Natsuko Takahashi

Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University School of Pharmacy, Otaru, Hokkaidō, Japan

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Publications (16)36.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is said that black tea is effective against type 2 diabetes mellitus because it can help modulate postprandial hyperglycemia. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic and preventive effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of black tea on the carbohydrate digestion and absorption process in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether black tea can modulate postprandial hyperglycemia. The freeze-dried powder of the aqueous extract of black tea leaves (JAT) was used for in vitro studies of α-amylase activity, α-glucosidase activity, and glucose uptake by glucose transporters in Caco-2 cells; ex vivo studies of small intestinal α-glucosidase activity; and in vivo studies of oral sugar tolerance in GK rats, an animal model of nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Half maximal inhibitory concentration values indicated that JAT significantly reduced α-glucosidase activity, but weakly reduced α-amylase activity. Kinetic studies of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase activity revealed that the combination of JAT and the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, showed a mixed-type inhibition. JAT had no effect on the uptake of 2'-deoxy-D-glucose by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and the uptake of α-methyl-D-glucose by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the oral sucrose tolerance test in GK rats, JAT reduced plasma glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. The hypoglycemic action of JAT was also confirmed: JAT, in combination with acarbose, produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on plasma glucose levels in vivo. In contrast to the oral sucrose tolerance test, JAT showed no effect in the oral glucose tolerance test. JAT was demonstrated to inhibit the degradation of disaccharides into monosaccharides by α-glucosidase in the small intestine. Thereby indirectly preventing the absorption of the dietary source of glucose mediated by SGLT1 and GLUT2 transporters localized at the apical side of enterocytes in the small intestine. The results indicate that black tea could be useful as a functional food in the dietary therapy for borderline type 2 diabetes mellitus that could modulate postprandial hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of interaction between tegafur (FT) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of α-defensins (HD-5: human α-defensin 5, HD-6: human α-defensin 6) by using a Caco-2 cell line as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells. This is the first study in which the effect of interaction of an oral anticancer drug and functional food on the innate immune system was examined. α-Defensins are abundant constituents of mouse and human paneth cells and play a role in the innate immune system in intestine. We detected HD-5 and HD-6 mRNA in Caco-2 cells and evaluated the effects of FT and EGCG on these mRNA levels. HD-5 and HD-6 mRNA levels were decreased by exposure to FT. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by exposure to FT as well as H2O2 exposure, and EGCG suppressed FT-induced production of ROS. Furthermore, FT-induced decrease in HD-5 and HD-6 mRNA levels was almost completely suppressed by EGCG. These results indicate that EGCG restored the decrease of α-defensins induced by FT at the transcriptional level in Caco-2 cells, suggesting that EGCG can be used as adjunctive therapy in chemotherapy.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2014; 37(3):490-2. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2) is localized to the apical membrane of hepatocytes and played an important role in the biliary excretion of a broad range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and drugs, such as pravastatin. However, the effects of statins on MRP2 in the liver and the precise mechanisms of their actions have been obscure. The goal of this study was to determine the regulatory molecular mechanism for statin-induced MRP2 expression in hepatocytes. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that pitavastatin increased MRP2 expression. Pitavastatin promoted liver X receptor (LXR) α/β translocation from the cytosol to nuclei, resulting in LXR activation. Deletion and mutational analysis suggested that the potential a sterol regulatory element (SRE) played a major role in the observed modulation of MRP2 expression by pitavastatin. Furthermore pitavastatin increased the protein-DNA complex, and when SRE was mutated, stimulation of the protein-DNA complex by pitavastatin was decreased. It was demonstrated that pitavastatin upregulated MRP2 expression by an SREBP regulatory pathway in hepatocytes and that the actions of statins may lead to improve the biliary excretion of MRP2 substrates.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 04/2013; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) transport monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies. These transporters are very attractive therapeutic targets in cancer. Elucidations of the functions and structures of MCTs is necessary for the development of effective medicine which targeting these proteins. However, in comparison with MCT1, there is little information on location of the function moiety of MCT4 and which constituent amino acids govern the transport function of MCT4. The aim of the present work was to determine the molecular mechanism of L-lactate transport via hMCT4. Transport of L-lactate via hMCT4 was determined by using hMCT4 cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes. hMCT4 mediated L-lactate uptake in oocytes was measured in the absence and presence of chemical modification agents and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DIDS). In addition, L-lactate uptake was measured by hMCT4 arginine mutants. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed the localization of hMCT4. In hMCT4-expressing oocytes, treatment with phenylglyoxal (PGO), a compound specific for arginine residues, completely abolished the transport activity of hMCT4, although this abolishment was prevented by the presence of L-lactate. On the other hand, chemical modifications except for PGO treatment had no effect on the transport activity of hMCT4. The transporter has six conserved arginine residues, two in the transmembrane-spanning domains (TMDs) and four in the intracellular loops. In hMCT4-R278 mutants, the uptake of L-lactate is void of any transport activity without the alteration of hMCT4 localization. Our results suggest that Arg-278 in TMD8 is a critical residue involved in substrate, L-lactate recognition by hMCT4.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67690. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACTA column‐switching liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to determine paclitaxel and its metabolites, 6α‐hydroxypaclitaxel and p‐3′‐hydroxypaclitaxel, in human plasma was developed. The analytical system had a Shim‐Pack MAYI‐ODS (10 × 4.6 mm i.d.) trapping column with deproteinization ability that concentrates analytes and removes water‐soluble components. This method covered a linearity range of 5–5000 ng/mL of concentrations in plasma for paclitaxel, a range of 0.87–870 ng/mL for 6α‐hydroxypaclitaxel and a range of 0.87–435 ng/mL for p‐3′‐hydroxypaclitaxel. The intra‐day precision and inter‐day precision of analysis were less than 11.1%, and the accuracy was within ±14.4% at concentrations of 5, 50, 500 and 5000 ng/mL for paclitaxel, 0.87, 8.7, 87 and 870 ng/mL for 6α‐hydroxypaclitaxel, and 0.87, 8.7, 87 and 435 ng/mL for p‐3′‐hydroxypaclitaxel. The total run time was 30 min. Our method was successfully applied to clinical pharmacokinetic investigation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Biomedical Chromatography 01/2013; 27(4). · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) modulators are very attractive therapeutic targets in cancer. Since most cancer cells display increased glycolysis, elucidations of the effects of PKC activation on glycolysis is necessary for the development of effective medicine. In the present study, to clarify the role of PKC in the regulation of glycolysis, we examined the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, on the expression and activity of glucose and lactic acid metabolism-related genes in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cells). In parallel to increases in glucose uptake and mRNA levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs) induced by PMA treatment for 6 h, the hexokinase (HK) mRNA level and activity were also significantly increased in RD cells. On the other hand, a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mRNA level and activity was seen when the cells were incubated with PMA for 24 h, but not for 6 or 12 h, and was associated with lactic acid production. These effects by PMA treatment were markedly suppressed by Bisindolylmaleimide (BIM), a PKC inhibitor. Furthermore, chetomin, a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, completely abrogated the increment of LDH mRNA level and activity as well as monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4, a lactic acid efflux transporter. In conclusion, we found that HK and LDH activity induced by PKC activation was associated with the glucose uptake and lactic acid level and that LDH and MCT4 are modulated by a common factor, HIF-1.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2013; 36(9):1435-9. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damages remote organs, including the liver, and promotes multi-organ failure (MOF). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying acute liver injury after intestinal I/R have not been completely elucidated. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulate metabolizing enzymes and transporters, and coordinately prevent hepatotoxicity reflecting an inability of appropriate excretion of endogenous toxic compounds. In this study, we assessed FXR, PXR and CAR expression levels and their localization levels in nuclei in the liver after intestinal I/R. We also investigated the effect of IL-6 on FXR, PXR and CAR expression levels and their localization levels in nuclei in in vitro experiments. Methods. We used intestinal I/R model rats. Moreover, HepG2 cells were used in in vitro study. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression levels. Nuclear receptor localization in nuclei was analyzed by Western blotting using nuclear extracts. Results. FXR and PXR expression levels began to be decreased at 3 h, and FXR, PXR and CAR expression levels were decreased at 6 h after intestinal I/R. The localization levels of FXR, PXR and CAR in nuclei began to be decreased at 3 h, and all of them were decreased at 6 h after intestinal I/R. In HepG2 cells, FXR, PXR and CAR expression levels were decreased by 0.5-1 ng/mL, 0.5-100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL IL-6 treatment for 24 h, respectively. FXR, PXR and CAR localization levels in nuclei were suppressed by 0.5-10 ng/mL, 10-100 ng/mL and 10-100 ng/mL IL-6 treatment for 24 h, respectively. Conclusions. FXR, PXR and CAR expression levels are decreased in the liver after intestinal I/R. IL-6 is one of main causes the decreases in expressions of these receptors. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2012; 15(5):616-631. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A column-switching liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to determine paclitaxel and its metabolites, 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and p-3'-hydroxypaclitaxel, in human plasma was developed. The analytical system had a Shim-Pack MAYI-ODS (10 × 4.6 mm i.d.) trapping column with deproteinization ability that concentrates analytes and removes water-soluble components. This method covered a linearity range of 5-5000 ng/mL of concentrations in plasma for paclitaxel, a range of 0.87-870 ng/mL for 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and a range of 0.87-435 ng/mL for p-3'-hydroxypaclitaxel. The intra-day precision and inter-day precision of analysis were less than 11.1%, and the accuracy was within ±14.4% at concentrations of 5, 50, 500 and 5000 ng/mL for paclitaxel, 0.87, 8.7, 87 and 870 ng/mL for 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel, and 0.87, 8.7, 87 and 435 ng/mL for p-3'-hydroxypaclitaxel. The total run time was 30 min. Our method was successfully applied to clinical pharmacokinetic investigation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Biomedical Chromatography 09/2012; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a clinical setting, changes in pharmacokinetics due to drug-drug interactions can often directly affect the therapeutic safety and efficacy of drugs. Recently, interest has been shown in drug-drug interactions in the intestine. It is now recognized that changes in the functions of drug transporters substantially influence the absorption of administered drugs from the intestine. Amiodarone (AMD) is a potent drug used in the treatment of serious supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Despite its potent pharmacological effects, its wide clinical use is precluded by drug-drug interactions. In this study, we characterized the transporter function between AMD and various compounds in human intestinal model Caco-2 cells. AMD significantly and rapidly increased the uptake of [(3)H]estrone-3-sulfate (E-3-S) for 5 min. The apical-to-basal transport of [(3)H]E-3-S was significantly increased by AMD. The AMD-stimulated [(3)H]E-3-S uptake was inhibited by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates. Caco-2 cells treated with AMD showed increased OATP2B1 expression on the cell surface. AMD also increased the absorption of sulfobromophthalein (BSP), which is a typical organic anion compound, and the expression level of Oatp2b1 at the membrane in in vivo experiments. The results indicate that AMD induces OATP2B1/Oatp2b1 expression at the membrane in the intestine and enhances absorption of organic anion compounds.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 09/2012; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin is a platinum agent that is used for treatment of colorectal cancer. A sensitive and selective hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of oxaliplatin was developed. Human plasma ultrafiltrates were precipitated by acetonitrile containing carboplatin as an internal standard and further diluted with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation of oxaliplatin and the internal standard was achieved with a column modified with phosphorylcholine and an isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/water/acetic acid=90:10:0.1, v/v/v) at the flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The lower limit of quantification for oxaliplatin was 25ng/mL. The linearity range of the method was from 25 to 5000ng/mL. The intra-day precision and inter-day precision (RSD) ranged from 0.8 to 6.1%, and the accuracy (RE) was within ±4.5%. The extraction recoveries from human plasma ultrafiltrates were 83.6-91.6%, and ion suppression caused by matrix components was 86.7-88.5% at three different levels, respectively. This method was applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study of oxaliplatin in a cancer patient. The maximum concentration of colorectal cancer patient administered oxaliplatin was 1650ng/mL.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 08/2012; 71:99-103. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, to clarify the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) expression, we examined the regulation mechanism of MCT4 expression in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, an in vitro skeletal muscle model. Exposure of RD cells to PMA, a PKC activator, for 24 h resulted in a two-fold increase in the amount of lactic acid in the growth medium. In parallel to an increase in lactic acid release from RD cells, the level of MCT4 mRNA and protein were also significantly increased in RD cells. A PKC inhibitory study indicated that PMA-induced stimulation of MCT4 expression can be mediated through a novel PKC isoform, especially PKCδ. Moreover, rottlerin, a selective PKCδ inhibitor, decreased PMA-induced MCT4 promoter activity. Deletion and mutational analysis suggested that the potential hypoxia-response elements (HREs) played a major role in the observed modulation of MCT4 expression by PMA. Furthermore, we found that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) significantly inhibited PMA-induced MCT4 promoter activity. Our results show that the effects of PMA on MCT4 expression are mediated through an indirect pathway partially involving PKCδ and HIF-1α transcription factor.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2012; 428(1-2):25-32. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Docetaxel is a taxane family antineoplastic agent widely employed in cancer chemotherapy. We developed a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of docetaxel in human plasma. Plasma samples were deproteinized by acetonitrile containing internal standard paclitaxel. Chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel ODS-100 V 3 μm (50 mm × 2.0 mm i.d.) column using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-methanol-water-formic acid (50:5:45:0.1, v/v/v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. This method covered a linearity range of 5-5000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL. The intra-day precision and inter-day precision (R.S.D.) of analysis were less than 6.7%, and the accuracy (R.E.) was within ± 9.0% at the concentrations of 5, 20, 200, and 2000 ng/mL. The total run time was 5.0 min. This method was successfully applied for clinical pharmacokinetic investigation.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 02/2012; 893-894:157-61. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uric acid is thought to be one of the most important antioxidants in human biological fluids. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is an important factor associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for intestinal I/R injury. The aim of this study was to clarify the efflux for uric acid from the intestine after intestinal I/R. We used intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model rats. Serosal to mucosal flux for [¹⁴C]-uric acid was assessed by using Ussing-type diffusion chambers. BCRP/Bcrp expression was assessed by Western blot analysis. Caco-2 cells were used for a model of the intestinal epithelium, and rotenone was used as a mitochondrial dysfunction inducer. Serosal to mucosal flux for uric acid was increased after intestinal I/R, and that for mannitol was also increased. Ko143, which is a BCRP inhibitor, did not affect the uric acid transport. The decreasing uric acid transport mediated by Bcrp was caused by decrease in the level of Bcrp homodimer, bridged by an S-S bond. The suppression of Bcrp S-S bond formation was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, BCRP S-S bond formation activity was decreased by rotenone in Caco-2 cells. Serosal to mucosal flux for uric acid is significantly increased via the paracelluler route, but that via the transcellular route mediated by Bcrp is decreased after intestinal I/R. The decreasing uric acid flux mediated by Bcrp is caused by suppression of Bcrp S-S bond formation. This suppression of Bcrp S-S bond formation may be related to mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2012; 15(2):295-304. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHC), a lactate efflux inhibitor, and citrate, an alkaline reagent, on statin-induced muscle injury using a human prototypic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell line (RD) as a model of in vitro skeletal muscle and on statin-induced muscle damage in an in vivo study. Statin-induced reduction of cell viability and apoptosis was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and caspase assay. In an in vivo study, plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level was examined in cerivastatin-treated rats. CHC increased growth inhibition of RD cells induced by cerivastatin, a lipophilic statin, but not these induced by pravastatin, a hydrophilic statin. On the other hand, citrate suppressed cerivastatin-, simvastatin- and atorvastatin-induced reduction of cell viability and caspase activation in RD cells. Moreover, citrate prevented cerivastatin-induced increase in CPK concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. This is first study to evaluate CHC or citrate-induced exacerbation or improvement of statin-induced muscle damage.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 01/2012; 132(5):609-15. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most effective drugs based on the type of cancer are chosen for chemotherapy. Tumor cells can be targeted at the DNA, RNA or protein level, and most of the classical anticancer drugs interact with tumor DNA in a time-dependent manner or a concentration-dependent manner. However, it has been unclear to date whether a combination therapy is carried out by using exact classification. Thus it is necessary to reclassify a great number of anticancer drugs. We propose a new classification system based on pharmacological effects of anticancer drugs. Classification of four anticancer drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel and gemcitabine) was performed by the 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The four anticancer drugs were grouped by IC50 values (inhibitory concentration, 50%) in a time-dependent manner and a concentration-dependent manner. The present approach may be combined to enhance the chemosensitivity, improve the dose of cytotoxic drugs and evaluate the effects of novel anticancer drugs.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 01/2012; 132(6):777-83. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostanoids are bioactive substances that contribute to various biological and pathological processes. To evaluate both extracellular and intracellular levels of prostanoids at the same time, we developed methods for quantification of extracellular and intracellular levels of prostanoids, including prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), PGD(2), PGF(2α), 6-keto PGF(1α), and TXB(2), in cultured cells using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and we validated the LC/MS/MS methods. A solid-phase extraction cartridge was used for extraction of prostanoids. The prostanoids were separated by a C(18) column with an isocratic flow of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (40:60:0.1, v/v/v). Calibration curves of extracellular measurement for the prostanoids were linear in the range from 0.1 to 100 ng/mL (r(2)>0.999), and those of intracellular measurement were linear in the range from 0.05 to 50 ng (r(2)>0.999). Validation assessment showed that both methods of extracellular and intracellular measurements were highly reliable with good accuracy and precision. We also applied the methods to human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 09/2011; 879(30):3378-85. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Patients with type 2 diabetes are generally treated with various pharmacological compounds and are exposed to a high risk of drug-drug interactions. However, alterations of pharmacokinetics in a type 2 diabetes model have been obscure. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of type 2 diabetes on the pharmacokinetics of the fluoroquinolone grepafloxacin (GPFX) and the expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), one of the drug efflux transporters. Methods. We used Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a lean model of type 2 diabetes. Plasma concentration and intestinal, renal, and biliary clearance of GPFX were measured after intravenous and intraintestinal administration in Wistar and GK rats. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression levels. Results. We found a significant increase in the plasma concentrations of GPFX at 90, 120 and 240 minutes after intraintestinal administration in GK rats compared with the concentrations in Wistar rats but not after intravenous administration. The increase in plasma GPFX concentration was associated with reduction in jejunal clearance of GPFX caused by a decrease in secretory transport of GPFX. However, there was no correlation between the decrease in secretory transport of GPFX and P-gp expression level. Conclusion. Type 2 diabetic conditions alter P-gp function as well as expression level and correlate poorly with each other. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 17(1):25-33. · 2.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11 Citations
36.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University School of Pharmacy
      Otaru, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2011–2013
    • Hokkaido University
      • • Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics and Therapeutics
      • • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan