.3382/ps.2011-02097 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of extruded or non-extruded double-low rapeseed meal (DL-RSM) and multienzyme preparation on performance, nutrient digesti -bility, immune function and antioxidant status of the finishing pigs. Forty-eight pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an average weight of 62 kg were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates according to gender. Four diets were formulated to meet NRC (1998) nutrient requirements. Diet 1, based on the corn and soybean meal (SBM), was used as control. Diet 2 used 13% DL-RSM instead of the 11% SBM used in the Diet 1. Diet 3 used 13% extruded double-low rapeseed meal (E-DL-RSM) instead of 11% SBM, and Diet 4 0.03% multienzyme preparation was supplemented in Diet 3. The results showed that replacement of 11% SBM by 13% DL-RSM had no negative effects on performance and nutrient digestibility for finishing pigs. Extrusion and multienzyme preparation also had no beneficial effects on pig performance. However, the concentration of immunoglobu-lin G (IgG) in serum of DL-RSM treatment was lower (P<0.05) than that of the control, but it increased to the level of control in the treat-ment of extrusion combined with multienzyme preparation. The diet containing E-DL-RSM combined with multienzyme preparation sig-nificantly decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) in serum. It was con-cluded that DL-RSM was an acceptable alterna-tive to SBM as part of a protein supplement for finishing pig diets. In addition, extrusion and multienzymes preparation were not economi-cally applied in the current study because of their extra cost.
    04/2012; 11(2). DOI:10.4081/ijas.2012.e34
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to being an essential amino acid in protein synthesis, threonine is an integral component of gut function. To verify the effects of l-threonine on gut function, Babcock Brown layers (n = 960; 40 wk of age) were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 32 hens. Each group received the same basal diet formulated with corn, peanut meal, and crystalline amino acids. l-Threonine was added to the basal diet at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4% for 8 wk to achieve 0.47 (NRC), 0.57, 0.67, 0.77, and 0.87% threonine, respectively. Expressions of jejunal and ileal mucin 2 mRNA were increased linearly by increasing l-threonine (P < 0.01). At 0.4% l-threonine, the concentrations of IgA antibody in the mucosa of the ileum increased linearly (P < 0.01). No differences attributable to treatment were found among groups in the activity of digestive enzymes in the jejunum or ileum. It was concluded that dietary threonine requirements as reported in current NRC recommendations are insufficient for modern commercial laying hens raised in summer climates. The results suggest that threonine might function as a nutrient immunomodulator in maintaining intestinal barrier function.
    Poultry Science 10/2011; 90(10):2251-6. DOI:10.3382/ps.2011-01574 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Babcock Brown layers (n = 960), 40 wk of age, were allocated to 1 of 5 dietary treatments groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 32 hens. Each group received the same basal diet formulated with corn, peanut meal, and crystalline amino acids for 8 wk. L-Threonine was added to the basal diet at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4%, to achieve 0.47 (NRC, 1994), 0.57, 0.67, 0.77, and 0.87% threonine, respectively. Although supplementing the diet with L-threonine did not affect ADFI, FCR, egg weight, or egg quality (P > 0.05), the egg production response to supplemental L-threonine was quadratic, and it was maximized at 0.2% supplemental L-threonine. No differences were observed for uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, Ca, and P concentrations among the treatments. Serum total protein concentration increased quadratically to supplemental threonine, and the response was maximized at 0.2 and 0.3% supplemental L-threonine. Serum free threonine increased quadratically as supplemental threonine increased, and the response was maximized between 0.2 and 0.3% supplemental L-threonine. The addition of L-threonine at 0.3% of the diet resulted in linearly increasing levels of IgG and total Ig (P < 0.05) as compared with those of the control group. In conclusion, current NRC (1994) recommendations for dietary threonine are insufficient for modern commercial laying hens strains reared under subtropical summer climates. We suggest that 0.2% threonine resulted in optimal egg production, whereas 0.3% L-threonine may have had a positive effect on the humoral immune response of laying hens under conditions of high temperature and humidity.
    The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 09/2011; 20:361-370. DOI:10.3382/japr.2010-00308 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in vitro. Escherichia coli K88 was chosen as an indicator of pathogenic bacteria, because it could cause diarrhea in both children and in early-weaned piglets. In this study, the characterization of the nanoparticles was examined. Antibacterial activities against E. coli K88 were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and observing the effects on the values of the optical density (OD) at 620 nm and the populations. Results indicate that zinc oxide nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K88. The activity increased as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. The MIC and MBC were 0.1 and 0.8 µg/ml, respectively. To study the antibacterial mechanisms, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe morphological changes of E. coli K88 treated with 0.8 µg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles. The results reveal that zinc oxide nanoparticles could damage cell membranes, lead to leakage of cytoplasm and kill the bacterial cells. Our study indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles could potentially be an antibacterial reagent to treat diseases caused by bacteria.