[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peripancreatic fluid collections (PPFC) are a serious complication after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKTx). METHODS: Retrospective study for all 223 SPKTx performed from December 8, 1996, to October 10, 2011, to evaluate the risk factors (RF) and impact of PPFCs on outcomes was conducted. RESULTS: Clinically significant PPFCs were seen in 36 (16%) cases, all within 3 months after transplantation. Radiologic drainage resolved 2 (6%) cases, and 34 required laparotomy (mean [SD], 4 ). Compared with the non-PPFC group (n=186), the PPFC group had similar patient and total kidney graft survivals but significantly lower total pancreas survival (68% vs. 85%) and greater incidence of infections (75% vs. 46%, all P<0.05) at 5 years. PPFCs were associated with early graft pancreatitis in 18 (50%), pancreatic fistula in 20 (56%, 9 with obvious duodenal stump leak) and infection in the collection in 20 (56%) cases. Comparison of PPFCs with pancreas graft loss to the PPFCs with surviving grafts showed that the incidence of pancreatic fistula was greater in the former (90% pancreas graft loss vs. 42% pancreas graft survival, P<0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis of RF for developing PPFC showed a donor age >30 years to be significant (P=0.03; odds ratio, 3.4; confidence interval, 1.1-10.5) and a trend of association with donor body mass index >30 and pancreas cold ischemia time greater than 12 hr. CONCLUSIONS: PPFCs are associated with significant reduction in pancreas allograft survival and impact resource use. Donor age >30 years is a significant RF for their development. PPFCs associated with pancreatic fistula carry a greater risk for pancreas graft loss.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-positive patients are at increased risk of end-stage kidney disease. Kidney transplantation is an established treatment modality for end-stage kidney disease in the general population. Recent data have confirmed the feasibility of kidney transplantation in HIV-positive patients, and kidney transplantation is increasingly offered to end-stage kidney disease patients with well-controlled HIV infection. We report clinical outcomes in a national cohort study of kidney transplantation in HIV-positive patients. In all, 35 HIV-positive KT recipients who had undergone KT up to December 2010 (66% male, 74% black ethnicity) were identified; the median CD4 cell count was 366, all had undetectable HIV RNA levels at kidney transplantation, and 44% received a kidney from a live donor. Patient survival at 1 and 3 years was 91.3%, and graft survival 91.3% and 84.7%, respectively. At one-year post-kidney transplantation, the cumulative incidence of acute rejection was 48%, and the median (IQR) eGFR 64 (46, 78) mL/min/1.73 m2. Although HIV viraemia and HIV disease progression were uncommon, renal complications were relatively frequent. Our study corroborates the feasibility of kidney transplantation in HIV-positive patients. The high rates of acute rejection suggest that the optimal immune suppression strategy in this population remains to be refined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation carries a higher risk of surgical complications than kidney transplantation alone. We aimed to establish the incidence of surgical complications after SPK transplantation and determine the effect on graft and patient survival.
Outcomes of all SPK transplants performed at our centre were compared between patients who experienced a surgical complication (SC group) and those who did not (NSC group).
Our centre performed 193 SPK transplants in a 15-year period; 44 patients (23%) experienced a surgical complication. One-year and 5-year pancreatic graft survival was 89 and 80%, respectively; this was lower in the SC group. There was no significant difference in patient or kidney graft survival between the SC and NSC groups at 5 years (92 and 83%, respectively.)
Surgical complications following SPK transplantation can cause significant morbidity and adversely affect pancreas graft survival, but do not affect long-term kidney or patient survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreas transplantation is a surgical treatment for diabetes mellitus. More than 23,000 pancreas transplants have now been reported to the International Transplant Registry (IPTR). Early diagnosis and therapy for graft-related complications are essential for graft survival. Radiologists must therefore understand the surgical procedure and the potential complications. During the course of this review, we will illustrate the normal post-operative anatomy and the imaging appearances of common potential complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundHIV infection is an independent risk factor for end-stage kidney disease in HIV-positive patients of black ethnicity. Highly effective antiretroviral therapy has allowed these patients to be considered for kidney transplantation (KT). We report the outcomes of KT in a national observational cohort study.Methods
We retrospectively identified HIV-positive patients who had undergone KT up to December, 2010, through all 25 UK KT centres and major HIV clinics, and included follow-up until December, 2011. Patient characteristics, treatments, and complications were described. Patient and graft survival rates and cumulative incidence of acute rejection were estimated with Kaplan-Meier and Nelson-Aalen analyses.Findings35 HIV-positive KT recipients (median age 40 years, 66% male, 74% black ethnicity) were identified. At the time of KT, all patients were stable on antiretroviral therapy with undetectable HIV RNA and median CD4 cell count of 366 cells per mL. Patient survival at both 1 and 3 years was 91·3%, and graft survival was 91·3% and 84·7%, respectively. In the first year after KT, blood concentrations of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) were frequently outside the therapeutic reference range. At 1 year after KT, the cumulative incidence of acute allograft rejection was 48%, and the median estimated glomerular filtration rate 61 mL/min/1·73 m2 (IQR 46–78). Although HIV viraemia and HIV disease progression were uncommon, renal complications were relatively frequent.InterpretationOur study corroborates the feasibility of KT in HIV-positive patients. Co-administration of antiretroviral therapy and CNI is challenging, and sub-therapeutic CNI concentrations may contribute to the high rate of acute allograft rejection. The optimum immune suppression strategy in this population remains to be refined.FundingKing's College London.