Publications (2)3.2 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Despite a myriad of causes, pericardial diseases present in few clinical syndromes. Acute pericarditis should be differentiated from aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, pneumonia/pleuritis, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, costochondritis, gastroesophageal reflux/neoplasm, and herpes zoster. High-risk features indicating hospitalization are: fever >38 °C, subacute onset, large effusion/tamponade, failure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), previous immunosuppression, trauma, anticoagulation, neoplasm, and myopericarditis. Treatment comprises 10-14-days NSAID plus 3 months colchicine (2 × 0.5 mg; 1 × 0.5 mg in patients <70 kg). Corticosteroids are avoided, except for autoimmunity, as they facilitate the recurrences. Echo-guided pericardiocentesis (±fluoroscopy) is indicated for tamponade and effusions >2 cm. Smaller effusions are drained if neoplastic, purulent or tuberculous etiology is suspected. In recurrent pericarditis, repeated testing for autoimmune and thyroid disease is appropriate. Pericardioscopy and pericardial/epicardial biopsy may clarify the etiology. Familial clustering was recently associated with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TNFRSF1A gene mutation). Treatment includes 10-14 days NSAIDs with colchicine 0.5 mg bid for up to 6 months. In non-responders, low-dose steroids, intrapericardial steroids, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide can be tried. Successful management with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) was recently reported. Pericardiectomy remains the last option in >2 years severely symptomatic patients. In constriction, expansion of the heart is impaired by the rigid, chronically inflamed/thickened pericardium (no thickening ~20 %). Chest radiography, echocardiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, hemodynamics, and endomyocardial biopsy indicate the diagnosis. Pericardiectomy is the only treatment for permanent constriction. Predictors of poor survival are prior radiation, renal dysfunction, high pulmonary artery pressures, poor left ventricular function, hyponatremia, age, and simultaneous HIV and tuberculous infection.Heart Failure Reviews 08/2012; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hemodynamic instability is the major concern in surgical patients with pericardial diseases, since general anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation may precipitate cardiac tamponade. In advanced constriction diastolic impairment and myocardial fibrosis/atrophy may cause low cardiac output during and after surgery. Elective surgery should be postponed in unstable patients with pericardial comorbidities. Pericardial effusion should be drained percutaneously (in local anesthesia) and pericardiectomy performed for constrictive pericarditis before any major surgical procedure. In emergencies, volume expansion, catecholamines, and anesthetics keeping cardiac output and systemic resistance should be applied. Etiology of pericardial diseases is an important issue is the preoperative management. Patients with neoplastic pericardial involvement have generally poor prognosis and any elective surgical procedure should be avoided. For patients with acute viral or bacterial infection or exacerbated metabolic, uremic, or autoimmune diseases causing significant pericardial effusion, surgery should be postponed until the causative disorder is stabilized and signs of pericarditis have resolved.Acta chirurgica iugoslavica 01/2011; 58(2):45-53.