Anna M. McClung

National Research Center (CO, USA), Boulder, Colorado, United States

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Publications (114)207.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The global burden of enteric dysfunction and diarrhoeal disease remains a formidable problem that requires novel interventions. This study investigated the immune-modulatory capacity of bran across rice varieties with phytochemical differences. 129SvEvTac mice were fed a 10% rice bran or control diet followed by infection with Salmonella enterica. Faecal shedding titres were quantified and flow cytometry was used to investigate intestinal immunity. The largest protection against Salmonella colonization was observed with IAC600 variety. Reduced faecal shedding correlated with increased levels of boron, soluble fibre, vitamin E isomers, and fatty acids. IAC600 and Red Wells rice bran modulated small intestinal neutrophils, macrophages, interdigitating dendritic cells, CD8+, γδ, and regulatory T cells, as well as CD8+ and γδ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Rice bran is a promising functional food and merits evaluation for the prevention of Salmonella colonization and regulation of intestinal immunity in people.
    Journal of Functional Foods 10/2015; 18:653-664. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2015.08.027 · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • Rolfe Bryant · Kathleen Yeater · Anna M McClung ·

    Cereal Chemistry 06/2015; DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-02-15-0035-R · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Ming-Hsuan Chen · Anna M McClung ·
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    ABSTRACT: Whole grain rice contains functional antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids (including proanthocyanidins), vitamin E homologs (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and γ-oryzanol that have positive effects on human health. These antioxidants are secondary metabolites in plants that can be induced under external stress. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of cultivars, crop management method (organic and conventional), and growing environment on the concentrations of these antioxidants in whole grain rice. Cultivars and environment contributed to a higher percentage of variation in the concentrations of these antioxidants than did crop management method. Cultivars accounted for a greater proportion of the variation than environment for all traits except total tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol. Cultivars that are high in concentrations of these antioxidants were identified, baut no one cultivar contained the highest concentration of all antioxidants evaluated. These cultivar differences indicate that improvement for phytochemical and antioxidant traits can be accomplished through traditional breeding. Because of the limited effect of crop management on these antioxidants, choice of cultivar should be the focus for organic production of whole grain rice high in these antioxidants.
    Cereal Chemistry 03/2015; 92(4):150325075656001. DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-11-14-0240-R · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An understanding of cultivar effects on field greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in rice ( L.) systems is needed to improve the accuracy of predictive models used for estimating GHG emissions and to evaluate the GHG mitigation potential of different cultivars. We compared CH and NO emissions, global warming potential (GWP = NO + CH), yield-scaled GWP (GWP = GWP Mg grain), and plant growth characteristics of eight cultivars within four study sites in California and Arkansas. Nitrous oxide emissions were negligible (<10% of GWP) and were not different among cultivars. Seasonal CH emissions differed between cultivars by a factor of 2.1 and 1.4 at one California and one Arkansas site, respectively. Plant growth characteristics were generally not correlated with seasonal CH emissions; however, the strongest correlations were observed for shoot and total plant (root + shoot) biomass at heading ( = 0.60) at one California site and for grain at maturity ( = -0.95) at one Arkansas site. Although differences in GWP and GWP were observed, there were inconsistencies across sites, indicating the importance of the genotype × environment interaction. Overall, the cultivars with the lowest CH emissions, GWP, and GWP at the California and Arkansas sites were the lowest and highest yielding, respectively. These findings highlight the potential for breeding high-yielding cultivars with low GWP, the ideal scenario to achieve low GWP, but environmental conditions must also be considered. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
    Journal of Environmental Quality 01/2015; 44(1):103-114. DOI:10.2134/jeq2014.07.0286 · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Y. Jia · G. Liu · Melissa H. Jia · Anna M. McClung ·
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    ABSTRACT: A mapping population developed from a cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tropical japonica cultivar Lemont and indica cultivar Jasmine 85 was developed to facilitate genetic studies for important agronomic traits. The indica- and tropical japonica-based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population has been used to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) and rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae). The Lemont × Jasmine 85 mapping population, also referred to as SB5 (Reg. No. MP-7, NSL 506950), was developed under the Rice Coordinated Agricultural Project (RiceCAP) and released on 31 Aug. 2009 by the USDA–ARS and University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture. The mapping population has 572 F2:8 RILs, 256 of which were used to construct a linkage map using simple sequence repeat markers to identify quantitative trait loci for sheath blight and blast resistance. This mapping population and related datasets represent a valuable resource for basic rice genomic research and applied marker-assisted breeding efforts in disease resistance and other agronomic traits.
    Journal of Plant Registrations 01/2015; 9(1):128. DOI:10.3198/jpr2013.03.0014crmp · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • Byungrok Min · Anna McClung · Ming-Hsuan Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E and γ-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics, and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from six cultivars having different bran colours were investigated. Parboiling rough and brown rice increased the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in whole grain rice but decreased the concentrations of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities found in the soluble fraction. After hydrothermal processing of purple bran rice, the retention of extractable anthocyanins was low, but was high for simple phenolics. For proanthocyanidins found in red bran rice, the extractable oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 4, increased up to 6-fold; while for oligomers with DP ⩾ 4 and polymers, there was a significant decrease that was positively correlated with the DP and the temperature of the processing methods. The presence of hulls helped to retain water-soluble antioxidants during parboiling.
    Food Chemistry 09/2014; 159:106–115. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.164 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the genes responsible for yield related traits, and heterosis, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) libraries were constructed from leaves, roots and meristem tissues from the two parents, 'Nipponbare' and '93-11', and their F1 hybrid. From the MPSS libraries, 1-3 million signatures were obtained. Using cluster analysis, commonly and specifically expressed genes in the parents and their F1 hybrid were identified. To understand heterosis in the F1 hybrid, the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid were mapped to yield related quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions using a linkage map constructed from 131 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers with 266 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11. QTLs were identified for yield related traits including days to heading, plant height, plant type, number of tillers, main panicle length, number of primary branches per main panicle, number of kernels per main panicle, total kernel weight per main panicle, 1000 grain weight and total grain yield per plant. Seventy one QTLs for these traits were mapped, of which 3 QTLs were novel. Many highly expressed chromatin-related genes in the F1 hybrid encoding histone demethylases, histone deacetylases, argonaute-like proteins and polycomb proteins were located in these yield QTL regions. A total of 336 highly expressed transcription factor (TF) genes belonging to 50 TF families were identified in the yield QTL intervals. These findings provide the starting genomic materials to elucidate the molecular basis of yield related traits and heterosis in rice.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95178. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095178 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (Reg. No. MP-6, NSL 500357 MAP) (RDP1) is a collection of 421 purified, homozygous rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions (GSOR 301001 through GSOR 301421; GSOR 312001 through 312020) representing the broad range of genetic variation within O. sativa. The accessions include both landraces and elite rice cultivars, which were classified into five subpopulation groups, including indica (95 accessions) and aus (60), which belong to the Indica varietal group, and tropical japonica (106), temperate japonica (111), and aromatic (Group V) (16) which comprise the Japonica varietal group. Thirty-three accessions are classified as admixtures because they shared <60% ancestry with a single group. The seed, with and without the hull, and panicle morphology of each accession were documented with digital images, and the RDP1 was phenotyped for morphological, developmental, and physiological traits. Genotypes for 36,901 SNP loci are publicly available for additional genomewide association mapping studies. In this report, we evaluate three grain quality traits on the RDP1: apparent amylose content (AC), gelatinization temperature as measured by alkali spreading value (ASV), and protein content. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed AC was the quality trait most closely correlated with subpopulation structure, followed by ASV. These traits indicate that temperate japonica was the most distinct group, whereas aus and indica could not be differentiated, and the aromatic accessions were closest to tropical japonica.
    Journal of Plant Registrations 01/2014; 8(1):109. DOI:10.3198/jpr2013.03.0013crmp · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • Rolfe Bryant · K. Yeater · A. McClung ·

    12/2013; DOI:10.1094/CPLEX-2013-1226-17W
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    ABSTRACT: Rice bran chemical profiles differ across rice varieties and have not yet been analysed for differential chemopreventive bioactivity. A diverse panel of seven rice bran varieties was analysed for growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Inhibition varied from 0% to 99%, depending on the variety of bran used. Across varieties, total lipid content ranged 5-16%, individual fatty acids had 1.4- to 1.9-fold differences, vitamin E isoforms (α-, γ-, δ-tocotrienols, and tocopherols) showed 1.3- to 15.2-fold differences, and differences in γ-oryzanol and total phenolics ranged between 100-275ng/mg and 57-146ngGAE/mg, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis was used to identify bioactive compounds implicated in CRC cell growth inhibitory activity. Total phenolics and γ-tocotrienol were positively correlated with reduced CRC cell growth (p<0.05). Stoichiometric variation in rice bran components and differential effects on CRC viability merit further evaluation elucidate their role in dietary CRC chemoprevention.
    Food Chemistry 11/2013; 141(2):1545-52. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.04.020 · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Ehsan Shakiba · A. McClung · S. McCouch · G. Eizenga ·

    7th International Rice Genetic Symposium. Manila, the Philippines; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Drill seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the United States. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant CH 4 and N 2 O emissions due to anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management practices, particularly fertilizer N management, and total global warming potential (GWP) remains unclear. We conducted three field experiments in California and Arkansas to test the hypothesis that by optimizing grain yield through N management, the lowest yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP Y = GWP Mg -1 grain) is achieved. Each growing season, urea was applied at rates ranging from 0 to 224 kg N ha -1 before the permanent flood. Emissions of CH 4 and N 2 O were measured daily to weekly during growing seasons and fallow periods. Annual CH 4 emissions ranged from 9.3 to 193 kg CH 4 –C ha -1 yr -1 across sites, and annual N 2 O emissions averaged 1.3 kg N 2 O–N ha -1 yr -1 . Relative to N 2 O emissions, CH 4 dominated growing season (82%) and annual (68%) GWP. The impacts of fertilizer N rates on GHG fluxes were confined to the growing season, with increasing N rate having little effect on CH 4 emissions but contributing to greater N 2 O emissions during nonflooded periods. The fallow period contributed between 7 and 39% of annual GWP across sites years. This finding illustrates the need to include fallow period measurements in annual emissions estimates. Growing season GWP Y ranged from 130 to 686 kg CO 2 eq Mg -1
    Journal of Environmental Quality 11/2013; 42:1623-1634. DOI:10.2134/jeq2013.05.0167 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The grain quality of rice has recently attracted a lot of attention around the world, including Africa. Rice germplasm in African gene banks has not been adequately characterized for its cooking and eating qualities which are mainly controlled by starch physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize two groups of rice germplasm from Africa and the U.S. for starch properties including gelatinization temperature (GT), apparent amylose content (AAC), and paste viscosity (RVA), and to determine molecular marker associations with these traits. Wide diversity was found for all traits studied. Variation in these traits was significantly associated with molecular markers for the alk and waxy genes which encodes soluble SS II (SSIIa) and granule bound synthase (GBSS) enzymes, respectively. Based on four previously reported waxy SNP haplotypes, 93.1 and 75.9% of the variation in AAC was explained for the U.S. and African germplasm, respectively. The classification of the genotypes by their SNP haplotypes helped to clarify the relationship between AAC and peak viscosity. The characterization of individual lines using physicochemical properties and functional markers, and the determination of marker-trait associations will facilitate the breeding of rice for grain quality in Africa and elsewhere.
    Starch - Starke 11/2013; 65(11-12). DOI:10.1002/star.201300058 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    Karen L. Bett-Garber · Jeanne M. Lea · Anna M. McClung · Ming-Hsuan Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Whole grain rice is nutrient dense because of the intact bran layer. The literature indicates that there is genetic variability for compounds in the bran layer of whole grain rice with some compounds in high concentrations in varieties with pigmented bran. The purpose of this study was to compare factors that impact sensory characteristics between different classes of rice bran color. Ten varieties, two from each of five bran colors (white, light brown, brown, red, and purple), were evaluated for descriptive flavor and texture, physical characteristics, gelatinization temperature, apparent amylose content, and polyphenols. Rice that has red or purple pigmented bran has higher contents of phenols and flavonoids, and these varieties were strongly correlated with some flavor attributes. The bran/hay/straw attribute correlated with bran weight and bran thickness, and sweet taste negatively correlated with amylose content. The texture attribute of hardness was significantly different among bran colors, and a 64% variance can be explained by kernel density and bran thickness. Physical traits of kernel width, kernel thickness, and bran weight can explain 68.7% of cook time variance. This report advances our understanding of contributing factors to the flavor and texture attributes of the whole grain rice with diverse bran color.
    Cereal Chemistry 11/2013; 90(6):521-528. DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-10-12-0126-R · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein is the second most abundant constituent in the rice grain next to starch. Association analysis for protein concentration in brown rice was performed using a "mini-core" collection, which represents the germplasm diversity found in the USDA rice world collection. Protein concentration was determined in replicated trials conducted in two southern U. S. locations, and association mapping was performed by using 157 genomewide DNA markers. Protein concentration ranged from 5.4 to 11.9% among the 202 accessions. Protein variation owing to accession and accession x location interaction were highly significant. Ample variation was seen within each subpopulation by ancestry, as well as within the 14 geographic regions where the accessions originated. Accessions from Eastern Europe had the highest level of protein. Ten markers on eight chromosomes were significantly associated with protein concentration. Five of these markers occurred near known protein precursor genes or quantitative trait loci, and the other five markers were novel for the association with protein concentration in rice. The germplasm and genetic markers identified in this study will assist breeders in developing cultivars tailored for applications requiring specific protein concentration in the rice grain. The research results contribute to the potential discovery of novel rice storage protein pathways in the endosperm.
    Cereal Chemistry 09/2013; 90(5):445-452. DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-09-12-0122-R · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A set of introgression lines (ILs) containing chromosomal segments from O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491), a wild relative of O. sativa, in the genetic background of an elite US variety, cv. Jefferson, was developed to confirm the performance of six yield-enhancing quantitative trait loci (QTL). Fifty BC3F3 ILs containing homozygous O. rufipogon introgressions at each of the target QTL regions, and as few background introgressions as possible, were selected for evaluation of yield and 14 yield-related traits in field studies conducted over 2 years at four locations in the southern USA. Performance of the IL families was compared with three commercial inbreds and one hybrid variety. IL families carrying introgressions from the low-yielding wild parent at the QTL yld2.1 and yld6.1 yielded 27.7 and 26.1 % more than Jefferson, respectively. IL yld2A, which possesses yld2.1, also performed well under alternate wetting and drying conditions in two field locations. After the first year of field trials, 10 of the top-performing BC3F4 families, representing five of the QTL targets, were genotyped with an Illumina 1,536 assay to define the size and location of the wild introgressions. BC3F4 families with the fewest background introgressions were backcrossed to Jefferson and selfed. The resulting BC4F2 families were screened with targeted single nucleotide polymorphism assays to identify individuals carrying homozygous introgressions across the target QTL. Twelve ILs, representing each of the six QTL targets, have been submitted to the Genetic Stocks Oryza Collection for studies on transgressive variation and as interspecific pre-breeding lines.
    Molecular Breeding 06/2013; 32(1). DOI:10.1007/s11032-013-9855-7 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) is a key antioxidant for both plants and animals. In plants, ascorbate is involved in several key physiological processes including photosynthesis, cell expansion and division, growth, flowering, and senescence. In addition, ascorbate is an enzyme cofactor and a regulator of gene expression. During exposure to abiotic stresses, ascorbate counteracts excessive reactive oxygen species within the cell and protects key molecules, including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, from irreversible damage. In this study we focus on understanding how ascorbate levels are controlled in rice (Oryza sativa) during plant development and in response to light intensity and photoperiod. Our results indicate that in rice ascorbate metabolism follows a different pattern compared to other species. In the rice accessions we analyzed, total foliar ascorbate content increases during development and peaks at the vegetative 2-4 and the reproductive 4 stages, whereas other research has shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana and other dicots, ascorbate content declines with plant age. The pattern in rice does not seem to change when plants were grown under increasing light intensity: 150, 400 or 1200-1500 μmol m-2 s-1. We observed little diurnal variation in AsA content in rice and did not see a steady decline during the dark period as has been reported in other species such as Arabidopsis and tomato. The total foliar ascorbate content of twenty-three rice accessions from four major rice subgroups was compared. These genotypes differed as much as eight-fold in ascorbate content at the V2 stage indicating the potential to enhance vitamin C levels in genotypes of global interest via breeding approaches.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2013; 66C:41-46. DOI:10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.01.016 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • G. Liu · Y. Jia · A. McClung · J. H. Oard · F. N. Lee · J. C. Correll ·
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    ABSTRACT: Liu, G., Jia, Y., McClung, A., Gard, J. H., Lee, F. N., and Correll, J. C. 2013. Confirming QTLs and finding additional loci responsible for resistance to rice sheath blight disease. Plant Dis. 97:113-117. Rice sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1A, is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Utilization of host resistance is the most economical and environmentally sound strategy in managing sheath blight (ShB). Ten ShB quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were previously mapped in a Lemont x Jasmine 85 recombinant inbred line (LJRIL) population using greenhouse inoculation methods at an early vegetative stage. However, confirmation of ShB-resistant QTLs under field conditions is critical for their utilization in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for improving ShB resistance in new cultivars. In the present study, we evaluated ShB resistance using 216 LIRILs under field conditions in Arkansas. Texas, and Louisiana during 2008 and 2009. We confirmed the presence of the major ShB-QTL qShB9-2 based on the field data and also identified one new ShB-QTL between markers RM221 and RM112 on chromosome 2 across all three locations. Based on the field verification of ShB evaluations, the microchamber and mist-chamber assays were simple, effective, and reliable methods to identify major ShB-QTLs like qShB9-2 in the greenhouse at early vegetative stages. The markers RM215 and RM245 were found to be closely linked to aShB9-2 in greenhouse and field assays, indicating that they will be useful for improving ShB resistance in rice breeding programs using MAS.
    Plant Disease 01/2013; 97(1):113-117. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0466-RE · 3.02 Impact Factor
  • R. J. Bryant · A. M. McClung · C. Grimm ·
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the high demand for aromatic rice cultivars that command a premium, it is important to have efficient methods for determining 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), the aromatic compound found in rice, that can be used in breeding efforts and to detect aromatic/non-aromatic blended rice in the marketplace. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in conjunction with GC/MS was used to distinguish non-aromatic rice (Oryza sativa, L.) kernels from aromatic rice kernels. In this method, single kernels along with 10 μl of 0.1 ng μl−1 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridine were placed in sealed vials and heated to 80 °C for 18 min. During the heating stage volatile compounds, which include 2-AP, were adsorbed onto a SPME fiber. Volatiles were desorbed from the fiber and separated using gas chromatography. 2-AP was quantitated by mass spectrometry using the 111, 83 and 68 m/z ions. The method detected 2-AP in milled rice and brown rice; however, its detection in paddy rice was less successful. In a mixture of aromatic and non-aromatic rice, the aromatic rice kernels were differentiated from the non-aromatic rice kernels using the described method. Therefore, this method can be used to identify segregating from non-segregating progeny during early generations in an aromatic rice breeding program when quantities of seed are very limited and can determine if aromatic rice has been adulterated with non-aromatic rice either through inadvertent mixtures, outcrosses or prepared blends.
    Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety 12/2012; 5(5):147-154. DOI:10.1007/s11694-012-9121-4
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    ABSTRACT: To study the polyphenols in whole grain rice varying in bran colour, the total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacities of the solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall bound (Bound) fractions and the profiles of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were determined. Red and purple bran rices had significantly higher total (sum of Free- and Bound-) phenolic (PC) and flavonoid (FC) concentrations and antioxidant capacities than light-coloured bran rice or other cereals (P < 0.05), due to their higher concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, respectively. The concentrations of the Bound-PC and FC accounted for approximately half of the total PC and FC in the light-coloured bran rice, but were lower than those in purple and red bran rice (P < 0.05). High correlations were found between the concentrations of total phenolics and the three antioxidant capacity assays except for those in the bound fraction when related to iron chelating capacity. The concentrations of proanthocyanidins in red bran rice was 1.27 mg/g and its composition was 6.5%, 33.5%, 30.6% and 29.4% of 1–3, 4–6, 7–10 mers, and polymer (>10 mers), respectively. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin and peonidin-3-glucoside was the second highest; the profiles varied between purple bran cultivars. Whole grain rice differing in bran colour contained unique polyphenol subgroups, which have been proposed to positively impact human health.
    Food Chemistry 08/2012; 133(3):715–722. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.079 · 3.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
207.93 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • National Research Center (CO, USA)
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2010
    • Crop Science Society of America
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Arkansas
      Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States