[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The type II transmembrane serine protease family consists of 18 closely related serine proteases that are implicated in multiple functions. To identify selective, inhibitory antibodies against one particular type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase [MT-SP1 (membrane-type serine protease 1)], a phage display library was created with a natural repertoire of Fabs [fragment antigen binding (Fab)] from human naïve B cells. Fab A11 was identified with a 720 pM inhibition constant and high specificity for matriptase over other trypsin-fold serine proteases. A Trichoderma reesei system expressed A11 with a yield of ∼200 mg/L. The crystal structure of A11 in complex with matriptase has been determined and compared to the crystal structure of another antibody inhibitor (S4) in complex with matriptase. Previously discovered from a synthetic single-chain variable fragment library, S4 is also a highly selective and potent matriptase inhibitor. The crystal structures of the A11/matriptase and S4/matriptase complexes were solved to 2.1 Å and 1.5 Å, respectively. Although these antibodies, discovered from separate libraries, interact differently with the protease surface loops for their specificity, the structures reveal a similar novel mechanism of protease inhibition. Through the insertion of the H3 variable loop in a reverse orientation at the substrate-binding pocket, these antibodies bury a large surface area for potent inhibition and avoid proteolytic inactivation. This discovery highlights the critical role that the antibody scaffold plays in positioning loops to bind and inhibit protease function in a highly selective manner. Additionally, Fab A11 is a fully human antibody that specifically inhibits matriptase over other closely related proteases, suggesting that this approach could be useful for clinical applications.
Journal of Molecular Biology 11/2011; 415(4):699-715. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hell's Gate globin I (HGbI), a heme-containing protein structurally homologous to mammalian neuroglobins, has been identified from an acidophilic and thermophilic obligate methanotroph, Methylacidiphilum infernorum. HGbI has very high affinity for O(2) and shows barely detectable autoxidation in the pH range of 5.2-8.6 and temperature range of 25-50°C. Examination of the heme pocket by X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics showed that conformational movements of Tyr29(B10) and Gln50(E7), as well as structural flexibility of the GH loop and H-helix, may play a role in modulating its ligand binding behavior. Bacterial HGbI's unique resistance to the sort of extreme acidity that would extract heme from any other hemoglobin makes it an ideal candidate for comparative structure-function studies of the expanding globin superfamily.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All members of the human herpesvirus protease (HHV Pr) family are active as weakly associating dimers but inactive as monomers. A small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus protease (KSHV Pr) traps the enzyme in an inactive monomeric state where the C-terminal helices are unfolded and the hydrophobic dimer interface is exposed. NMR titration studies demonstrate that the inhibitor binds to KSHV Pr monomers with low micromolar affinity. A 2.0-Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of a C-terminal truncated KSHV Pr-inhibitor complex locates the binding pocket at the dimer interface and displays significant conformational perturbations at the active site, 15 Å from the allosteric site. NMR and CD data suggest that the small molecule inhibits human cytomegalovirus protease via a similar mechanism. As all HHV Prs are functionally and structurally homologous, the inhibitor represents a class of compounds that may be developed into broad-spectrum therapeutics that allosterically regulate enzymatic activity by disrupting protein-protein interactions.
Journal of Molecular Biology 06/2011; 411(5):999-1016. · 3.91 Impact Factor