[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL or LCN2) is an iron-transporting factor which possesses various activities such as amelioration of kidney injury and host defense against pathogens. Its circulating concentrations are elevated in acute and chronic kidney diseases and show a positive correlation with poor renal outcome and mortality, but its clinical significance in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients remains elusive.
Serum NGAL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in out-patient, Japanese HD subjects. Their correlation to laboratory findings and morbidity (as development of severe infection or serum albumin reduction) was investigated using linear regression analysis and χ2 test.
Pre-dialysis serum NGAL levels in HD patients were elevated by 13-fold compared to healthy subjects (n=8, P<0.001). In a cross-sectional study of 139 cases, serum NGAL concentrations were determined independently by % creatinine generation rate (an indicator of muscle mass, standardized coefficient β=0.40, P<0.001), peripheral blood neutrophil count (β=0.38, P<0.001) and anion gap (which likely reflects dietary protein intake, β=0.16, P<0.05). Iron administration to anemic HD patients caused marked elevation of peripheral blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin and iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin-25 levels, but NGAL levels were not affected. In a prospective study of 87 cases, increase in serum albumin levels a year later was positively associated to baseline NGAL levels by univariate analysis (r=0.36, P<0.01). Furthermore, within a year, patients with the lowest NGAL tertile showed significantly increased risk for marked decline in serum albumin levels (≥0.4 g/dl; odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.5-20.3, P<0.05) and tendency of increased occurrence of severe infection requiring admission (odds ratio 3.1, not significant) compared to the middle and highest tertiles.
Low serum NGAL levels appear to be associated with current malnutrition and also its progressive worsening in maintenance HD patients.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132539. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132539 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a characteristic of diabetic nephropathy, and is partially caused by profibrotic proteins TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting CTGF on podocytes in diabetic nephropathy.
We investigated miRNAs targeting CTGF on podocytes with miRNA array analysis and identified a candidate miRNA, miR-26a. Using overexpression and silencing of miR-26a in cultured podocytes, we examined changes of ECM and its host genes. We further investigated glomerular miR-26a expression in humans and in mouse models of diabetic nephropathy.
miR-26a, which was downregulated by TGF-β1, was expressed in glomerular cells including podocytes and in tubules by in situ hybridisation. Glomerular miR-26a expression was downregulated by 70% in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Transfection of miR-26a mimics in cultured human podocytes decreased the CTGF protein level by 50%, and directly inhibited CTGF expression in podocytes, as demonstrated by a reporter assay with the 3'-untranslated region of the CTGF gene. This effect was abolished by a mutant plasmid. miR-26a mimics also inhibited TGF-β1-induced collagen expression, SMAD-binding activity and expression of its host genes CTDSP2 and CTDSPL. Knockdown of CTDSP2 and CTDSPL increased collagen expression in TGF-β-stimulated podocytes, suggesting that host genes also regulate TGF-β/SMAD signalling. Finally, we observed a positive correlation between microdissected glomerular miR-26a expression levels and estimated GFR in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
The downregulation of miR-26a is involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy both in humans and in mice through enhanced TGF-β/CTGF signalling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipocalin 2 (LCN2 or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) is a secretory protein discovered from neutrophils, which accumulates in the blood and urine during acute kidney injury (AKI) and in the blood by bacterial infection. Little is known about the tissue source and molecular forms of this protein under normal and pathophysiologic conditions.
By sandwich ELISA, serum and urinary LCN2 levels were measured in 36 patients with hematologic malignancies who transiently became neutropenic by stem cell transplantation (SCT). To evaluate contribution of neutrophil-derived LCN2 in the physiologic blood LCN2 concentrations, we examined CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ε (C/EBPε) knockout mice, which lack mature neutrophils.
In patients without AKI and bacterial infection, at 1 week after SCT, the median blood neutrophil counts became zero and serum LCN2 levels were decreased by 76 ± 6 % (p < 0.01), but urinary LCN2 levels were not altered. During neutropenic conditions, bacterial infection caused only a modest rise of serum LCN2 but AKI produced a marked rise of serum and urinary LCN2 levels. Serum LCN2 concentrations in C/EBPε knockout mice were reduced by 66 ± 11 % compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.05). Blood LCN2 existed predominantly in high molecular weight forms (>100 kDa), while urinary LCN2 was mainly in low molecular weight forms.
Our findings suggest that neutrophils are the major source of circulating LCN2 in normal and infected conditions, whereas blood and urinary LCN2 mainly derive from the kidney during AKI, and that the molecular forms and regulation of blood and urinary LCN2 are clearly distinct.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal fibrosis with submesothelial fibrotic tissue. Although angiogenesis and inflammatory mediators are involved in peritoneal fibrosis, precise molecular mechanisms are undefined. To study this, we used microarray analysis and compared gene expression profiles of the peritoneum in control and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced peritoneal fibrosis mice. One of the 43 highly upregulated genes was pleiotrophin, a midkine family member, the expression of which was also upregulated by the solution used to treat mice by peritoneal dialysis. This growth factor was found in fibroblasts and mesothelial cells within the underlying submesothelial compact zones of mice, and in human peritoneal biopsy samples and peritoneal dialysate effluent. Recombinant pleiotrophin stimulated mitogenesis and migration of mouse mesothelial cells in culture. We found that in wild-type mice, CG treatment increased peritoneal permeability (measured by equilibration), increased mRNA expression of TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin, TNF-α and IL-1β expression, and resulted in infiltration of CD3-positive T cells, and caused a high number of Ki-67-positive proliferating cells. All of these parameters were decreased in peritoneal tissues of CG-treated pleiotrophin-knockout mice. Thus, an upregulation of pleiotrophin appears to play a role in fibrosis and inflammation during peritoneal injury.
Kidney International 08/2011; 81(2):160-9. DOI:10.1038/ki.2011.305 · 8.56 Impact Factor