[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng, displays immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. In a follow-up study, we have carried out a study on the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of RGAP using hyperlipidemic rats acutely induced by Triton WR1339 or corn oil intravenously injected. Oral administration of RGAP (100 to 1000 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the serum levels of triglyceride (TG) up-regulated by Triton WR1339, an inducer of endogenous model hyperlipidemia. Moreover, RGAP treatment was shown to significantly decrease the levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concomitant with TG reduction. However, such reduction effects were not observed in cases of total cholesterol (TC) and phospholipid levels increased under the same conditions, although there was an inhibitory tendency. Similar suppressive patterns were also seen in hepatic parameters (total lipids and TG) under the same conditions. The exogenous hyperlipidemic rat condition triggered by corn oil also supported the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of RGAP in serum and hepatic parameters of TG and NEFA. Interestingly, RGAP significantly enhanced the serum activity of lipoprotein lipase, a key hydrolytic enzyme of lipid molecules in lipoprotein, in a dose-dependent manner up to 80%, implying potential involvement of this enzyme in lowering TG and NEFA by RGAP. Therefore, our data suggest that RGAP may play an additional role in reducing hyperlipidemic conditions, which can be used as a valuable neutraceutical application for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.