[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently reported that exposure of human cells in vitro to acetaldehyde resulted in the activation of the Fanconi anemia-breast cancer susceptibility (FA-BRCA) DNA damage response network.
To determine whether intracellular generation of acetaldehyde from ethanol metabolism can cause DNA damage and activate the FA-BRCA network, we engineered HeLa cells to metabolize alcohol by expression of human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B.
Incubation of HeLa-ADH1B cells with ethanol (20 mM) resulted in acetaldehyde accumulation in the media, which was prevented by co-incubation with 4-methyl pyrazole (4-MP), a specific inhibitor of ADH. Ethanol treatment of HeLa-ADH1B cells produced a 4-fold increase in the acetaldehyde-DNA adduct and N(2)-ethylidene-dGuo and also resulted in the activation of the FA-BRCA DNA damage response network, as indicated by a monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and phosphorylation of BRCA1. Ser 1524 was identified as 1 site of BRCA1 phosphorylation. The increased levels of DNA adducts, FANCD2 monoubiquitination, and BRCA1 phosphorylation were all blocked by 4-MP, indicating that acetaldehyde, rather than ethanol itself, was responsible for all 3 responses. Importantly, the ethanol concentration we used is within the range that can be attained in the human body during social drinking.
Our results indicate that intracellular metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde results in DNA damage, which activates the FA-BRCA DNA damage response network.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 09/2011; 35(12):2113-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01563.x · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA is exposed to endogenous and environmental factors that can form stable lesions. If not repaired, these lesions can lead to transcription/replication blocking or mutagenic bypass. Our previous work has focused on 8,5'-cyclopurine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides, a unique class of oxidatively induced DNA lesions that are specifically repaired by the NER pathway (see Brooks PJ : DNA Repair 7:1168-1179). Here we used EMSA to monitor the ability of sequence-specific transcription factors, HSF1, CREB, and NF-kappaB and "architectural" transcription factor, HMGA, to bind to their target sequences when 8, 5'(S)-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (cyclo-dAdo) is present within their recognition sequences. For comparison, we also tested the effect of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine (8-oxo-dAdo) in the same recognition sequences. The presence of a cyclo-dAdo lesion in the target sequence essentially eliminated the binding activity of HSF1, CREB, and NF-kappa B whereas HMGA retained some of its binding activity. In contrast, 8-oxo-dAdo had no obvious effect on the binding activity of HSF1 and HMGA in comparison to lesion-free DNA. Notably, though, CREB and NFκB binding increased when an 8-oxo-dAdo lesion was present in their target sequence. Competition EMSA showed about 2-3-fold increased affinity of both proteins for the 8-oxo-dAdo containing target sequence compared to lesion-free DNA. Molecular modeling of the lesions in the NF-kappaB sequence indicated that 8-oxo-dAdo may form an additional hydrogen bond with the protein, thereby strengthening the binding of NF-kappa B to its DNA target. The cyclo-dAdo lesion, in contrast, distorted the DNA structure, providing an explanation for the inhibition of NF-kappaB binding.