[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, there is no characteristic microRNA (miRNA) expression pattern in Epstein-Barr virus+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly (EBV+DLBCLe). This study aims to characterize a signature profile and identify miRNAs that can be used as biomarkers and alternative therapeutic targets for EBV+DLBCLe. Seventy-one DLBCL patients aged 50 years and older were included and four EBV+ and four EBV- samples were analyzed in two miRNA array platforms (pilot study). A larger multicenter cohort (29 EBV+DLBCLe and 65 EBV-DLBCL patients) was used to validate the results by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the pilot study, 9% of DLBCL were EBV+DLBCLe by in situ hybridization. In multicenter study, EBV+DLBCLe group showed a predominance of non-germinal center B-cell origin. Overall survival duration of EBV+DLBCLe was significantly inferior to that of EBV-DLBCL patients. We found 10 deregulated miRNAs in the two groups, but only seven were statistically different. We confirmed overexpression of hsa-miR-126, hsa-miR-146a, hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-150, and hsa-miR-222 and underexpression of hsa-miR-151 in EBV+DLBCLe cases compared to EBV-DLBCL cases. Hsa-miR-146b and hsa-miR-222 showed high specificity for identifying EBV+DLBCLe. The present study proposed a miRNA signature for EBV+DLBCLe and our findings suggest that hsa-miR-146b and hsa-miR-222 could be biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Multiple myeloma (MM) development involves a series of genetic abnormalities and changes in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, favoring the growth of the tumor and failure of local immune control. T regulatory (Treg) cells play an important role in dampening anti-tumor immune responses while T-helper-17 (Th17) cells seem to be critical for the eradication of malignant cells. The aim of our study was to characterize the expression of Treg- and Th17-related genes in total myeloma BM samples to assess their role as biomarkers, prognostic factors, and possible therapeutic targets in this incurable disease.
Expression of markers for Treg (FOXP3, CTLA4) and Th17 cells (RORγt) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in BM aspirates of 46 MM patients, four patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, five solitary plasmacytomas, and five healthy BM donors. Gene expression was evaluated regarding an influence on the patients' overall survival (OS).
FOXP3 and CTLA4 presented a sixfold (p = 0.02) and 30-fold higher expression (p = 0.03), respectively, in MM patients than in controls. RORγt expression was similar in MM patients and controls. Median OS of MM patients was 16.8 (range 4.5-29.1) months, and international staging system was the only independent prognostic factor for patients survival.
Overexpression of FOXP3 and CTLA4 in total BM samples suggests a local accumulation of immunosuppressive Tregs, the MM tumor environment, possibly dampening anti-tumor host immune responses. Therapeutic approaches targeting Treg cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity may provide new treatment strategies for this incurable malignancy.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2014; 63(11). DOI:10.1007/s00262-014-1589-9 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering the recent impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders carrying a recurrent JAK2 mutation not identified in multiple myeloma (MM), this study aimed to search for mutations in kinase and pseudokinase domains of the JAK1 gene in an attempt to define any critical and recurring change that can be used as a therapeutic target. We obtained CD138 + purified cells from 27 bone marrow aspirates of untreated MM, four normal controls and four MM cell lines. After amplification of kinase and pseudokinase domains of JAK1 in cDNA samples, the fragments were automatically sequenced. Seventy-eight percent of MM cases showed at least one polymorphism, all being synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with allele frequencies consistent with previous studies in normal European, African American and Asian populations. The four cell lines also showed only synonymous SNPs. Mutations in the kinase and pseudokinase domains of the JAK1 gene do not seem to be important for activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway because we were not able to find any recurrent mutation in a case series of 27 patients and four MM cell lines.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 05/2014; 55(5). DOI:10.3109/10428194.2013.828352 · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between serum free light chain (sFLC) quantification and the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), using serum samples from a nested case-control cohort of renal transplanted patients. Ten new PTLD and 46 controls were enrolled. Additional comparison groups consisted of five HIV-infected individuals, five untreated Hodgkin´s lymphomas and six normal individuals. Serum κ and λ FLC concentrations were measured by nephelometry and compared with reference ranges (normal and renal ranges). κ and/or λ were above the normal range in 90% of cases and in 65% of matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference between all groups, except for λ FLC concentrations between PTLD cases and normal individuals (p=0.016). The κ/λ sFLC ratios of cases and controls were within renal range and normal ranges. Our results suggest that sFLC is not useful to predict PTLD development in renal transplanted recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exact function of MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C2/CT10 is not yet understood in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the homologs MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C2/CT10 genes encode highly immunogeneic cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) and can be potential targets for T cell-based immunotherapy. MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C2/CT10 mRNA expression were investigated in MM patients, solitary plasmacytomas, monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) and bone marrow (BM) aspirates from healthy donors by RT-PCR. MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C1/CT10 were expressed in 67 and 59 % of the 46 MM analyzed patients. At least one of the genes was expressed in 76 % of MM cases. Solitary plasmacytoma also showed MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C2/CT10 expression. MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C2/CT10 were not expressed in normal BM samples, showing restricted expression of these CTA genes in MM, solitary plasmacytoma and MGUS. In the present study, we found high expression of the homologs MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C2/CT10 in monoclonal gammopathies and speculate whether these genes might represent a valuable therapeutic option for myeloma, in particular for combined immunotherapy.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2012; 62(1). DOI:10.1007/s00262-012-1376-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Based on their tumor-associated expression pattern, cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are considered potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. We aim to evaluate the expression of CTAs in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) samples and the ability of these patients to elicit spontaneous humoral immune response against CTAs. METHODS: Expression of MAGE-A family, CT7/MAGE-C1, CT10/MAGE-C2, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray generated from 106 NHL archival cases. The humoral response against 19 CTAs was tested in 97 untreated NHL serum samples using ELISA technique. RESULTS: 11.3 % of NHL tumor samples expressed at least 1 CTA. MAGE-A family (6.6 %), GAGE (5.7 %) and NY-ESO-1(4.7 %) were the most frequently expressed antigens. We found no statistically significant correlation between CTA positivity and clinical parameters such as NHL histological subtype, Ann Arbor stage, international prognostic index score, response to treatment and overall survival. Humoral response against at least 1 CTA was observed in 16.5 % of NHL serum samples. However, overall seroreactivity was low, and strong titers (>1:1000) were observed in only two diffuse large B-cell lymphomas patients against CT45. CONCLUSION: Our findings are in agreement with most of published studies in this field to date and suggest an overall low expression of CTAs in NHL patients. However, as many new CTAs have been described recently and some of them are found to be highly expressed in NHL cell lines and tumor samples, further studies exploring the expression of different panels of CTAs are needed to evaluate their role as candidates for immunotherapy in NHL patients.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 05/2012; 61(12). DOI:10.1007/s00262-012-1285-6 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of multiple myeloma (MM) involves a series of genetic alterations and changes in the bone marrow microenvironment, favoring the growth of the tumor and failure of local immune control. Quantitative and functional alterations in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells have been described in MM. The balance between T regulatory cells (Treg) and T helper (Th) 17 cells represents one essential prerequisite for maintaining anti-tumor immunity in MM. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against infections and tumor cells. In MM patients, Tregs seem to contribute to myeloma-related immune dysfunction and targeting them could, therefore, help to restore and enhance vital immune responses. Th17 cells protect against fungal and parasitic infections and participate in inflammatory reactions and autoimmunity. The interplay of TGF-β and IL-6, expressed at high levels in the bone marrow of myeloma patients, may affect generation of Th17 cells both directly or via other pro-inflammatory cytokines and thereby modulate antitumor immune responses. A detailed analysis of the balance between Tregs and Th17 cells seems necessary in order to design more effective and less toxic modes of immunotherapy myeloma which still is an uncurable malignancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a promising class of tumor antigens that have a limited expression in somatic tissues (testis, ovary, fetal, and placental cells). Aberrant expression of CTAs in cancer cells may lead to abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. CTAs are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and acetylation of histones) and are attractive targets for immunotherapy in cancer because the gonads are immune privileged organs and anti-CTA immune response can be tumor-specific. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy, and several CTAs have been detected in many MM cell lines and patients. Among CTAs expressed in MM we must highlight the MAGE-C1/CT7 located on the X chromosome and expressed specificity in the malignant plasma cells. MAGE-C1/CT7 seems to be related to disease progression and functional studies suggests that this CTA might play a role in cell cycle and mainly in survival of malignant plasma cells, protecting myeloma cells against spontaneous as well as drug-induced apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MAGE-C1/CT7 encodes a cancer/testis antigen (CTA), is located on the chromosomal region Xq26-27 and is highly polymorphic in humans. MAGE-C1/CT7 is frequently expressed in multiple myeloma (MM) that may be a potential target for immunotherapy in this still incurable disease. MAGEC1/CT7 expression is restricted to malignant plasma cells and it has been suggested that MAGE-C1/CT7 might play a pathogenic role in MM; however, the exact function this protein in the pathophysiology of MM is not yet understood. Our objectives were (1) to clarify the role of MAGE-C1/CT7 in the control of cellular proliferation and cell cycle in myeloma and (2) to evaluate the impact of silencing MAGE-C1/CT7 on myeloma cells treated with bortezomib. Myeloma cell line SKO-007 was transduced for stable expression of shRNA-MAGE-C1/CT7. Downregulation of MAGE-C1/CT7 was confirmed by real time quantitative PCR and western blot. Functional assays included cell proliferation, cell invasion, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis. Western blot showed a 70-80% decrease in MAGE-C1/CT7 protein expression in inhibited cells (shRNA-MAGE-C1/CT7) when compared with controls. Functional assays did not indicate a difference in cell proliferation and DNA synthesis when inhibited cells were compared with controls. However, we found a decreased percentage of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle among inhibited cells, but not in the controls (p<0.05). When myeloma cells were treated with bortezomib, we observed a 48% reduction of cells in the G2/M phase among inhibited cells while controls showed 13% (empty vector) and 9% (ineffective shRNA) reduction, respectively (p<0.01). Furthermore, inhibited cells treated with bortezomib showed an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI-) in comparison with bortezomib-treated controls (p<0.001). We found that MAGE-C1/CT7 protects SKO-007 cells against bortezomib-induced apoptosis. Therefore, we could speculate that MAGE-C1/CT7 gene therapy could be a strategy for future therapies in MM, in particular in combination with proteasome inhibitors.
PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e27707. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027707 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1) To characterize the impact of multiple myeloma on the quality of life of patients treated in two public institutions in São Paulo State, Brazil, using a generic Short Form 36 Health Survey and a questionnaire specific for oncologic patients (QLQ-C30) upon diagnosis, after the clinical treatment, and at day +100 after autologous stem cell transplantation; 2) to evaluate whether autologous stem cell transplantation can improve the quality of life of our economically challenged population aside from providing a clinical benefit and disease control.
We evaluated 49 patients with multiple myeloma (a total of 70 interviews) using the two questionnaires. The scores upon diagnosis, post-treatment/pre-autologous stem cell transplantation, and at D+100 were compared using ANOVA (a comparison of the three groups), post hoc tests (two-by-two comparisons of the three groups), and paired t-tests (the same case at two different times).
Of the included patients, 87.8% had a family budget under US $600 (economic class C, D, or E) per month. The generic Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire demonstrated that physical function, role-physical, and bodily pain indices were statistically different across all three groups, favoring the D+100 autologous stem cell transplantation group (ANOVA). The questionnaire specific for oncologic patients, the QLQ-C30 questionnaire, confirmed what had been demonstrated by the Short Form 36 Health Survey with respect to physical function and bodily pain, with improvements in role functioning, fatigue, and lack of appetite and constipation, favoring the D+100 autologous stem cell transplant group (ANOVA). The post hoc tests and paired t-tests confirmed a better outcome after autologous stem cell transplantation
The questionnaire specific for cancer patients seems to be more informative than the generic Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire and reflects the real benefit of autologous stem cell transplantation in the quality of life of multiple myeloma patients in two public Brazilian institutions that provide assistance for economically challenged patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the high homology between the LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 proteins, we hypothesized that an anti-NY-ESO-1 vaccine might elicit LAGE-1 immunity and hence may be effective in multiple myeloma (MM) patients with LAGE-1-positive/NY-ESO-1-negative tumors. Therefore, we set out to evaluate LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 mRNA and protein expression in MM patients in a bid to evaluate possible benefits of their homology for immunotherapy. LAGE-1 (a and b isoforms) and NY-ESO-1 mRNA expression was studied in 18 normal tissues and 50 bone marrow MM samples by RT-PCR. LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 27 MM specimens using mAbs 219-510-23 and E978. Spontaneous serological immune response against both antigens was analyzed by ELISA in sera from 33 MM patients. LAGE-1 (a and b isoforms) was positive in 42% and NY-ESO-1 in 26% of the MM samples analyzed by RT-PCR. Both genes were found to be expressed in 18% of the cases, while at least one of the genes was found to be expressed in 50% of the cases. In LAGE-1 positive samples, 81% were positive for LAGE-1a and 19% were positive for both LAGE-1a and -1b. LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression could only be detected in two cases by IHC and there was a clear strong spontaneous antibody response to LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 in only one MM patient. In conclusion, LAGE-1a and NY-ESO-1 homology cannot be easily exploited in an anti-NY-ESO-1 vaccine given the low frequency of protein expression detected by IHC or serum analysis.
Cancer immunity: a journal of the Academy of Cancer Immunology 01/2011; 11:1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering that the importance of cancer/testis (CT) antigens in multiple myeloma (MM) biology is still under investigation, the present study aimed to: (1) identify genes differentially expressed in MM using microarray analysis of plasma cell samples, separated according to the number of expressed CTs; (2) examine possible pathways related to MM pathogenesis; (3) validate the expression of candidate genes by quantitative real-time PCR (RQ-PCR). Three samples predominantly positive (>6 expressed), including the U266 cell line, and three samples predominantly negative (0 or 1 expressed CT for the 13 analyzed CT antigens), were submitted for microarray analysis. Validation by RQ-PCR from 24 MM samples showed that the ITGA5 gene was downregulated in predominantly positive (>6 expressed CTs, p = 0.0030) and in tumor versus normal plasma cells (p = 0.0182). The RhoD gene was overexpressed in tumor plasma cells when compared to normal plasma cells (p = 0.0339). Results of the microarray analysis corroborate the hypothesis that MM could be separated into predominantly positive and predominantly negative expression. The differential expression of ITGA5 and RhoD suggests disruption of the focal adhesion pathway in MM and offers a new target field to be explored in this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the amount and quality of the RNA obtained from lymph nodes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) patients using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and to develop strategies to overcome eventual technical drawbacks.
Twenty-six patients with NHL and 10 tonsils from children submitted to tonsillectomy underwent FNAC. The aspirates were performed using both cytoaspirator (sample A) and syringe and needle (sample B). The RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent and transcribed with the Superscript kit (Invitrogen). The quality of RNA was verified through the amplification of a beta-actin 155-bp fragment.
Fifty-two NHL and 20 tonsil samples were analyzed. The total amount of RNA in the tonsil samples varied from <1.0 to 6.2 microg with cytoaspirator (A) and from <1.0 to 4.7 microg with syringe and needle (B). The total amount of RNA obtained from NHL varied from <1.0 to 6.5 microg with cytoaspirator (A) and <1.0 to 5.5 microg with syringe and needle. In an attempt to increase the amounts of RNA in each sample, we standardized the polyAPCR technique, which increased by 10 times the amount of cDNA in most of the test and control samples. The efficiency of the reaction was verified through the amplification of beta-actin, in which 100% of the test and control samples were amplified. When polyAPCR cDNA and nonamplified cDNA samples were paired to be evaluated by real-time PCR, using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the constitutive gene and nuclear factor-kappa B and NFkappaBIA as target genes, there was equivalence in the amplifications of 100% of the 15 evaluated samples.
Our results showed that FNAC, obtained either by cytoaspirator or syringe and needle, is a good source of small amounts of RNA. The polyAPCR technique significantly increased the amount of genomic material, which might be a cDNA source for future gene expression studies.
Diagnostic molecular pathology: the American journal of surgical pathology, part B 03/2010; 19(1):40-4. DOI:10.1097/PDM.0b013e3181b0b618 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy. Different studies demonstrated the occurrence of genetic and epigenetic alterations in MM. The aberrant methylation is one of the most frequent epigenetic alterations in human genome. This study evaluated the aberrant methylation status of 20 genes in 51 MM samples by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) and compared the methylation profile with clinicopathological characteristics of the patients. The QMSP analyses showed that PTGS2 (100.0%), SFN (100.0%), CDKN2B (90.2%), CDH1 (88.2%), ESR1 (72.5%), HIC1 (70.5%), CCND2 (62.7%), DCC (45.1%) and TGFbetaR2 (39.2%) are frequently hypermethylated in MM while aberrant methylation of RARbeta (16.6%), MGMT (12.5%), AIM1 (12.5%), CDKN2A (8.3%), SOCS1 (8.3%), CCNA1 (8.3%) and THBS1 (4.1%) are rare events. There was no methylation of GSTP1, MINT31, p14ARF and RB1 in the samples tested. Hypermethylation of ESR1 was correlated positively with isotype IgA, while aberrant methylation of THBS1 correlated negatively with isotype IgG. Furthermore, hypermethylation of DCC and TGFbetaR2 were correlated with poor survival. The multivariate analysis showed ISS and TGFbetaR2 hypermethylation strongly correlated with poor outcome. This study represents the first quantitative evaluation of promoter methylation in MM and our data provide evidence that TGFbetaR2 hypermethylation, besides ISS, may be useful as prognostic indicator in this disease.
International Journal of Cancer 10/2009; 125(8):1985-91. DOI:10.1002/ijc.24431 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the expression of NF-kappaB pathway genes in total bone marrow samples obtained from MM at diagnosis using real-time quantitative PCR and to evaluate its possible correlation with disease clinical features and survival.
Expression of eight genes related to NF-kappaB pathway (NFKB1, IKB, RANK, RANKL, OPG, IL6, VCAM1 and ICAM1) were studied in 53 bone marrow samples from newly diagnosed MM patients and in seven normal controls, using the Taqman system. Genes were considered overexpressed when tumor expression level was at least four times higher than that observed in normal samples.
The percentages of overexpression of the eight genes were: NFKB1 0%, IKB 22.6%, RANK 15.1%, RANKL 31.3%, OPG 7.5%, IL6 39.6%, VCAM1 10% and ICAM1 26%. We found association between IL6 expression level and International Staging System (ISS) (p=0.01), meaning that MM patients with high ISS scores have more chance of overexpression of IL6. The mean value of ICAM1 relative expression was also associated with the ISS score (p=0.02). Regarding OS, cases with IL6 overexpression present worse evolution than cases with IL6 normal expression (p=0.04).
We demonstrated that total bone marrow aspirates can be used as a source of material for gene expression studies in MM. In this context, we confirmed that IL6 overexpression was significantly associated with worse survival and we described that it is associated with high ISS scores. Also, ICAM1 was overexpressed in 26% of cases and its level was associated with ISS scores.
Histology and histopathology 09/2009; 24(8):991-7. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to analyze the expression of cancer testis antigen 45 (CT45) in normal tissues and in plasma cell disorders and to identify possible associations with clinical data and prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM) patients.
Expression of CT45 was studied in 20 normal tissues (testis, placenta, skeletal muscle, bladder, lung, spleen, heart, brain and fetal brain, thymus, uterus, stomach, mammary gland, pancreas, prostate, small intestine, kidney, adrenal gland, spinal cord, colon, and one pool of 10 normal bone marrow samples) and bone marrow aspirates from 3 monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance, 5 solitary plasmacytomas, 61 newly diagnosed MM patients and MM cell line U266 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
CT45 was positive in 3 of 20 (15%) normal tissues tested: lung, brain (both fetal and adult), and spinal cord. Among monoclonal gammopathies, CT45 was positive in 2 of 5 (40%) solitary plasmacytomas bone marrow aspirates, 10 of 61 (16%) MM bone marrow aspirates, and in the U266 MM cell line.
We did not find associations between bone marrow histology and CT45 expression. However, we demonstrated for the first time that positive expression of CT45 was associated with poor prognostic (International Staging System) and poor outcomes in MM patients, meaning that CT45-positive cases presented seven times more chance of worse evolution than the negative ones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) allows a comprehensive profiling of gene expression within a given tissue and also an assessment of transcript abundance. We generated SAGE libraries from normal and neoplastic plasma cells to identify genes differentially expressed in multiple myeloma (MM). Normal plasma cells were obtained from palatine tonsils and MM SAGE library was generated from bone marrow plasma cells of MM patients. We obtained 29,918 SAGE tags from normal and 10,340 tags from tumor libraries. Computer-generated genomic analysis identified 46 upregulated genes in the MM library. Ten upregulated genes were selected for further investigation. Differential expression was validated by quantitative real-time PCR in purified plasma cells of 31 patients and three controls. P53CSV, DDX5, MAPKAPK2 and RANBP2 were found to be upregulated in at least 50% of the MM cases tested. All of them were also found upregulated in MM when compared to normal plasma cells in a meta-analysis using ONCOMINE microarray database. Antibodies specific to DDX5, RANBP2 and MAPKAPK2 were used in a TMA containing 57 MM cases and confirmed the expression of these proteins in 74%, 96%, and 21% of the MM samples, respectively. Analysis of differential expression using SAGE could identify genes important for myeloma tumorigenesis (P53CSV, DDX5, MAPKPK2 and RANBP2) and that could potentially be useful as therapeutic targets.
Cancer letters 02/2009; 278(1):41-8. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.12.022 · 5.62 Impact Factor