Brian H Cuthbertson

Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (132)758.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require artificial ventilation but this treatment may produce secondary lung damage. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may reduce this damage. To determine the clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of HFOV in patients with ARDS compared with standard mechanical ventilation. A parallel, randomised, unblinded clinical trial. UK intensive care units. Mechanically ventilated patients with a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fractional concentration of inspired oxygen (P : F) ratio of 26.7 kPa (200 mmHg) or less and an expected duration of ventilation of at least 2 days at recruitment. Treatment arm HFOV using a Novalung R100(®) ventilator (Metran Co. Ltd, Saitama, Japan) ventilator until the start of weaning. Control arm Conventional mechanical ventilation using the devices available in the participating centres. The primary clinical outcome was all-cause mortality at 30 days after randomisation. The primary health economic outcome was the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. One hundred and sixty-six of 398 patients (41.7%) randomised to the HFOV group and 163 of 397 patients (41.1%) randomised to the conventional mechanical ventilation group died within 30 days of randomisation (p = 0.85), for an absolute difference of 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) -6.1% to 7.5%]. After adjustment for study centre, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and the initial P : F ratio, the odds ratio for survival in the conventional ventilation group was 1.03 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.40; p = 0.87 logistic regression). Survival analysis showed no difference in the probability of survival up to 12 months after randomisation. The average QALY at 1 year in the HFOV group was 0.302 compared to 0.246. This gives an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the cost to society per QALY of £88,790 and an ICER for the cost to the NHS per QALY of £78,260. The use of HFOV had no effect on 30-day mortality in adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for ARDS and no economic advantage. We suggest that further research into avoiding ventilator-induced lung injury should concentrate on ventilatory strategies other than HFOV. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10416500. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 19, No. 23. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
    03/2015; 19(23):1-178. DOI:10.3310/hta19230
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  • K Douglas · G S Hillis · B L Croal · P Gibson · B H Cuthbertson
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2014; 113(5):884-5. DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu354 · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Alasdair G Sutherland · Brian H Cuthbertson · Marion Campbell
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 11/2014; 30(11):1389. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2014.08.004 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Selective Decontamination of the Digestive tract (SDD) as a prophylactic intervention improves hospital-acquired infection and survival rates. Uptake of SDD is low and remains controversial. This study applied the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to assess ICU clinicians’ views about SDD in regions with limited or no adoption of SDD. Materials and Methods Participants were health professionals with ‘decisional authority’ for the adoption of SDD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted as the first round of a Delphi study. Views about SDD adoption, delivery and further SDD research were explored. Directed content analysis of interview data identified sub-themes which informed item development for subsequent Delphi rounds. Linguistic features of interview data were also explored. Results 141 participants provided interview data. Fifty-six sub-themes were identified; 46 were common across regions. Beliefs about consequences was the most widely elaborated theme. Linguistic features of how participants discussed SDD included caution expressed when discussing the risks and benefits and words such as worry, anxiety and fear when discussing potential antibiotic resistance associated with SDD. Conclusions We identified salient beliefs, barriers and facilitators to SDD adoption and delivery. What participants said about SDD and the way in which they said it demonstrated the degree of clinical caution, uncertainty and concern that SDD evokes.
    Journal of critical care 08/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.03.013 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Abdominal infections are frequent causes of sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are associated with adverse outcomes. We analyzed the characteristics, treatments and outcome of ICU patients with abdominal infections using data extracted from a one-day point prevalence study, the Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU (EPIC) II. Methods: EPIC II included 13,796 adult patients from 1,265 ICUs in 75 countries. Infection was defined using the International Sepsis Forum criteria. Microbiological analyses were performed locally. Participating ICUs provided patient follow-up until hospital discharge or for 60 days. Results: Of the 7,087 infected patients, 1,392 (19.6%) had an abdominal infection on the study day (60% male, mean age 62 +/- 16 years, SAPS II score 39 +/- 16, SOFA score 7.6 +/- 4.6). Microbiological cultures were positive in 931 (67%) patients, most commonly Gram-negative bacteria (48.0%). Antibiotics were administered to 1366 (98.1%) patients. Patients who had been in the ICU for <= 2 days prior to the study day had more Escherichia coli, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic isolates, and fewer enterococci than patients who had been in the ICU longer. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 29.4% and 36.3%, respectively. ICU mortality was higher in patients with abdominal infections than in those with other infections (29.4% vs. 24.4%, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, hematological malignancy, mechanical ventilation, cirrhosis, need for renal replacement therapy and SAPS II score were independently associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: The characteristics, microbiology and antibiotic treatment of abdominal infections in critically ill patients are diverse. Mortality in patients with isolated abdominal infections was higher than in those who had other infections.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 14(1):420. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-420 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • R R Canter · S E Harvey · D A Harrison · M K Campbell · K M Rowan · B H Cuthbertson
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence supporting selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is reasonably strong. We set out to determine use in UK critical care units and to compare patient outcomes between units that do and those that do not use SDD. A total of 250 UK general critical care units were surveyed. Case mix, outcomes, and lengths of stay for admissions to SDD units (with and without an i.v. component) and non-SDD units were compared using data from the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme database. A response was received from all the 250 critical care units surveyed. Of these, 13 (5.2%) reported using SDD on some or all admissions, and of these, 3 reported using an i.v. component. Data on 284 690 admissions (April 2008-March 2011) from units reporting to the ICNARC Case Mix Programme (CMP) were included in the analyses. Admissions to SDD (n=196) and non-SDD (n=9) units were a similar case mix with similar infection rates and average lengths of stay in the unit and hospital. There was no difference in risk-adjusted unit or hospital mortality. The rate of unit-acquired infections in blood was significantly lower in SDD units using an i.v. component. Use of SDD in UK critical care is very low. The rate of unit-acquired infections in blood was significantly lower in SDD units using an i.v. component, but did not translate into a difference in acute hospital mortality or length of stay. There is a need to better understand the barriers to adoption of SDD into clinical practice and such work is underway.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 05/2014; 113(4). DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu108 · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are particularly susceptible to these infections. One intervention that has gained much attention in reducing HAIs is selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD). SDD involves the application of topical non-absorbable antibiotics to the oropharynx and stomach and a short course of intravenous (i.v.) antibiotics. SDD may reduce infections and improve mortality, but has not been widely adopted in the UK or internationally. Hence, there is a need to identify the reasons for low uptake and whether or not further clinical research is needed before wider implementation would be considered appropriate. The project objectives were to (1) identify and describe the SDD intervention, (2) identify views about the evidence base, (3) identify acceptability of further research and (4) identify feasibility of further randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A four-stage approach involving (1) case studies of two ICUs in which SDD is delivered including observations, interviews and documentary analysis, (2) a three-round Delphi study for in-depth investigation of clinicians' views, including semi-structured interviews and two iterations of questionnaires with structured feedback, (3) a nationwide online survey of consultants in intensive care medicine and clinical microbiology and (4) semistructured interviews with international clinical triallists to identify the feasibility of further research. Case studies were set in two UK ICUs. Other stages of this research were conducted by telephone and online with NHS staff working in ICUs. (1) Staff involved in SDD adoption or delivery in two UK ICUs, (2) ICU experts (intensive care consultants, clinical microbiologists, hospital pharmacists and ICU clinical leads), (3) all intensive care consultants and clinical microbiologists in the UK with responsibility for patients in ICUs were invited and (4) international triallists, selected from their research profiles in intensive care, clinical trials and/or implementation trials. SDD involves the application of topical non-absorbable antibiotics to the oropharynx and stomach and a short course of i.v. antibiotics. Levels of support for, or opposition to, SDD in UK ICUs; views about the SDD evidence base and about barriers to implementation; and feasibility of further SDD research (e.g. likely participation rates). (1) The two case studies identified complexity in the interplay of clinical and behavioural components of SDD, involving multiple staff. However, from the perspective of individual staff, delivery of SDD was regarded as simple and straightforward. (2) The Delphi study (n = 42) identified (a) specific barriers to SDD implementation, (b) uncertainty about the evidence base and (c) bimodal distributions for key variables, e.g. support for, or opposition to, SDD. (3) The national survey (n = 468) identified uncertainty about the effect of SDD on antimicrobial resistance, infection rates, mortality and cost-effectiveness. Most participants would participate in further SDD research. (4) The triallist interviews (n = 10) focused largely on the substantial challenges of conducting a large, multinational clinical effectiveness trial. There was considerable uncertainty about possible benefits and harms of SDD. Further large-scale clinical effectiveness trials of SDD in ICUs may be required to address these uncertainties, especially relating to antimicrobial resistance. There was a general willingness to participate in a future effectiveness RCT of SDD. However, support was not unanimous. Future research should address the barriers to acceptance and participation in any trial. There was some, but a low level of, interest in adoption of SDD, or studies to encourage implementation of SDD into practice. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 18, No. 25. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
    04/2014; 18(25):1-170. DOI:10.3310/hta18250
  • Damon C Scales · Brian H Cuthbertson
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies have become one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the ICU, and are believed to offer a variety of advantages over open tracheostomies, including increased convenience. Recent publications have established that the risk of fatal complications related to the procedure is low. However, clinicians must still weigh these risks against expected but largely unproven benefits. More research is needed to establish the indications for the procedure, including the optimal patient selection and timing during a course of mechanical ventilation. Such studies should also seek to improve our ability to accurately identify which patients will require prolonged mechanical ventilation, and to quantify the potential benefits of tracheostomy compared with prolonged translaryngeal intubation.
    Critical care (London, England) 03/2014; 18(2):117. DOI:10.1186/cc13761
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Bloodstream infections resulting from intravascular catheters (catheter-BSI) in critical care increase patients’ length of stay, morbidity and mortality, and the management of these infections and their complications has been estimated to cost the NHS annually £19.1–36.2M. Catheter-BSI are thought to be largely preventable using educational interventions, but guidance as to which types of intervention might be most clinically effective is lacking. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI in critical care units in England. Data sources: Sixteen electronic bibliographic databases – including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases – were searched from database inception to February 2011, with searches updated in March 2012. Bibliographies of systematic reviews and related papers were screened and experts contacted to identify any additional references. Review methods: References were screened independently by two reviewers using a priori selection criteria. A descriptive map was created to summarise the characteristics of relevant studies. Further selection criteria developed in consultation with the project Advisory Group were used to prioritise a subset of studies relevant to NHS practice and policy for systematic review. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI. Results: Seventy-four studies were included in the descriptive map, of which 24 were prioritised for systematic review. Studies have predominantly been conducted in the USA, using single-cohort before-and-after study designs. Diverse types of educational intervention appear effective at reducing the incidence density of catheter-BSI (risk ratios statistically significantly < 1.0), but single lectures were not effective. The economic model showed that implementing an educational intervention in critical care units in England would be cost-effective and potentially cost-saving, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios under worst-case sensitivity analyses of < £5000/quality-adjusted life-year. Limitations: Low-quality primary studies cannot definitively prove that the planned interventions were responsible for observed changes in catheter-BSI incidence. Poor reporting gave unclear estimates of risk of bias. Some model parameters were sourced from other locations owing to a lack of UK data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that it would be cost-effective and may be cost-saving for the NHS to implement educational interventions in critical care units. However, more robust primary studies are needed to exclude the possible influence of secular trends on observed reductions in catheter-BSI.
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    ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections resulting from intravascular catheters (catheter-BSI) in critical care increase patients' length of stay, morbidity and mortality, and the management of these infections and their complications has been estimated to cost the NHS annually £19.1-36.2M. Catheter-BSI are thought to be largely preventable using educational interventions, but guidance as to which types of intervention might be most clinically effective is lacking. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI in critical care units in England. Sixteen electronic bibliographic databases - including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases - were searched from database inception to February 2011, with searches updated in March 2012. Bibliographies of systematic reviews and related papers were screened and experts contacted to identify any additional references. References were screened independently by two reviewers using a priori selection criteria. A descriptive map was created to summarise the characteristics of relevant studies. Further selection criteria developed in consultation with the project Advisory Group were used to prioritise a subset of studies relevant to NHS practice and policy for systematic review. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI. Seventy-four studies were included in the descriptive map, of which 24 were prioritised for systematic review. Studies have predominantly been conducted in the USA, using single-cohort before-and-after study designs. Diverse types of educational intervention appear effective at reducing the incidence density of catheter-BSI (risk ratios statistically significantly < 1.0), but single lectures were not effective. The economic model showed that implementing an educational intervention in critical care units in England would be cost-effective and potentially cost-saving, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios under worst-case sensitivity analyses of < £5000/quality-adjusted life-year. Low-quality primary studies cannot definitively prove that the planned interventions were responsible for observed changes in catheter-BSI incidence. Poor reporting gave unclear estimates of risk of bias. Some model parameters were sourced from other locations owing to a lack of UK data. Our results suggest that it would be cost-effective and may be cost-saving for the NHS to implement educational interventions in critical care units. However, more robust primary studies are needed to exclude the possible influence of secular trends on observed reductions in catheter-BSI. The study is registered with PROSPERO as CRD42012001840. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
    02/2014; 18(15):1-365. DOI:10.3310/hta18150
  • Brian H Cuthbertson · Jill Francis
    Critical care (London, England) 01/2014; 18(2):417.
  • Tom W. Reader · Brian H. Cuthbertson
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    ABSTRACT: Effective multidisciplinary teamwork and team leadership have been shown as essential for the safe management of patients in intensive care medicine (ICM). Solutions to improve teamwork and leadership have been developed, but with mixed success. It is observed that to improve teamwork in ICM, interventions must reflect (1) the demands and constraints of ICM, and how they influence team behaviour and (2) the specific teamwork skills and behaviours that are associated with safe patient care. Research in ICM shows that effective team leadership is the key determinant of team functioning, and that interventions should focus on enhancing leadership. Yet, simply applying leadership solutions developed in other domains (e.g. aviation) is not appropriate. Specifically, the flow and nature of work, and the changeable and complex construction of teams, means that tools for improving and assessing leadership need to be designed to reflect the very specific constraints of ICM.
    The Organization of Critical Care, 01/2014: pages 127-135;
  • J. Mooney · C. Chow · B. Cuthbertson · B. Croal · G. Hillis
    Heart, Lung and Circulation 12/2013; 22:S215. DOI:10.1016/j.hlc.2013.05.513 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    Trials 11/2013; 14(Suppl 1):O7. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-S1-O7 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe factors senior critical care nurses identify as being important to address when introducing selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) in the clinical setting. Critically ill patients are at risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). SDD is one strategy shown to prevent VAP and possibly improve survival in the critically ill. We performed a secondary analysis of qualitative data obtained from 20 interviews. An inductive thematic analysis approach was applied to data obtained from senior critical care nurses during phase two of a multi-methods study. There were four primary considerations identified that should be addressed or considered prior to implementation of SDD. These considerations included education of health care professionals, patient comfort, compatibility of SDD with existing practices, and cost. Despite a lack of experience with, or knowledge of SDD, nurses were able to articulate factors that may influence its implementation and delivery. Organizations or researchers considering implementation of SDD should include nurses as key members of the implementation team.
    Heart & lung: the journal of critical care 11/2013; 43(1). DOI:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2013.09.002 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is a prophylactic antibiotic regimen that is not widely used in practice. We aimed to describe the opinions of key 'stakeholders' about the validity of the existing evidence base, likely consequences of implementation, relative importance of their opinions in influencing overall practice, likely barriers to implementation and perceptions of the requirement for further research to inform the decision about whether to embark on a further large randomised controlled trial. This was a Delphi study informed by comprehensive framework of possible determinants of health professionals' behaviour to study Critical Care practice in four countries. There were four key stakeholder participant groups including ICU physicians, pharmacists, clinical leads, and clinical microbiologists/ infectious disease physicians. Round one comprised participant interviews and Rounds two and three were online questionnaires using Delphi method. In this study, 141 participants were recruited of whom 82% were retained. Participants rated themselves as knowledgeable about SDD. Antibiotic resistance was identified as the most important issue. SDD was seen as a low clinical priority but few participants reported strong opposition. There was moderate agreement that research to date has not adequately addressed concerns about antibiotic resistance and lacks generalizability. Participants indicated equipoise with regard to benefits and harms of SDD, and indicated strong support for a further randomised trial. Clinicians have clinical equipoise about the effectiveness of SDD. Future research requires longer follow up to assess antibiotic resistance as well as greater validity/generalizability to provide definitive answers on the effectiveness of decontamination and effects on antibiotic resistance. SDD was regarded as not being a high clinical priority, which may limit future trial participation. These results have identified that a further large randomised controlled trial of SDD in critical care is both warranted and appropriate.
    Critical care (London, England) 11/2013; 17(6):R266. DOI:10.1186/cc13096
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify and describe the clinical and behavioural components (e.g. the what, how, when, where and by whom) of 'selective decontamination of the digestive tract' (SDD) as routinely implemented in the care of critically ill patients. METHODS: Multi-methods study, consisting of semi-structured observations of SDD delivery, interviews with clinicians and documentary analysis, conducted in two ICUs in the UK that routinely deliver SDD. Data were analysed within-site to describe clinical and behavioural SDD components and synthesised across-sites to describe SDD in context. RESULTS: SDD delivery involved multiple behaviours extending beyond administration of its clinical components. Not all behaviours were specified in relevant clinical documentation. Overall, SDD implementation and delivery included: adoption (i.e. whether to implement SDD), operationalisation (i.e. implementing SDD into practice), provision (i.e. delivery of SDD) and surveillance (i.e. monitoring the ecological effects). Implementation involved organisational, team and individual-level behaviours. Delivery was perceived as easy by individual staff, but displayed features of complexity (including multiple interrelated behaviours, staff and contexts). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to formally outline the full spectrum of clinical and behavioural aspects of SDD. It identified points in the delivery process where complex behaviours occur and outlined how SDD can be interpreted and applied variably in practice. This comprehensive specification allows greater understanding of how this intervention could be implemented in units not currently using it, or replicated in research studies. It also identified strategies required to adopt SDD and to standardise its implementation.
    Australian Critical Care 11/2013; 26(4). DOI:10.1016/j.aucc.2013.04.002 · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Jan O Jansen · Graeme S MacLennan · Brian H Cuthbertson
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    ABSTRACT: Variations in outcome relating to out-of-hours care have received considerable attention. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the effect of day and time of admission on mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU) with representative admission severity of illness. Data pertaining to 4,183 patients admitted between 2000 and 2007 were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. Case-mix adjustment was undertaken using the UK APACHE II probability of hospital death. The mean APACHE score was 20.9 with a median predicted hospital mortality of 32.5%. Actual hospital mortality was 30.8%. Compared with Wednesdays as the reference day, admission to ICU on any other given day was not associated with higher crude or case-mix adjusted mortality. Admission to ICU in the evening, compared with daytime admission, was associated with lower odds of crude hospital mortality, but this difference was no longer significant after case-mix adjustment. Case-mix adjusted in-hospital mortality does not vary with day and time of admission, even in patients with higher severity of illness and higher predicted mortality than previously reported.
    Journal of the Intensive Care Society 10/2013; 14(4):294-298. DOI:10.1177/175114371301400405
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    ABSTRACT: Behaviour change interventions often target ‘important’ beliefs. The literature proposes four methods for assessing importance of attitudinal beliefs: elicitation frequency, importance ratings, and strength of prediction (bivariate and multivariate). We tested congruence between these methods in a Delphi study about selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD). SDD improves infection rates among critically ill patients, yet uptake in intensive care units is low internationally. A Delphi study involved three iterations (‘rounds’). Participants were 105 intensive care clinicians in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand. In Round 1, semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit beliefs about delivering SDD. In Rounds 2 and 3, participants completed questionnaires, rating agreement and importance for each belief-statement (9-point Likert scales). Belief importance was assessed using elicitation frequency, mean importance ratings, and prediction of global attitude (Pearson's correlations; beta-weights). Correlations between indices were computed. Participants generated 14 attitudinal beliefs. Indices had adequate variation (frequencies: 4–94, mean importance ratings: 4.93–8.00, Pearson's correlations: ±0.09 to ±0.54, beta-weights: ±0.01 to ±0.30). SDD increases antibiotic resistance was the most important belief according to three methods and was ranked second by beta-weights (behind Overall, SDD benefits patients to whom it is delivered). Spearman's correlations were significant for importance ratings with frequencies and correlations. However, other indices were unrelated. The top four beliefs differed according to the measure used. Results provided evidence of congruence across three methods for assessing belief importance. Beta-weights were unrelated to other indices, suggesting that they may not be appropriate as the sole method. What is already known on this subject? What does this study add?
    British Journal of Health Psychology 09/2013; 19(2). DOI:10.1111/bjhp.12066 · 2.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
758.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2015
    • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • Department of Critical Care Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011–2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Anesthesia
      • • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Trillium Health Centre
      Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997–2011
    • University of Aberdeen
      • • Health Services Research Unit
      • • Institute of Medical Sciences
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Southampton
      • Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre
      Southampton, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Royal North Shore Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia