Eric A Weaver

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (33)135.93 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The high levels of pre-existing immunity against Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) have deemed Ad5 unusable for translation as a human vaccine vector. Low seroprevalent alternative viral vectors may be less impacted by pre-existing immunity, but they may also have significantly different phenotypes than that of Ad5. In this study we compare species D Ads (26, 28 and 48) to the species C Ad5. In vitro transduction studies show striking differences between the species C and D viruses. Most notably, Ad26 transduced human dendritic cells much more effectively than Ad5. In vivo imaging studies showed strikingly different transgene expression profiles. The Ad5 virus was superior to the species D viruses in BALB/c mice when delivered intramuscularly. However, the inverse was true when the viruses were delivered mucosally via the intranasal epithelia. Intramuscular transduction was restored in mice that ubiquitously expressed human CD46, the primary receptor for species D viruses. We analyzed both species C and D Ads for their ability to induce prophylactic immunity against influenza in the CD46 transgenic mouse model. Surprisingly, the species D vaccines again failed to induce greater levels of protective immunity as compared to the species C Ad5 when delivered intramuscularly. However, the species D Ad vaccine vector, Ad48, induced significantly greater protection as compared to Ad5 when delivered mucosally via the intranasal route in CD46 transgenic mice. These data shed light on the complexities between the species and types of Ad. Our findings indicate that more research will be required to identify the mechanisms that play a key role in the induction of protective immunity induced by species D Ad vaccines.
    Human gene therapy 03/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Eric A Weaver
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    ABSTRACT: Adenovirus Types 4 and 7 (Ad4 and Ad7) are associated with acute respiratory distress (ARD). In order to prevent widespread Ad-associated ARD (Ad-ARD) the United States military immunizes new recruits using a safe and effective lyophilized wildtype Ad4 and Ad7 delivered orally in an enteric-coated capsule. We cloned Ad4 and Ad7 and modified them to express either a GFP-Luciferase (GFPLuc) fusion gene or a centralized influenza H1 hemagglutinin (HA1-con). BALB/c mice were injected with GFPLuc expressing viruses intramuscularly (i.m.) and intranasally (i.n.). Ad4 induced significantly higher luciferase expression levels as compared with Ad7 by both routes. Ad7 transduction was restored using a human CD46+ transgenic mouse model. Mice immunized with serial dilutions of viruses expressing the HA1-con influenza vaccine gene were challenged with 100 MLD 50 of influenza virus. Ad4 protected BALB/c mice at a lower dose by i.m. immunization as compared with Ad7. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in protection by i.n. immunization. Although Ad7 i.m. transduction was restored in CD46+ transgenic mice, protection against influenza challenge required even higher doses as compared with the BALB/c mice. However, Ad7 i.n. immunized CD46+ transgenic mice were better protected as compared with Ad4. Interestingly, the restoration of Ad7 transduction in CD46+ mice did not increase vaccine efficacy and indicates that Ad7 may transduce a different subset of cells through alternative receptors in the absence of CD46. These data indicate that both Ad4 and Ad7 can effectively induce anti-H1N1 immunity against a heterologous challenge using a centralized H1 gene. Future studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials will determine the overall effectiveness of Ad4 and Ad7 as vaccines for influenza.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 11/2013; 10(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Propionic acidemia (PA) is a recessive genetic disease that results in an inability to metabolize certain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids. Current treatment involves restricting consumption of these substrates or liver transplantation. Deletion of the Pcca gene in mice mimics the most severe forms of the human disease. Pcca(-) mice die within 36 hours of birth, making it difficult to test intravenous systemic therapies in them. We generated an adult hypomorphic model of PA in Pcca(-) mice using a transgene bearing an A138T mutant of the human PCCA protein. Pcca(-/-)(A138T) mice have 2% of wild-type PCC activity, survive to adulthood, and have elevations in propionyl-carnitine, methylcitrate, glycine, alanine, lysine, ammonia, and markers associated with cardiomyopathy similar to those in patients with PA. This adult model allowed gene therapy testing by intravenous injection with adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus 2/8 (AAV8) vectors. Ad5-mediated more rapid increases in PCCA protein and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) activity in the liver than AAV8 and both vectors reduced propionylcarnitine and methylcitrate levels. Phenotypic correction was transient with first generation Ad whereas AAV8-mediated long-lasting effects. These data suggest that this PA model may be a useful platform for optimizing systemic intravenous therapies for PA.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.68.
    Molecular Therapy 05/2013; · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most HIV-1 infections are thought to occur at mucosal surfaces during sexual contact. It has been hypothesized that vaccines delivered at mucosal surfaces may mediate better protection against HIV-1 than vaccines that are delivered systemically. To test this, rhesus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular (i.m.) or intravaginal (ivag.) routes with helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors expressing HIV-1 envelope. Macaques were first immunized intranasally with species C Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) prior to serotype-switching with species C HD-Ad6, Ad1, Ad5, and Ad2 vectors expressing env followed by rectal challenge with CCR5-tropic SHIV-SF162P3. Vaccination by the systemic route generated stronger systemic CD8 T cell responses in PBMC, but weaker mucosal responses. Conversely, mucosal immunization generated stronger CD4 T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in the colon. Intramuscular immunization generated higher levels of env-binding antibodies, but neither produced neutralizing or cytotoxic antibodies. After mucosal SHIV challenge, both groups controlled SHIV better than control animals. However, more animals in the ivag. group had lower viral set points than in in the i.m. group. These data suggest mucosal vaccination may have improve protection against sexually-transmitted HIV. These data also demonstrate that helper-dependent Ad vaccines can mediate robust vaccine responses in the face of prior immunity to Ad5 and during four rounds of adenovirus vaccination.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67574. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Eric A Weaver, Michael A Barry
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonal and pandemic influenza remains a constant threat. While standard influenza vaccines have great utility, the need for improved vaccine technologies have been brought to light by the 2009 swine flu pandemic, highly pathogenic avian influenza infections, and the most recent early and widespread influenza activity. Species C adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (AD5) are potent vehicles for gene-based vaccination. While potent, most humans are already immune to this virus. In this study, low seroprevalent species D adenoviruses Ad26, 28, and 48 were cloned and modified to express the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin gene for vaccine studies. When studied in vivo, these species D Ad vectors performed quite differently as compared to species C Ad vectors depending on the route of immunization. By intramuscular injection, species D vaccines were markedly weaker than species C vaccines. In contrast, the species D vaccines were equally efficient as species C when delivered mucosally by the intranasal route. Intranasal adenovirus vaccine doses as low as 10(8) virus particles per mouse induced complete protection against a stringent lethal challenge dose of influenza. These data support translation of species D adenoviruses as mucosal vaccines and highlight the fundamental effects of differences in virus tropism on vaccine applications.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e73313. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Underlying mechanisms of individual variation in severity of influenza infection and response to vaccination are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of reduced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression on vaccine response and outcome of influenza infection. HO-1-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice (kingdom, Animalia; phylum, Chordata; genus/species, Mus musculus) were infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 with or without prior vaccination with an adenoviral-based influenza vaccine. A genome-wide association study evaluated the expression of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HO-1 gene and the response to influenza vaccination in healthy humans. HO-1-deficient mice had decreased survival after influenza infection compared to WT mice (median survival 5.5 vs. 6.5 d, P=0.016). HO-1-deficient mice had impaired production of antibody following influenza vaccination compared to WT mice (mean antibody titer 869 vs. 1698, P=0.02). One SNP in HO-1 and one SNP in the constitutively expressed isoform HO-2 were independently associated with decreased antibody production after influenza vaccination in healthy human volunteers (P=0.017 and 0.014, respectively). HO-1 deficient mice were paired with sex- and age-matched WT controls. HO-1 affects the immune response to both influenza infection and vaccination, suggesting that therapeutic induction of HO-1 expression may represent a novel adjuvant to enhance influenza vaccine effectiveness.
    The FASEB Journal 04/2012; 26(7):2911-8. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As most pathogens enter through the mucosa, it is important to develop vaccines that induce mucosal immunity. To this end, we generated a novel adenovirus (Ad) vaccine that displays the σ1 protein from reovirus to target junctional adhesion molecule 1 and sialic acid. Replication-defective Ad5 vectors were modified by replacement of the Ad fiber protein with σ1 (T3Dσ1) protein of reovirus T3D in previous work. Ad5 and Ad5-σ1 were compared in mouse models for gene delivery and vaccination to monitor cytokine, antibody, and T-cell responses. The viruses were also tested for the ability to transduce and mature dendritic cells. Ad5-σ1 was 40-fold less efficient at gene delivery in vivo, yet it was capable of inducing equal or greater cellular immune responses and systemic interferon-γ levels than Ad5 after intranasal administration. Despite weaker gross transduction, intranasal administration of Ad5-σ1 produced more green fluorescent protein-positive (GFP+) major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) cells in the draining lymph nodes, less GFP+/MHC II+ cells in the lungs, and mediated modestly better maturation of dendritic cells in vitro. These data suggest that targeting gene-based vaccination via the σ1 protein may enhance the T-cell immune response, perhaps by skewing immune responses to encoded antigens.
    Mucosal Immunology 02/2012; 5(3):311-9. · 7.54 Impact Factor
  • Michael A Barry, Shannon May, Eric A Weaver
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    ABSTRACT: Optical imaging of luciferage gene expression has become a powerful tool to track cells and viruses in vivo in small animal models. Luciferase imaging has been used to study the location of infection by replication-defective and replication-competent viruses and to track changes in the distribution of viruses in mouse models. This approach has also been used in oncolytic studies as a noninvasive means to monitor the growth and killing of tumor cells modified with luciferase genes. In this chapter, we describe the techniques used for luciferase imaging as have been applied to track replication-defective and replication-competent adenoviruses in mouse and hamster models of oncolysis and virus pharmacology. Although these methods are simple, the process of obtaining accurate luciferase imaging data has many caveats that are discussed.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 797:79-87. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are 55 serotypes of adenovirus (Ad) that infect humans, Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most widely studied because of the availability of commercial kits for its genetic manipulation. In fact, engineered Ad 5 is currently being used in all of the 87 global clinical trials utilizing Ad for the treatment of cancer. Unfortunately, Ad5 is one of the most seroprevalent serotypes, meaning that this virus has to confront additional immunological barriers to be effective in Ad5-immune patients. In this work, we compare Ad5 to 13 other adenoviral serotypes from species B, C, D and E for oncolytic potential in both immunodeficient mouse and immunocompetent hamster models. Our results indicate that species D Ads are not effective oncolytics against most solid tumors. Conversely, lower seroprevalent Ad6 and Ad11 had anti-cancer activity comparable to Ad5. This work strongly supports the consideration of Ad6-based oncolytic therapies for the treatment of breast, ovarian, kidney and liver tumors.
    Cancer gene therapy 09/2011; 18(10):744-50. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oncolytic viruses are self-amplifying anticancer agents that make use of the natural ability of viruses to kill cells. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been extensively tested against solid cancers, but less so against B-cell cancers because these cells do not generally express the coxsackie and adenoviral receptor (CAR). To determine whether other adenoviruses might have better potency, we "mined" the adenovirus virome of 55 serotypes for viruses that could kill B-cell cancers. Fifteen adenoviruses selected to represent Ad species B, C, D, E, and F were tested in vitro against cell lines and primary patient B-cell cancers for their ability to infect, replicate in, and kill these cells. Select viruses were also tested against B-cell cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Species D adenoviruses mediated most robust killing against a range of B-cell cancer cell lines, against primary patient marginal zone lymphoma cells, and against primary patient CD138+ myeloma cells in vitro. When injected into xenografts in vivo, single treatment with select species D viruses Ad26 and Ad45 delayed lymphoma growth. Relatively unstudied species D adenoviruses have a unique ability to infect and replicate in B-cell cancers as compared with other adenovirus species. These data suggest these viruses have unique biology in B cells and support translation of novel species D adenoviruses as oncolytics against B-cell cancers.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2011; 17(21):6712-22. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have screened human adenoviruses (Ads) for oncolytic activity against a variety of mouse and hamster cell lines and have found a number that are susceptible to a variety of Ad serotypes. A20 lymphoma is derived from BALB/c mice and is susceptible to infection and killing by a variety of human Ads. A20 is also a suitable cancer vaccine model, because these cells express a unique immunoglobulin variable region that can be targeted by vaccination. To compare Ads as cancer vaccines versus Ads as oncolytics, A20 tumors were initiated in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with first-generation Ad5 expressing the A20 immunoglobulin ScFv immunogen (Ad-A20) were protected against A20 lymphomas only when the vaccine was delivered before tumor. In contrast, vaccination after tumor initiation failed to increase survival or delay tumor growth. When Ad serotypes from species B, C, D, and E were tested as oncolytics in vitro, A20 cells were most efficiently killed by species D Ads, with intermediate activity by species B Ads. When tested in vivo in immunocompetent BALB/c mice bearing A20 tumors, single intratumoral injection of species D Ad26 and Ad48 were effective at controlling tumor growth. These data demonstrate that in this immunocompetent mouse cancer model, the oncolytic activity of adenoviruses is more potent than their use as a cancer vaccine. These data in immunocompetent mice lend further support to species D Ads as promising oncolytic viruses against B cell cancers.
    Human gene therapy 07/2011; 22(9):1095-100. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenoviruses (Ads) are arguably one of the most potent viruses for in vivo gene therapy, vaccine, and oncolytic applications. The attraction for the use of Ads stems from their ability to infect a wide range of dividing and non-dividing cell types in some cases to efficiencies of nearly 100%. Additional benefits include their stability, the ability to purify the vector to concentrations of up to 1013 particles/ml, and the fact that viral vectors self-assemble into particles of specific size (∼100 nm). The vast majority of clinical applications of Ad have utilized Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) viruses. Considering that at least half of humans are already immune to Ad5, Ad5 oncolytics may not be optimal for clinical translation. Given this and that there are 54 different serotypes of human Ads, this review considers the utility of "mining" these alternate Ad serotypes for viruses that can evade Ad5 immunity and kill different types of cancer.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 07/2011; 13(9):1804-8. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As much as 90% of an intravenously (i.v.) injected dose of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is absorbed and destroyed by liver Kupffer cells. Viruses that escape these cells can then transduce hepatocytes after binding factor X (FX). Given that interactions with FX and Kupffer cells are thought to occur on the Ad5 hexon protein, we replaced its exposed hypervariable regions (HVR) with those from Ad6. When tested in vivo in BALB/c mice and in hamsters, the Ad5/6 chimera mediated >10 times higher transduction in the liver. This effect was not due to changes in FX binding. Rather, Ad5/6 appeared to escape Kupffer cell uptake as evidenced by producing no Kupffer cell death in vivo, not requiring predosing in vivo, and being phagocytosed less efficiently by macrophages in vitro compared to Ad5. When tested as a helper-dependent adenovirus (Ad) vector, Ad5/6 mediated higher luciferase and factor IX transgene expression than either helper-dependent adenoviral 5 (HD-Ad5) or HD-Ad6 vectors. These data suggest that the Ad5/6 hexon-chimera evades Kupffer cells and may have utility for systemic and liver-directed therapies.
    Molecular Therapy 04/2011; 19(7):1254-62. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenovirus is a robust vector for therapeutic applications, but its use is limited by our understanding of its complex in vivo pharmacology. In this review we describe the necessity of identifying its natural, widespread, and multifaceted interactions with the host since this information will be crucial for efficiently redirecting virus into target cells. In the rational design of vectors, the notion of overcoming a sequence of viral "sinks" must be combined with re-targeting to target populations with capsid as well as shielding the vectors from pre-existing or toxic immune responses. It must also be noted that most known adenoviral pharmacology is deduced from the most commonly used serotypes, Ad5 and Ad2. However, these serotypes may not represent all adenoviruses, and may not even represent the most useful vectors for all purposes. Chimeras between Ad serotypes may become useful in engineering vectors that can selectively evade substantial viral traps, such as Kupffer cells, while retaining the robust qualities of Ad5. Similarly, vectorizing other Ad serotypes may become useful in avoiding immunity against Ad5 altogether. Taken together, this research on basic adenovirus biology will be necessary in developing vectors that interact more strategically with the host for the most optimal therapeutic effect.
    Current Gene Therapy 04/2011; 11(4):241-58. · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of viruses and gene therapy vectors is difficult to assess in a living organism. For instance, trafficking in murine models can usually only be assessed after sacrificing the animal for tissue sectioning or extraction. These assays are laborious requiring whole animal sectioning to ascertain tissue localization. They also obviate the ability to perform longitudinal or kinetic studies in one animal. To track viruses after systemic infection, we have labeled adenoviruses with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore and imaged these after intravenous injection in mice. Imaging was able to track and quantitate virus particles entering the jugular vein simultaneous with injection, appearing in the heart within 500 milliseconds, distributing in the bloodstream and throughout the animal within 7 seconds, and that the bulk of virus distribution was essentially complete within 3 minutes. These data provide the first in vivo real-time tracking of the rapid initial events of systemic virus infection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e17076. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenovirus serotype (Ad5) is the most studied Ad. Ad1, 2, and 6 are also members of species C Ad and are presumed to have biologies similar to Ad5. In this work, we have compared the ability of Ad1, 2, 5, and 6 to infect liver and muscle after intravenous and intramuscular injection. We found that Ad6 was surprisingly the most potent at liver gene delivery and that Ad1 and Ad2 were markedly weaker than Ad5 and 6. To understand these differences, we sequenced the Ad6 genome. This revealed that the Ad6 fiber protein is surprisingly three shaft repeats shorter than the others which may explain differences in virus infectivity in vitro, but not in the liver. Comparison of hexon hypervariable regions (HVRs) suggests that the higher transduction by Ad5 and 6 as compared to Ad1 and 2 may be related to differences in charge and length.
    Virology 01/2011; 412(1):19-27. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza poses a persistent worldwide threat to the human population. As evidenced by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, current vaccine technologies are unable to respond rapidly to this constantly diverging pathogen. We tested the utility of adenovirus (Ad) vaccines expressing centralized consensus influenza antigens. Ad vaccines were produced within 2 months and protected against influenza in mice within 3 days of vaccination. Ad vaccines were able to protect at doses as low as 10(7) virus particles/kg indicating that approximately 1,000 human doses could be rapidly generated from standard Ad preparations. To generate broadly cross-reactive immune responses, centralized consensus antigens were constructed against H1 influenza and against H1 through H5 influenza. Twenty full-length H1 HA sequences representing the main branches of the H1 HA phylogenetic tree were used to create a synthetic centralized gene, HA1-con. HA1-con minimizes the degree of sequence dissimilarity between the vaccine and existing circulating viruses. The centralized H1 gene, HA1-con, induced stronger immune responses and better protection against mismatched virus challenges as compared to two wildtype H1 genes. HA1-con protected against three genetically diverse lethal influenza challenges. When mice were challenged with 1934 influenza A/PR/8/34, HA1-con protected 100% of mice while vaccine generated from 2009 A/TX/05/09 only protected 40%. Vaccination with 1934 A/PR/8/34 and 2009 A/TX/05/09 protected 60% and 20% against 1947 influenza A/FM/1/47, respectively, whereas 80% of mice vaccinated with HA1-con were protected. Notably, 80% of mice challenged with 2009 swine flu isolate A/California/4/09 were protected by HA1-con vaccination. These data show that HA1-con in Ad has potential as a rapid and universal vaccine for H1N1 influenza viruses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e18314. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    E A Weaver, Z T Camacho, F Gao
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    ABSTRACT: Consensus HIV-1 genes can decrease the genetic distances between candidate immunogens and field virus strains. To ensure the functionality and optimal presentation of immunologic epitopes, we generated two group-M consensus env genes that contain variable regions either from a wild-type B/C recombinant virus isolate (CON6) or minimal consensus elements (CON-S) in the V1, V2, V4, and V5 regions. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were primed twice with CON6, CON-S, and subtype control (92UG37_A and HXB2/Bal_B) DNA and boosted with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV). Mean antibody titers against 92UG37_A, 89.6_B, 96ZM651_C, CON6, and CON-S Env protein were determined. Both CON6 and CON-S induced higher mean antibody titers against several of the proteins, as compared with the subtype controls. However, no significant differences were found in mean antibody titers in animals immunized with CON6 or CON-S. Cellular immune responses were measured by using five complete Env overlapping peptide sets: subtype A (92UG37_A), subtype B (MN_B, 89.6_B and SF162_B), and subtype C (Chn19_C). The intensity of the induced cellular responses was measured by using pooled Env peptides; T-cell epitopes were identified by using matrix peptide pools and individual peptides. No significant differences in T-cell immune-response intensities were noted between CON6 and CON-S immunized BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/c mice, 10 and eight nonoverlapping T-cell epitopes were identified in CON6 and CON-S, whereas eight epitopes were identified in 92UG37_A and HXB2/BAL_B. In C57BL/6 mice, nine and six nonoverlapping T-cell epitopes were identified after immunization with CON6 and CON-S, respectively, whereas only four and three were identified in 92UG37_A and HXB2/BAL_B, respectively. When combined together from both mouse strains, 18 epitopes were identified. The group M artificial consensus env genes, CON6 and CON-S, were equally immunogenic in breadth and intensity for inducing humoral and cellular immune responses.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 05/2010; 26(5):577-84. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    Eric A Weaver
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    ABSTRACT: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus associated with AIDS-like illnesses in cats and has been used as a model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A feature of HIV and FIV infection is the continually increasing divergence among viral isolates between different individuals, as well as within the same individuals. The goal of this study was to determine the phylogenetic patterns of viral isolates obtained within the United States (U.S.) by focusing on the variable, V3-V4, region of the FIV envelope gene. Data indicate that FIV, from within the U.S., localize to four viral clades, A, B, C, and F. Also shown is the geographic isolation of strains where clade A and clade B are found predominately on the west coast; however, clade B is also found throughout the U.S. and represents the predominant clade. This study presents a complete and conclusive analysis of FIV isolates from within the U.S. and may be used as the essential basis for the development of an effective multi-clade vaccine.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(8):e12004. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenoviral gene therapy vectors have been widely studied and used. Their extremely high transduction efficiency and gene delivery in vivo make them attractive for cancer gene therapy approaches. While they are robust, they are also very immunogenic. One approach to mitigate the immunogenicity of adenoviruses and to evade neutralizing antibodies is to coat the virus with the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1). This chapter details the steps involved when going from recombinant adenoviral vector plasmid all the way to validated PEGylated adenovirus product.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 651:227-39. · 1.29 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

603 Citations
135.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Hospital Internal Medicine
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Molecular & Human Genetics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
  • 2006
    • The University of Manchester
      • School of Mathematics
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2006
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Duke Human Vaccine Institute
      • • Department of Medicine
      Durham, NC, United States