[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical synapses contain multitudes of proteins, which in common with all proteins, have finite lifetimes and therefore need to be continuously replaced. Given the huge numbers of synaptic connections typical neurons form, the demand to maintain the protein contents of these connections might be expected to place considerable metabolic demands on each neuron. Moreover, synaptic proteostasis might differ according to distance from global protein synthesis sites, the availability of distributed protein synthesis facilities, trafficking rates and synaptic protein dynamics. To date, the turnover kinetics of synaptic proteins have not been studied or analyzed systematically, and thus metabolic demands or the aforementioned relationships remain largely unknown. In the current study we used dynamic Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC), mass spectrometry (MS), Fluorescent Non-Canonical Amino acid Tagging (FUNCAT), quantitative immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics to systematically measure the metabolic half-lives of hundreds of synaptic proteins, examine how these depend on their pre/postsynaptic affiliation or their association with particular molecular complexes, and assess the metabolic load of synaptic proteostasis. We found that nearly all synaptic proteins identified here exhibited half-lifetimes in the range of 2-5 days. Unexpectedly, metabolic turnover rates were not significantly different for presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, or for proteins for which mRNAs are consistently found in dendrites. Some functionally or structurally related proteins exhibited very similar turnover rates, indicating that their biogenesis and degradation might be coupled, a possibility further supported by bioinformatics-based analyses. The relatively low turnover rates measured here (∼0.7% of synaptic protein content per hour) are in good agreement with imaging-based studies of synaptic protein trafficking, yet indicate that the metabolic load synaptic protein turnover places on individual neurons is very substantial.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63191. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical synapses are highly specialized cell-cell contacts for communication between neurons in the CNS characterized by complex and dynamic protein networks at both synaptic membranes. The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) organizes the apparatus for the regulated release of transmitters from the presynapse. At the postsynaptic side, the postsynaptic density constitutes the machinery for detection, integration, and transduction of the transmitter signal. Both pre- and postsynaptic protein networks represent the molecular substrates for synaptic plasticity. Their function can be altered both by regulating their composition and by post-translational modification of their components. For a comprehensive understanding of synaptic networks the entire ensemble of synaptic proteins has to be considered. To support this, we established a comprehensive database for synaptic junction proteins (SynProt database) primarily based on proteomics data obtained from biochemical preparations of detergent-resistant synaptic junctions. The database currently contains 2,788 non-redundant entries of rat, mouse, and some human proteins, which mainly have been manually extracted from 12 proteomic studies and annotated for synaptic subcellular localization. Each dataset is completed with manually added information including protein classifiers as well as automatically retrieved and updated information from public databases (UniProt and PubMed). We intend that the database will be used to support modeling of synaptic protein networks and rational experimental design.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synaptic transmission relies on effective and accurate compensatory endocytosis. F-BAR proteins may serve as membrane curvature sensors and/or inducers and thereby support membrane remodelling processes; yet, their in vivo functions urgently await disclosure. We demonstrate that the F-BAR protein syndapin I is crucial for proper brain function. Syndapin I knockout (KO) mice suffer from seizures, a phenotype consistent with excessive hippocampal network activity. Loss of syndapin I causes defects in presynaptic membrane trafficking processes, which are especially evident under high-capacity retrieval conditions, accumulation of endocytic intermediates, loss of synaptic vesicle (SV) size control, impaired activity-dependent SV retrieval and defective synaptic activity. Detailed molecular analyses demonstrate that syndapin I plays an important role in the recruitment of all dynamin isoforms, central players in vesicle fission reactions, to the membrane. Consistently, syndapin I KO mice share phenotypes with dynamin I KO mice, whereas their seizure phenotype is very reminiscent of fitful mice expressing a mutant dynamin. Thus, syndapin I acts as pivotal membrane anchoring factor for dynamins during regeneration of SVs.
The EMBO Journal 09/2011; 30(24):4955-69. · 9.82 Impact Factor