[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocyte (OL) death is important in focal cerebral ischemia. TIMP-3 promotes apoptosis in ischemic neurons by inhibiting proteolysis of TNF-α superfamily of death receptors. Since OLs undergo apoptosis during ischemia, we hypothesized that TIMP-3 contributes to OL death.
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in Timp-3 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice with 24 or 72 h of reperfusion. Cell death in white matter was investigated by stereology and TUNEL. Mature or immature OLs were identified using antibodies against glutathione S-transferase-π (GST-π) and galactocerebroside (GalC), respectively. Expression and level of proteins were examined using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Protein activities were determined using a FRET peptide.
Loss of OL-like cells was detected at 72 h only in WT ischemic white matter where TUNEL showed greater cell death. TIMP-3 expression was increased in WT reactive astrocytes. GST-π was reduced in ischemic white matter of WT mice compared with WT shams with no difference between KO and WT at 72 h. GalC level was significantly increased in both KO and WT ischemic white matter at 72 h. However, the increase in GalC in KO mice was significantly higher than WT; most TUNEL-positive cells in ischemic white matter expressed GalC, suggesting TIMP-3 deficiency protects the immature OLs from apoptosis. There were significantly higher levels of cleaved caspase-3 at 72 h in WT white matter than in KO. Greater expression of MMP-3 and -9 was seen in reactive astrocytes and/or microglia/macrophages in WT at 72 h. We found more microglia/macrophages in WT than in KO, which were the predominant source of increased TNF-α detected in the ischemic white matter. TACE activity was significantly increased in ischemic WT white matter, which was expressed in active microglia/macrophages and OLs.
Our results suggested that focal ischemia leads to proliferation of immature OLs in white matter and that TIMP-3 contributes to a caspase-3-dependent immature OL death via TNF-α-mediated neuroinflammation. Future studies will be needed to delineate the role of MMP-3 and MMP-9 that were increased in the Timp-3 wild type.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2011; 8:108. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-stranded DNA cleavage of light-activated lysine conjugates is strongly enhanced at the slightly acidic pH (<7) suitable for selective targeting of cancer cells. This enhancement stems from the presence of two amino groups of different basicities. The first amino group plays an auxiliary role by enhancing solubility and affinity to DNA, whereas the second amino group, which is positioned next to the light-activated DNA cleaver, undergoes protonation at the desired pH threshold. This protonation results in two synergetic effects which account for the increased DNA-cleaving ability at the lower pH. First, lysine conjugates show tighter binding to DNA at the lower pH, which is consistent with the anticipated higher degree of interaction between two positively charged ammonium groups with the negatively charged phosphate backbone of DNA. Second, the unproductive pathway which quenches the excited state of the photocleaver through intramolecular electron transfer is eliminated once the donor amino group next to the chromophore is protonated. Experiments in the presence of traps for diffusing radicals show that reactive oxygen species do not contribute significantly to the mechanism of DNA cleavage at the lower pH, which is indicative of tighter binding to DNA under these conditions. This feature is valuable not only because many solid tumors are hypoxic but also because cleavage which does not depend on diffusing species is more localized and efficient. Sequence-selectivity experiments suggest combination of PET and base alkylation as the chemical basis for the observed DNA damage. The utility of these molecules for phototherapy of cancer is confirmed by the drastic increase in toxicity of five conjugates against cancer cell lines upon photoactivation.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 07/2009; 131(32):11458-70. · 10.68 Impact Factor