[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tenofovir (TFV) is effective in preventing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission in a macaque model, is available as the oral agent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and may be useful in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a trial of TDF and TDF-emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants. Women received a single dose of either 600 mg TDF, 900 mg TDF, or 900 mg TDF-600 mg FTC at labor onset or prior to a cesarean section. Infants received no drug or a single dose of TDF at 4 mg/kg of body weight or of TDF at 4 mg/kg plus FTC at 3 mg/kg as soon as possible after birth. All regimens were safe and well tolerated. Maternal areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) and concentrations at the end of sampling after 24 h (C(24)) were similar between the two doses of TDF; the maximum concentrations of the drugs in serum (C(max)) and cord blood concentrations were higher in women delivering via cesarean section than in those who delivered vaginally (P = 0.04 and 0.046, respectively). The median ratio of the TFV concentration in cord blood to that in the maternal plasma at delivery was 0.73 (range, 0.26 to 1.95). Without TDF administration, infants had a median TFV concentration of 12 ng/ml 12 h after birth. Following administration of a single dose of TDF at 4 mg/kg, infant TFV concentrations fell below the targeted level, 50 ng/ml, by 24 h postdose. In HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, 600 mg of TDF is acceptable as a single dose during labor. Low concentrations at birth support infant dosing as soon after birth as possible. Rapidly decreasing TFV levels in infants suggest that multiple or higher doses of TDF will be necessary to maintain concentrations that are effective for viral suppression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of nevirapine (NVP) during chronic dosing in HIV-infected women and appropriate NVP dosing in this population.
Twenty-six pregnant women participating in two open-label Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies (P1022 and P1026S) were evaluated. Each patient received 200 mg NVP every 12 h and had PK evaluations during the second or third trimester; these evaluations were repeated postpartum. Paired maternal and cord blood NVP concentrations were collected at delivery in nine patients. Ante- and postpartum comparisons were made using paired t-tests and using a 'bioequivalence' approach to determine confidence interval (CI).
The average NVP Area Under the Curve (AUC) was 56 +/- 13 mcg(*)h/mL antepartum and 61 +/- 15 mcg(*)h/mL postpartum. The typical parameters +/- standard error were apparent clearance (CL/F)=3.51 +/- 0.18 L/h and apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F)=121 +/- 19.8 L. There were no significant differences between antepartum and postpartum AUC or pre-dose concentrations. The AUC ratio was 0.90 with a 90% CI of the mean equal to 0.80-1.02. The median (+/- standard deviation) cord blood to maternal NVP concentration ratio was 0.91 +/- 0.90.
Pregnancy does not alter NVP PK and the standard dose (200 mg every 12 h) is appropriate during pregnancy.
HIV Medicine 05/2008; 9(4):214-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00553.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the safety of nelfinavir and nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.
In Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 1022, 38 antiretroviral-naive pregnant women at 10-30 weeks' gestation were randomized to nelfinavir or nevirapine with zidovudine plus lamivudine. The study was suspended because of greater than expected toxicity and changes in nevirapine prescribing information. The incidence of treatment-limiting hepatic or cutaneous toxicity was compared between groups for all subjects and for the subset with CD4 cell counts greater than 250 cells/microL at study entry.
Toxicity was seen in 1 (5%) of 21 subjects randomized to nelfinavir and 5 (29%) of 17 subjects randomized to nevirapine (P = 0.07). Within the nevirapine group, 1 subject developed fulminant hepatic failure and died, and another developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The one adverse event associated with nelfinavir occurred in a subject with a CD4 cell count less than 250 cells/microL. All 5 events among subjects with a CD4 cell count greater than 250 cells/microL were associated with nevirapine (P = 0.04).
Continuous nevirapine may be associated with increased toxicity among HIV-1-infected pregnant women with CD4 cell counts greater than 250 cells/microL, as has been observed in non-pregnant women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present analysis was designed to determine whether race/ethnicity was independently associated with mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission risk in subjects enrolled in a trial of 2-dose intra-partum nevirapine in combination with standard antiretroviral therapy and to determine what factors, including race/ethnicity, predicted maternal viral suppression at the time of delivery. Women enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) 316 from sites in the United States and Puerto Rico were included. Distribution of selected maternal disease and treatment characteristics was assessed by race/ethnicity category. Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate possible association of factors with HIV transmission and with viral load at delivery. Variables associated with the outcome at P < 0.05 level were retained in the final models. Of 1052 women randomized at PACTG sites, 891 were included in the present analysis: 572 (64%) were black; 206 (23%) were Hispanic; and 113 (13%) were white. All women who had infected infants were black or Hispanic (11/572 and 3/206, respectively), whereas none of the women identified as white had an infected infant (0/113). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.54). White women had higher entry CD4 cell counts and lower HIV-1 RNA at delivery than women of other races/ethnicities. Black and Hispanic women were more likely than white women to start therapy during their current pregnancy but did not initiate prenatal care later. In bivariate models that included antiretroviral type and variables that had values of P < or = 0.25 in univariate analysis, time of antiretroviral initiation, time of prenatal care initiation, and race/ethnicity each retained significance in predicting viral suppression at delivery. Race/ethnicity remained predictive of viral suppression at delivery in a multivariate model incorporating all of these variables (P = 0.01). Higher HIV-1 RNA and lower CD4 cell counts in women identified as black or Hispanic have significant implications for the health of these women and their newborns. Race/ethnicity is significant in predicting viral suppression at the time of delivery.