[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the presence of XMRV in a cohort of Quebec patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). DNA was purified from activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PCR was used to detect XMRV gag and env in 72 patients. Anti-XMRV antibodies were searched in sera of 62 patients by Western blot analysis. Attempts to detect XMRV antigens was made, using immunofluorescence with Gag anti-p30 antiserum on activated PBMC from 50 patients. Plasma viremia was measured by RT-PCR on 9 subjects. Finally, detection of infectious virus in 113 CFS subjects was made by co-culture of PHA+IL-2 activated PBMC with human LNCaP carcinoma cells, and by infecting the same susceptible cells with plasma, using a reverse transcriptase (RT) assay as a readout in both experiments. No detection of XMRV footprints nor infectious virus was detected with any of the approaches, in any of the tested individuals.