[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the genes responsible for yield related traits, and heterosis, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) libraries were constructed from leaves, roots and meristem tissues from the two parents, 'Nipponbare' and '93-11', and their F1 hybrid. From the MPSS libraries, 1-3 million signatures were obtained. Using cluster analysis, commonly and specifically expressed genes in the parents and their F1 hybrid were identified. To understand heterosis in the F1 hybrid, the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid were mapped to yield related quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions using a linkage map constructed from 131 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers with 266 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11. QTLs were identified for yield related traits including days to heading, plant height, plant type, number of tillers, main panicle length, number of primary branches per main panicle, number of kernels per main panicle, total kernel weight per main panicle, 1000 grain weight and total grain yield per plant. Seventy one QTLs for these traits were mapped, of which 3 QTLs were novel. Many highly expressed chromatin-related genes in the F1 hybrid encoding histone demethylases, histone deacetylases, argonaute-like proteins and polycomb proteins were located in these yield QTL regions. A total of 336 highly expressed transcription factor (TF) genes belonging to 50 TF families were identified in the yield QTL intervals. These findings provide the starting genomic materials to elucidate the molecular basis of yield related traits and heterosis in rice.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e95178. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E and γ-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics, and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from six cultivars having different bran colours were investigated. Parboiling rough and brown rice increased the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in whole grain rice but decreased the concentrations of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities found in the soluble fraction. After hydrothermal processing of purple bran rice, the retention of extractable anthocyanins was low, but was high for simple phenolics. For proanthocyanidins found in red bran rice, the extractable oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 4, increased up to 6-fold; while for oligomers with DP ⩾ 4 and polymers, there was a significant decrease that was positively correlated with the DP and the temperature of the processing methods. The presence of hulls helped to retain water-soluble antioxidants during parboiling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice bran chemical profiles differ across rice varieties and have not yet been analysed for differential chemopreventive bioactivity. A diverse panel of seven rice bran varieties was analysed for growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Inhibition varied from 0% to 99%, depending on the variety of bran used. Across varieties, total lipid content ranged 5-16%, individual fatty acids had 1.4- to 1.9-fold differences, vitamin E isoforms (α-, γ-, δ-tocotrienols, and tocopherols) showed 1.3- to 15.2-fold differences, and differences in γ-oryzanol and total phenolics ranged between 100-275ng/mg and 57-146ngGAE/mg, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis was used to identify bioactive compounds implicated in CRC cell growth inhibitory activity. Total phenolics and γ-tocotrienol were positively correlated with reduced CRC cell growth (p<0.05). Stoichiometric variation in rice bran components and differential effects on CRC viability merit further evaluation elucidate their role in dietary CRC chemoprevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A set of introgression lines (ILs) containing chromosomal segments from O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491), a wild relative of O. sativa, in the genetic background of an elite US variety, cv. Jefferson, was developed to confirm the performance of six yield-enhancing quantitative trait loci (QTL). Fifty BC3F3 ILs containing homozygous O. rufipogon introgressions at each of the target QTL regions, and as few background introgressions as possible, were selected for evaluation of yield and 14 yield-related traits in field studies conducted over 2 years at four locations in the southern USA. Performance of the IL families was compared with three commercial inbreds and one hybrid variety. IL families carrying introgressions from the low-yielding wild parent at the QTL yld2.1 and yld6.1 yielded 27.7 and 26.1 % more than Jefferson, respectively. IL yld2A, which possesses yld2.1, also performed well under alternate wetting and drying conditions in two field locations. After the first year of field trials, 10 of the top-performing BC3F4 families, representing five of the QTL targets, were genotyped with an Illumina 1,536 assay to define the size and location of the wild introgressions. BC3F4 families with the fewest background introgressions were backcrossed to Jefferson and selfed. The resulting BC4F2 families were screened with targeted single nucleotide polymorphism assays to identify individuals carrying homozygous introgressions across the target QTL. Twelve ILs, representing each of the six QTL targets, have been submitted to the Genetic Stocks Oryza Collection for studies on transgressive variation and as interspecific pre-breeding lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the polyphenols in whole grain rice varying in bran colour, the total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacities of the solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall bound (Bound) fractions and the profiles of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were determined. Red and purple bran rices had significantly higher total (sum of Free- and Bound-) phenolic (PC) and flavonoid (FC) concentrations and antioxidant capacities than light-coloured bran rice or other cereals (P < 0.05), due to their higher concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, respectively. The concentrations of the Bound-PC and FC accounted for approximately half of the total PC and FC in the light-coloured bran rice, but were lower than those in purple and red bran rice (P < 0.05). High correlations were found between the concentrations of total phenolics and the three antioxidant capacity assays except for those in the bound fraction when related to iron chelating capacity. The concentrations of proanthocyanidins in red bran rice was 1.27 mg/g and its composition was 6.5%, 33.5%, 30.6% and 29.4% of 1–3, 4–6, 7–10 mers, and polymer (>10 mers), respectively. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin and peonidin-3-glucoside was the second highest; the profiles varied between purple bran cultivars. Whole grain rice differing in bran colour contained unique polyphenol subgroups, which have been proposed to positively impact human health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have the potential to increase the speed and cost-effectiveness of genotyping, provided that an optimal SNP density is used for each application. To test the efficiency of multiplexed SNP genotyping for diversity, mapping and breeding applications in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we designed seven GoldenGate VeraCode oligo pool assay (OPA) sets for the Illumina BeadXpress Reader. Validated markers from existing 1536 Illumina SNPs and 44 K Affymetrix SNP chips developed at Cornell University were used to select subsets of informative SNPs for different germplasm groups with even distribution across the genome. A 96-plex OPA was developed for quality control purposes and for assigning a sample into one of the five O. sativa population subgroups. Six 384-plex OPAs were designed for genetic diversity analysis, DNA fingerprinting, and to have evenly-spaced polymorphic markers for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and background selection for crosses between different germplasm pools in rice: Indica/Indica, Indica/Japonica, Japonica/Japonica, Indica/O. rufipogon, and Japonica/O. rufipogon. After testing on a diverse set of rice varieties, two of the SNP sets were re-designed by replacing poor-performing SNPs. Pilot studies were successfully performed for diversity analysis, QTL mapping, marker-assisted backcrossing, and developing specialized genetic stocks, demonstrating that 384-plex SNP genotyping on the BeadXpress platform is a robust and efficient method for marker genotyping in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association analysis on the genetic variability for silica concentration in rice hulls was performed using a "Mini-Core" set of 174 accessions representative of the germplasm diversity found in the USDA world collection of rice. Hull silica concentration was determined in replicated trials conducted in two southern states in the USA and was analyzed for its association with 164 genome-wide DNA markers. Among the accessions, the average silica concentration ranged from 120 to 251 mg g(-1). Ample variation was seen within each of the five sub-populations of rice, as well as the 14 geographic regions that the accessions originated from. There was also an effect due to location and accession × location (G × E) interaction demonstrating the importance of assessing silica concentration across multiple environments. Twelve markers on ten chromosomes were significantly associated with hull silica concentration. Six markers (RM5644, RM5371, RM1335, RM283, RM263, and RM178) corroborated quantitative trait locus for silica concentration identified in other mapping studies. Our results provide germplasm and genetic markers that will assist breeding efforts to develop cultivars that have either high or low hull silica concentration. High silica hulls are good raw material for silica based industrial compounds, while low silica hulls are more biodegradable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the rich diversity among rice accessions grown around the world in distinct environments, traditional methods using
morphology, cross compatibility and geography for classifying rice accessions according to different sub-populations have
given way to use of molecular markers. Having a few robust markers that can quickly assign population structure to germplasm
will facilitate making more informed choices about genetic diversity within seedbanks and breeding genepools. WHICHLOCI is
a computer program that selects the best combination of loci for population assignment through empirical analysis of molecular
marker data. This program has been used in surveys of plant species, for fish population assignment, and in human ancestry
analysis. Using WHICHLOCI, we ranked the discriminatory power of 72 DNA markers used to genotype 1,604 accessions of the USDA
rice core collection, and developed panels with a minimum number of markers for population assignment with 99% or higher accuracy.
A total of 14 markers with high discriminatory power, genetic diversity, allelic frequency, and polymorphic information content
were identified. A panel of just four markers, RM551, RM11, RM224 and RM44, was effective in assigning germplasm accessions
to any of five sub-populations with 99.4% accuracy. Panels using only three markers were effective for assignment of rice
germplasm to specific sub-populations, tropical japonica,
indica, aus, and aromatic. Assignment to tropical japonica,
temperate japonica, or indica sub-populations was highly reliable using 3–4 markers, demonstrated by the high correlation with assignment using 72 markers.
However, population assignment to aus and aromatic groups was less reliable, possibly due to the smaller representation of this material in the USDA core collection. More reference
cultivars may be needed to improve population assignment to these two groups. This study demonstrated that a small number
of DNA markers is effective for classification of germplasm into five sub-populations in rice. This will facilitate rapid
screening of large rice germplasm banks for population assignment at a modest cost. The resulting information will be valuable
to researchers to verify population classification of germplasm prior to initiating genetic studies, maximizing genetic diversity
between sub-populations, or minimizing cross incompatibility while maximizing allelic diversity within specific sub-populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sheath blight (ShB) caused by the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases in rice world-wide. Global attention has focused on examining individual mapping populations for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ShB resistance, but to date no study has taken advantage of association mapping to examine hundreds of lines for potentially novel QTLs. Our objective was to identify ShB QTLs via association mapping in rice using 217 sub-core entries from the USDA rice core collection, which were phenotyped with a micro-chamber screening method and genotyped with 155 genome-wide markers. Structure analysis divided the mapping panel into five groups, and model comparison revealed that PCA5 with genomic control was the best model for association mapping of ShB. Ten marker loci on seven chromosomes were significantly associated with response to the ShB pathogen. Among multiple alleles in each identified loci, the allele contributing the greatest effect to ShB resistance was named the putative resistant allele. Among 217 entries, entry GSOR 310389 contained the most putative resistant alleles, eight out of ten. The number of putative resistant alleles presented in an entry was highly and significantly correlated with the decrease of ShB rating (r = -0.535) or the increase of ShB resistance. Majority of the resistant entries that contained a large number of the putative resistant alleles belonged to indica, which is consistent with a general observation that most ShB resistant accessions are of indica origin. These findings demonstrate the potential to improve breeding efficiency by using marker-assisted selection to pyramid putative resistant alleles from various loci in a cultivar for enhanced ShB resistance in rice.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32703. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Harvest index is a measure of success in partitioning assimilated photosynthate. An improvement of harvest index means an increase in the economic portion of the plant. Our objective was to identify genetic markers associated with harvest index traits using 203 O. sativa accessions. The phenotyping for 14 traits was conducted in both temperate (Arkansas) and subtropical (Texas) climates and the genotyping used 154 SSRs and an indel marker. Heading, plant height and weight, and panicle length had negative correlations, while seed set and grain weight/panicle had positive correlations with harvest index across both locations. Subsequent genetic diversity and population structure analyses identified five groups in this collection, which corresponded to their geographic origins. Model comparisons revealed that different dimensions of principal components analysis (PCA) affected harvest index traits for mapping accuracy, and kinship did not help. In total, 36 markers in Arkansas and 28 markers in Texas were identified to be significantly associated with harvest index traits. Seven and two markers were consistently associated with two or more harvest index correlated traits in Arkansas and Texas, respectively. Additionally, four markers were constitutively identified at both locations, while 32 and 24 markers were identified specifically in Arkansas and Texas, respectively. Allelic analysis of four constitutive markers demonstrated that allele 253 bp of RM431 had significantly greater effect on decreasing plant height, and 390 bp of RM24011 had the greatest effect on decreasing panicle length across both locations. Many of these identified markers are located either nearby or flanking the regions where the QTLs for harvest index have been reported. Thus, the results from this association mapping study complement and enrich the information from linkage-based QTL studies and will be the basis for improving harvest index directly and indirectly in rice.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29350. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yield is the most important and complex trait for genetic improvement in crops, and marker-assisted selection enhances the improvement efficiency. The USDA rice mini-core collection derived from over 18,000 accessions of global origins is an ideal panel for association mapping. We phenotyped 203 O. sativa accessions for 14 agronomic traits and identified 5 that were highly and significantly correlated with grain yield per plant: plant height, plant weight, tillers, panicle length, and kernels/branch. Genotyping with 155 genome-wide molecular markers demonstrated 5 main cluster groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed at least 20 cM and marker pairs with significant LD ranged from 4.64 to 6.06% in four main groups. Model comparisons revealed that different dimensions of principal component analysis affected yield and its correlated traits for mapping accuracy, and kinship did not improve the mapping in this collection. Thirty marker-trait associations were highly significant, 4 for yield, 3 for plant height, 6 for plant weight, 9 for tillers, 5 for panicle length and 3 for kernels/branch. Twenty-one markers contributed to the 30 associations, because 8 markers were co-associated with 2 or more traits. Allelic analysis of OSR13, RM471 and RM7003 for their co-associations with yield traits demonstrated that allele 126 bp of RM471 and 108 bp of RM7003 should receive greater attention, because they had the greatest positive effect on yield traits. Tagging the QTLs responsible for multiple yield traits may simultaneously help dissect the complex yield traits and elevate the efficiency to improve grain yield using marker-assisted selection in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) head-rice yield (HR) is a key export and domestic quality trait whose genetic control is poorly understood. With the goal of identifying genomic regions influencing HR, quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping was carried out for quality-related traits in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crosses of common parent Cypress, a high-HR US japonica cultivar, with RT0034, a low-HR indica line (129 RILs) and LaGrue, a low-HR japonica cultivar (298 RILs), grown in two US locations in 2005-2007. Early heading increased HR in the Louisiana (LA) but not the Arkansas (AR) location. Fitting QTL-mapping models to separate QTL main and QTL × environment interaction (QEI) effects and identify epistatic interactions revealed six main-effect HR QTLs in the two crosses, at four of which Cypress contributed the increasing allele. Multi-QTL models accounted for 0.36 of genetic and 0.21 of genetic × environment interaction of HR in MY1, and corresponding proportions of 0.25 and 0.37 in MY2. The greater HR advantage of Cypress in LA than in AR corresponded to a genomewide pattern of opposition of HR-increasing QTL effects by AR-specific effects, suggesting a selection strategy for improving this cultivar for AR. Treating year-location combinations as independent environments resulted in underestimation of QEI effects, evidently owing to lower variation among years within location than between location. Identification of robust HR QTLs in elite long-grain germplasm is suggested to require more detailed attention to the interaction of plant and grain development parameters with environmental conditions than has been given to date.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 02/2011; 122(2):291-309. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is enjoyed by many people as a staple food because of its flavour and texture. Some cultivars, like scented rice, are preferred over others due to their distinctive aroma and flavour. The volatile profile of rice has been explored by other investigators, some of whom have also determined a corresponding aroma using GC/olfactometry. However, little research has been done to determine if different aromatic rice cultivars produce different flavour volatiles that would make them more desirable than others when cooked. In this study, seven aromatic and two non-aromatic cultivars were examined for their volatile profiles both before and after storage using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC–MS). Ninety-three volatile compounds were identified, 64 of which had not been previously reported in rice. Differences were found in the volatile compounds of aromatic and non-aromatic rice besides 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP). Most of the volatile compounds were present in freshly harvested rice and rice following storage, with very few new compounds being identified only after storage. Dellrose, an aromatic cultivar, and Cocodrie, a non-aromatic cultivar, had the most complex volatile profiles (over 64 volatiles). Sixteen compounds were found only in the aromatic cultivars, and some volatiles were found to be unique to specific aromatic cultivars. However, no distinctive pattern was observed that would identify a cultivar as being derived from Basmati, Khao Dawk Mali 105 (i.e. jasmine), or other sources of aroma. This study showed that there is a great diversity of volatiles in both aromatic and non-aromatic rice cultivars and, with further research, this may lead to a better understanding of the combination of compounds that gives a cultivar a unique flavour.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asian rice, Oryza sativa is a cultivated, inbreeding species that feeds over half of the world's population. Understanding the genetic basis of diverse physiological, developmental, and morphological traits provides the basis for improving yield, quality and sustainability of rice. Here we show the results of a genome-wide association study based on genotyping 44,100 SNP variants across 413 diverse accessions of O. sativa collected from 82 countries that were systematically phenotyped for 34 traits. Using cross-population-based mapping strategies, we identified dozens of common variants influencing numerous complex traits. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the genetic architecture associated with subpopulation structure and response to environment. This work establishes an open-source translational research platform for genome-wide association studies in rice that directly links molecular variation in genes and metabolic pathways with the germplasm resources needed to accelerate varietal development and crop improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice bran, a byproduct of the rice milling process, contains most of the phytochemicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of lipophilic, solvent-extractable (free), and cell wall-bound (bound) phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities from brans of white, light brown, brown, purple, and red colors, and broccoli and blueberry for comparison. The concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants of vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and γ-oryzanols were 319.67 to 443.73 and 3861.93 to 5911.12 μg/g bran dry weight (DW), respectively, and were not associated with bran color. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacities of ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, and iron-chelating in the free fraction were correlated with the intensity of bran color, while variations of these in the bound fraction were less than those in the free fraction among brans. Compounds in the bound fraction had higher antioxidant capacity of ORAC than DPPH, relative to those in the free fraction. The bound fraction of light-color brans contributed as much to its total ORAC as the free fraction. Total proanthocyanidin concentration was the highest in red rice bran, while total anthocyanin was highest in purple brans. The predominant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-glucoside. Red and purple brans had several fold higher total phenolics and flavonoids as well as ORAC and DPPH, from both free and bound fractions, than freeze-dried blueberry and broccoli. These results indicate that rice brans are natural sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic phytochemicals for use in quality control of various food systems as well as for nutraceutical and functional food application.
Journal of Food Science 01/2011; 76(1):C117-26. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apparent amylose content is a key element for characterizing a rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar for cooking quality. However, cultivars with similar apparent amylose content can have widely varying quality attributes, including major parameters of flour paste viscosity. It has been postulated that the presence of a rice Waxy gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker is associated with elevated Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) properties in specific high amylose rice cultivars. A mapping population derived from a cross between two varieties, Cocodrie and Dixiebelle, having similar high apparent amylose contents, but with different paste viscosity properties and Waxy gene markers was analyzed for the genetic segregation of various pasting properties, measured with RVA instrumentation. Marker inheritance analyses revealed that the Waxy exon 10 SNP marker was associated with the proportion of soluble to insoluble apparent amylose and most RVA pasting measurements. Waxy gene markers can be used to efficiently improve the selection of rice with desirable characteristics, particularly for superior parboiling and canning quality.
Journal of Cereal Science 01/2011; 53(1):37-44. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rice mini-core collection consisting of 217 accessions has been developed to represent the USDA core and whole collections that include 1,794 and 18,709 accessions, respectively. To improve the efficiency of mining valuable genes and broadening the genetic diversity in breeding, genetic structure and diversity were analyzed using both genotypic (128 molecular markers) and phenotypic (14 numerical traits) data. This mini-core had 13.5 alleles per locus, which is the most among the reported germplasm collections of rice. Similarly, polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.71 in the mini-core which is the highest with one exception. The high genetic diversity in the mini-core suggests there is a good possibility of mining genes of interest and selecting parents which will improve food production and quality. A model-based clustering analysis resulted in lowland rice including three groups, aus (39 accessions), indica (71) and their admixtures (5), upland rice including temperate japonica (32), tropical japonica (40), aromatic (6) and their admixtures (12) and wild rice (12) including glaberrima and four other species of Oryza. Group differentiation was analyzed using both genotypic distance Fst from 128 molecular markers and phenotypic (Mahalanobis) distance D(2) from 14 traits. Both dendrograms built by Fst and D(2) reached similar-differentiative relationship among these genetic groups, and the correlation coefficient showed high value 0.85 between Fst matrix and D(2) matrix. The information of genetic and phenotypic differentiation could be helpful for the association mapping of genes of interest. Analysis of genotypic and phenotypic diversity based on genetic structure would facilitate parent selection for broadening genetic base of modern rice cultivars via breeding effort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary starches can be classified into 3 major fractions according to in vitro digestibility as rapidly digestible (RDS), slowly digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS). Literature indicates that SDS and/or RS have significant implications on human health, particularly glucose metabolism, diabetes management, colon cancer prevention, mental performance, and satiety. In this study, the nutritionally important starch fractions (RDS, SDS, and RS) in cooked rice were assayed in vitro, making use of 16 cultivars grown in 5 southern U.S. rice growing locations (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas). RDS, SDS, and RS were 52.4% to 69.4%, 10.3% to 26.6%, and 1.2% to 9.0%, respectively, of cooked rice dry weight. Cultivar, location, and cultivar-by-location interaction contributed to the variations in RDS, SDS, and RS contents. Means pooled across locations indicated that SDS was higher for the Louisiana samples than those from Texas, whereas RS was higher for the Texas samples than those from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Some cultivars were identified to possess high levels of RS (for example, Bowman and Rondo) or SDS (for example, Dixiebelle and Tesanai-2) and were also stable across growing locations. Apparent amylose content correlated positively with RS (n = 80, r = 0.54, P <or= 0.001), negatively with RDS (n = 80, r =-0.29, P <or= 0.05), and insignificantly with SDS (n = 80, r = 0.21, P > 0.05). RS and SDS were not collinear (n = 80, r =or-0.18, P > 0.05); it does not follow that a cultivar high in RS will also be high in SDS, and vice versa. The observed differences in RDS, SDS, and RS among the samples are indicative of wide genetic diversity in rice.
Journal of Food Science 06/2010; 75(5):H137-44. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixteen rice cultivars representing five cytosine-thymine repeat (CTn) microsatellite genetic marker groups were analyzed for their cooked rice nutritionally important starch fractions (NISFs, which include rapidly digestible (RDS), slowly digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS)), basic grain quality indices (apparent amylose (AM), crude protein (CP), alkali spreading value (AS), and gel consistency (GC)), pasting characteristics, and thermal properties. Chemometric tools (bivariate correlation, principal component analysis, multiple linear regression, and partial least squares regression) were used to establish the association of NISF with other milled rice physicochemical properties. CT11 was generally associated with high percentages of RS and SDS, and a low percentage of RDS. CT14 was associated with low SDS; whereas, CT17 and CT18 were associated with low RS. The CT20 cultivars were similar to CT11 in SDS and RS; and to CT14, CT17, and CT18 in RDS content. RDS, SDS, and RS were loaded on three different quadrants of the principal component similarity map. RDS was not significantly correlated with any of the physicochemical properties; whereas, SDS was positively correlated with GC. RS was positively correlated with AM, setback (SB) viscosity, total setback (TSB) viscosity, and peak gelatinization temperature; and negatively correlated with breakdown (BD) viscosity. Multivariate techniques indicated lack of robustness in predicting RDS and SDS as the models only explained <50% of the variance. More robust regression models were obtained for RS, explaining >60% of its variation. Basic grain quality indices explained NISF variations better than pasting and thermal properties.