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Publications (4)10.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The present study aims at evaluating the significance of zinc ions on the development of brain damage in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The zinc ion specific autometallographic technique, the ZnSe(AMG) method, using silver enhancement of in vivo-captured zinc ions bound in zinc-selenium nanocrystals was applied to follow changes in the vesicular zinc pattern. Balb/c mice, ZnT3 knockout (ZnT3-Ko) mice, a mouse genetically knocked out for the protein ZnT3 responsible for sequestering zinc into synaptic vesicles, and littermates from the genetically un-manipulated mother type mice, wild type (Wt), were used. The Wt and the Balb/c mice exhibited instantaneously a boost in the zinc staining adjacent to the lesion involving all six neocortical layers. Ultra-structural analyses revealed that the in vivo created ZnSe nanocrystals were still confined to the vesicles of the zinc-enriched (ZEN) neurons in the neuropil. No differences between the Balb/c and Wt mice were seen at any time points. In the ZnT3-Ko mice the ZEN terminals stayed void of AMG grains, but a number of neuronal somata around the lesion became loaded with ZnSe nanocrystals. These silver-enhanced ZnSe nanocrystals were confined to the cytoplasm of the somata and their proximal dendrites. No such soma staining was seen in the Wt or Balb/c mice. We speculate that vesicular zinc may not contribute to neuronal damage following TBI.
    Neuroscience 12/2007; 150(1):93-103. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bismuth is used for a multitude of industrial purposes and has partly replaced toxic heavy metals such as lead and mercury in e.g. lubricants and shotgun pellets. In medicine, bismuth-compounds have long been used to remedy gastrointestinal disorders; lately in combination with antibiotics to treat Helicobacter pylori associated peptic ulcers. An epidemic episode of bismuth-induced encephalopathy in France in the 1970s revealed the neurotoxic potential of bismuth. This incidence, involving almost 1000 patients, remains unexplained and the contribution of other factors besides bismuth has been postulated. Recently an autometallographic technique made it possible to detect bismuth in morphologically intact tissue. In the present study, autometallographicly detectable bismuth was seen throughout the brain following intraperitoneal and intracranial exposure. The neuronal staining pattern seems highly organized with some areas heavily stained and others with low or no staining. Long-term (8 months) intraperitoneal exposure led to higher bismuth uptake than short-term (2 weeks) exposure. Following both intraperitoneal and intracranial exposure, high amounts of bismuth were found in the reticular and hypothalamic nuclei, in the oculomotor and hypoglossal nuclei and in Purkinje cells. Within the central nervous system (CNS) retrograde axonal transport was seen after intracranial bismuth exposure. Axonal transport seems to influence the distribution of bismuth as the highest uptake of bismuth after intraperitoneal exposure was seen in the facial and the trigeminal motor nuclei, i.e. neurones with processes outside the blood-brain barrier, whereas these nuclei contained no bismuth following ic exposure. Ultrastructurally, accumulation of bismuth was seen in lysosomes.
    Basic &amp Clinical Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 10/2005; 97(3):188-96. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An easy to perform autometallographic technique (AMG) for capturing zinc ions in Alzheimer plaques is presented. The possibility of visualizing loosely bound or free zinc ions in tissue by immersion autometallography (iZnS(AMG)) is a relatively recent development. The iZnS(AMG) staining is caused by zinc-sulphur nanocrystals created in 1-2 mm thick brain slices that are immersed in a 0.1% sodium sulphide, 3% glutaraldehyde phosphate buffered solution, the NeoTimm Solution (NTS), for 3 days. When the zinc-sulphur nanocrystals are subsequently silver-enhanced by autometallography, the plaques are readily identified as spheres of dark interlacing strands of different sizes, embedded in the pattern of zinc-enriched terminals. The zinc specificity of the iZnS(AMG) technique was tested by immersion of brain slides in the chelator DEDTC prior to the NTS immersion. The iZnS(AMG) detection of zinc ions is easily standardized and can be used in the quantification of plaques with stereological methods. This technique is the first to detect zinc in plaques in the cerebellum of transgenic PS1/APP mice and the first to detect zinc ions in plaques and dystrophic neurites at electron microscopical levels.
    Histochemie 07/2005; 123(6):605-11. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the mid-1980s, two versions of Timm's original immersion sulfide silver method were published. The authors used immersion of tissue in a sulfide solution as opposed to Timm, who used immersion of tissue blocks in hydrogen sulfide-bubbled alcohol. The autometallography staining resulting from the "sulfide only immersion" was not particularly impressive, but the significance of this return to an old approach became obvious when Wenzel and co-workers presented their approach in connection with introduction by the Palmiter group of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). The Wenzel/Palmiter pictures are the first high-resolution, high-quality pictures taken from tissues in which free and loosely bound zinc ions have been captured in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals by immersion. The trick was to place formalin-fixed blocks of mouse brains in a solution containing 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% sodium sulfide, ingredients used for transcardial perfusion in the zinc-specific NeoTimm method. That the NeoTimm technique results in silver enhancement of zinc-sulfur nanocrystals has been proved by proton-induced X-ray multielement analyses (PIXE) and in vivo chelation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). The aims of the present study were (a) to make the immersion-based capturing of zinc ions in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals work directly on sections and slices of fixed brain tissue, (b) to work out protocols that ensure zinc specificity and optimal quality of the staining, (c) to apply "immersion autometallography" (iZnSAMG) to other tissues that contain zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, and (d) to make the immersion approach work on unfixed fresh tissue.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 01/2005; 52(12):1619-25. · 2.26 Impact Factor